With increasing communication in the world and acceleration of economic

globalization, English advertising has found its way into people’s life. Every day, people are exposed to a large number of advertisements no matter whether they like them or not. But what is advertising What are the ob!ectives of advertising What are the functions of advertising "nd what significance does a study of advertising possess #hese are the $uestions of which we must have a good idea before we proceed to explore the main features or characteristics of English advertising texts.

1.1 Definition of advertising
%n English, the word &advertise' has its origin in &advertere' in (atin, meaning &to inform somebody of something', &to bring into notice' or &to draw attention to something', etc. #here are different definitions of advertising. "bert (asker, father of modern advertising, said that advertising was “salesmanship in print”) 赵 静 , *++, : -.,/. #his definition was given a long time before the advent of radio and television came into being. %n the past, the nature and scope of advertising were considerably different from those today. #he definition indicates that the ultimate ob!ective of advertising is to sell. 0bviously, this is not an all1round definition, for it can not cover all advertisements. "n advertisement may be defined as a public notice 2designed to spread information with a view to promoting the sales of marketable goods and services’ )3arris and 3eldon, *+4,56./, or defined as a vital marketing tool as well as a powerful communication force. "merican 7arketing "ssociation )"7"/ ) 赵 静 , *++, : */defines advertising as &the non1personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.' "lthough advertising can be defined in many different ways, the essential points concerning its definition may be summarized as follows5 "dvertising is a kind of extensive communication of information usually highly paid for and strongly


persuasive by nature.

1.2 Functions of advertising
Which type of advertisements is successful "nd what features does a successful advertisement possess "merican 7arketing 7anager’s 3andbook points out that an advertisement should have four functions5 "%8", which represent four words9 "ttention, %nterest, 8esire, "ction. Attention9a good advertisement should attract the consumer to direct their attention to the product being adverised. Interest9the introduction and publicity of an advertisement should arouse consumers’ great interest. Desire9the advertisement should stimulate consumers’ desire to buy the product, and make them realize that this product is !ust what they want. Action9advertising is supposed to make consumers respond to the advertised information and evoke them to take the action of purchasing. Broadly speaking, an advertisement has at least one of two functions5 informing or persuading, though overlapping may often take place in one single piece. %nformative advertisements inform &customers about goods, services, or ideas and then tell people how to get them by means of an identified sponsor' )Bolen, *+:654/. "n advertisement of this type supplies basic, factual information and sometimes shows a photo or an illustration of the product;service to give the target audience a better view of the advertised product. <ersuasive advertisements are the instruments used by advertisers &who have defined their target audiences and determined the effect they hope to achieve through persuasive advertisements in the media' )Bolen, *+:65 +/. " persuasive advertisement should try to persuade the potential customers to buy the new product )Bolen, *+:65 4/. #he persuasive function is directed not only at attracting the potential customers to buy a certain commodity, but also at the selling of services, ideas, norms and values.

1.3 Brief survey of relevant literature
"s far as we know, some books and papers concerning English advertising have

been published at home and abroad. <rofessor 3uang =uowen wrote and published an academic book entitled Analyses of Advertising Texts ),.../, which is the most influential in >hina. The Language of Advertising by #orben ?estergaard and @im Achroder, which was first published in *+:B, is mainly concerned with the language features and communication functions of advertising. They support advertising takes many forms !ut in most of them language is of crucial importance""" advertising language is a style of immediate impact and rapid persuasion. The Language of Television Advertising by an "merican writer named 7ichael (. =eis explores the linguistic features and non1verbal understanding of television advertising. Contemporary Advertising by >ourtland (. Bovee, William C. "rens, which was first published in *+:+, discusses the characteristics of contemporary advertising, the effects of advertising as a ma!or form of communication, etc. Language in Advertising by =eoffrey D. (eech, which appeared in Britain in *+44, lays the foundation for exploration of the language of English advertising. #he above1 mentioned works discuss language characteristics of English advertising from different angles, each of them emphasizing some particular aspects or a type of advertising in English.

1.# $ain ideas and arrangement of the thesis
>ontemporary advertising is so commonly ubi$uitous and so widely influential that it is considered to be part of modern life. %t also greatly influences our thoughts, feelings and outlooks, and of course our lives. Aince advertising in English occupies such an important position in modern society, we need to understand, assess English advertising and know how to create English advertising texts. 3owever, whatever the promotional strategies advertising takes, language is the main carrier of advertised messages all along. #o achieve this awareness, what is most important is to have a good grasp of the language characteristics of English advertising. %n modern society, English advertising has gradually formed its own features in several aspects. #herefore, an analysis of the linguistic features of English advertising


is worthwhile. #his thesis briefly deals with the most common linguistic characteristics of English advertising texts, which include characteristics of wording, syntactical features and rhetorical devices. #his thesis is made up of five parts. <art 0ne briefly discusses the definitions, functions and significance of a study of English advertising. <art #wo is concerned with ma!or wording characteristics of English advertising texts. <art #hree investigates ma!or syntactical features of English advertisements. <art Cour deals with main rhetorical devices in English advertisements. %n the concluding part, the thesis emphasizes again the importance of studying language features of English advertising, and points out the influence of English advertising on the English language, so as to provide some insights for admen in their practices.


%ording characteristics of &nglish advertising te'ts
=enerally, advertisers try by various means at their disposal to get people to buy

the products or services advertised. "n advertiser attempts to construct an advertisement that will fully attract the attention of the potential purchaser and have persuasive effects. #herefore, he or she makes full use of every word to draw readers’ attention and arouse their interest. English advertising texts )E"#/ display many uni$ue features of wording, such as fre$uent use of simple words, clever use of coinages, loanwords, monosyllabic verbs, and simple ad!ectives, as well as compounds, etc. which will be discussed briefly and separately in this part.

2.1 (imple and informal )ords Ahakespeare said, EBrevity is the soul of witE. #he function of advertising is to provide information, attract consumer, exploit market, and promise the $uality. " simple advertisement is intended not only to arouse the readerFs attention and interest, but also to make consumers remember it. #herefore, an advertisement must pay attention to its language, and the first step is to use popular and oral language, the second step is to use some single1syllable words or fewer letters to make it easy to

understand and memorize. Cor example5 )*/ &% couldn’t believe it, until % tried itG %’m impressedG %’m really impressedG Hou’ve gotta try itG % love itG'* #his is an advertisement of a microwave oven. #he words in it are very simple and oral. %t uses the slang &gotta', which means &got to' in "merican English, to give an impression that this advertisement comes from real life. ),/ &Buy one, get more.', #his is an advertisement of selling automobile. &buy' and &get' which are two simple monosyllabic verbs show the bilateral activities between advertisers and consumers directly. %t expresses advertiser’s sincerity, and on the other hand the advertisement lets consumers have the feeling of simple efficient afforda!le in order""" to increase the reliability between advertisers and consumers.

2.2. $isspelling and *oinages %n some of advertisements, the advertising copywriter misspells some words on purpose, or adds some suffix or prefix to some common words. Dew original words are created to attract addressees’ attention and to meet their needs for curiosity and novelty. Auch freshly made words and phrases may suggest that the product or service being advertised possesses peculiar $ualities as well as the value of novelty. 7any words in advertisements, especially in trade names, are words newly coined, or deliberately misspelled and abbreviated. Curthermore, some misspelling words help the advertiser to disseminate the information effectively and also let the advertising become more charming. Cor example5 )-/ &We know eggsactly 3ow to sell eggs'%n this advertisement, &eggsactly' not only has the similar pronunciation as &exactly', but it has connections with the last word &eggs' in this sentence, thus

impressing people a great deal. )6/ &#he Orangemostest 8rink in the world.'6 When one reads or hears example )6/, he or she may think & Orangemostest” is a wrong word, but actually it is deliberately created by the advertiser, Orangemostest in this advertisement consists of three elements5 orange, most and est. %t is well known that orange !uice is a popular drink liked by the old and the young for its nutrition and thirsty1$uenching $uality. #wo superlatives most and est are added to orange so as to stress the best $uality of this product. )B/ &=ive a Timex to all, and to all a good time.'B %n example )B/, TimexI time J excellent. %n English advertising the suffix ex is often added to the root, showing the good $uality of a product. %n addition, &good time' here has a double meaning5 it may mean &pleasant time' or &showing time exactly'. )4/ &>ome to our fruice'4 %n example )4/, fruice I fruit J !uice. #his newly coined word arouses people’s attention by its novelty in form. >oinages of this kind are nowhere to be found in dictionaries, but they seem familiar to readers in appearance. 0ne can guess their meanings by means of the context without help of dictionaries. When customers come across newly coined words, their interest is stimulated, and they want to go on reading and take action. #hus, the aim of advertising is reached. But coinages must be well based on after1taste and implication, stressing the novelty and uni$ueness of the products, without which coinages can produce little effect and will be meaningless. 7isspelling some common words is also a clever use of coinages. Dow let’s see the following examples5 )K/ &=oing East, Ataying Westin.'K )Westin is the name of the hotel/ %n this advertisement, the advertiser wrote &Western' into &Westin' on purpose in order to win a seat in consumer’s memory. %n fact, this advertisement achieved the expected results which impressed people immensely. ):/ &Cor twogether the ultimate all inclusive one price sunkissed holiday':

Example ):/ is an advertisement on providing a couple with a holiday inn. &Twogether' and &together' are similar both in spelling and pronunciation. &#o' is misspelled as &#wo' on purpose by the advertiser to indicate that the couple could get the romantic yesterday once more if they spend their holiday together in this inn. <sychologically, emotion between lovers tends to become common and ordinary on the surface after a long period, &#wogether' here can remind them of the romantic time in the past. #his advertisement is !ust intended to cater for such a psychological need . )+/ & urefit Ahoe (td'+ )舒赵鞋赵有限公司/ When the consumers see the word & urefit' at first sight, they must imagine &surely to fit your feet' immediately and have a deep impression of this brand. )*./ &!"yru#'*. )advertising shoe polish/ &!"y' has the same pronunciation as the word &easy' and it is combined with &rub', which means &easy to rub'. #his coinage not only shut the name of the product """ but also describes the $uality of the product. )**/ &3i1fi, 3i1fun, 3i1fashion, only from Aony'** )advertising Aony "udio/ 3i1fi means high fine )$uality/, 3i1fun means high fun, and 3i1fashion means high fashion. #hese three coined words make the effect differ from the common words through the form of words and pronunciation. %t is easy to see from the above examples that newly created words vividly express the desirable features, $ualities, or functions of the product or service being advertised.

2.3 +oan)ords %f an advertisement emphasizes the product’s $uality or the origin abroad, loanwords would be the best choice for it. #he most fre$uently used loanwords are those from Crench and Apanish in English advertising, mostly for wine, food, cosmetics, clothing, ect. Added some French in advertising for )ine then the ,uality of this product is undou!ted . <erfume companies usually add to the

romantic atmosphere of their products by using Crench words such as ?ol de Duit.

"utomobile manufacturers will increase the mysterious atmosphere for their product by use of foreign words such as5 >ordova, Biarritz. #he commonest use of foreign words is in a restaurant, like their food labels5 8el #aco, (’"uberge, and (a Acala. Cor example5 )*,/ &0rder it in bottles or in canners <errierLLwith added $e ne sais %uoi&'*, #his is an advertisement for a Crench drink. #he manufacturer uses a sentence with Crench words at the end. &$e ne sais %uoi' means &% don’t know what'. Auddenly this English advertisement is characterized by a Crench style. #he purpose to use this simple Crench phrase is to show the Crench flavor of this drink. #he loanwords in some advertisements are intended to express the exoticism of the products. %n other cases, loanwords provide $uality protection in some degree and stimulate the desire to take action .

2.# Fre,uent use of ver!s 7onosyllable verbs are widely used in English advertising, furthermore, most of them are collo$uialisms. #hese common verbs make advertising in English simple and easy to understand. #hat can give consumers a feeling of friendliness and help tehm to remember the products easily. #he most fre$uently used ,. verbs and phrasal verbs are5 Try' ask' get' take' let' send for' use' call' make' come on' hurry' see' give' come' remem#er' discover' serve' introduce' choose' and look for. " number of the above1mentioned verbs are fre$uently used in the imperative clauses which encourage the audience to buy the product. "lthough the ultimate purpose of advertising is to persuade consumers to buy the adverised products, advertisements seldom use the word &buy' in it. Atatistics show only two out of ten advertisements use the verb &buy' directly. %n imperative clauses the word 2buy’ is rarely used. #he tendency to avoid &buy' might be put down to the unpleasant connotations of this verb. %t is of course of vital importance to the adman that he should not appear to be imposing himself on his audience, for if the reader feels the

advert to be too obtrusive, he;she is likely to react negatively to its message, or simply forget about it altogether. #he adman is therefore confronted with a problem5 on the one hand his advert should make people buy the productM on the other hand he must not say this in so many words lest they should take offence )?estergaard, #. and Achroder, @. *+:B5 4K/. (eech )*+445*B6/ points out that in advertising language the most fre$uent word for 2ac$uisition of product’ is 2get’ instead of 2buy’. #he reason for this is undoubtedly that 2buy’ has some unpleasant connotations )money and the parting with it/ which 2get’ lacks. "dvertisers usually make very careful efforts not to use the word 2buy’. %nstead they often use such synonyms as5 (try)' (ask for)' (get)' (take)' (send for)' (use)' (choose)' (look for). #he common verbs that indicate that consumers have some goods are such words as have' get' give' keep. The ver!s e'press the progress of using some goods are- take, use, have. The ver!s e'press consumer/s favorite of some goods are- like, love, need??? Cor examples5 )*-/ &*etting places in the business world is easier if your banker is there to meet you.'*- )Aecurity <acific "sian Bank/ )*6/ &We can give you a better view of investment opportunities from both sides of the <acific.'*6 )>ity Bank./ #he widely used disyllable and multi1syllable verbs include accept' adopt' assure' award' contact' design' discover' en$oy' hurry' introduce' o#tain' offer' provide' receive' re%uest' remem#er' secure' supply' welcome. #he following sentences are fre$uently seen or heard in advertisements5 &7ake N your toothpaste.' &=ive him ; her an N.' &8iscover the smoothness, etc. of N.' &%ntroduce your family to N.' &Aerve N.' &(et N solve your problems.' %n these imperative sentences N stands for the product with a certain brand name. %n other cases, however, advertisers don’t ask their customers to buy the product or service, but try to make sure that their names will be present in their mind in a buying situation. #hey usually employ such imperative sentences as5 &(ook for N at your dealer’s.' &Oemember there’s only one N.' #his latter group re$uests the customers to

contact the dealer;agent with greater or lesser urgency. &>all ;Aee your N agent.' &>ome to our showroom.' &>ome on ; hurry, book now.' #hese sentences are particularly fre$uent in advertisements for services such as insurance, travel, and provision of luxurious accommodation or for products in the more expensive range, such as cars. Cre$uent use of monosyllabic verbs can help kill two birds with one stone5 on the one hand, it makes the language of English advertising more concise and lively, and on the other hand, it saves space, time and money.

2.0 1se of Ad2ectives #he primary function of ad!ectives with deep emotion is to describe head nouns. 7eanwhile, evaluative ad!ectives and the form of &1er' and &1est' are very fre$uently used in advertising in order to emphasize that the product is better than the others and build a perfect and fuzzy image in readers’ mind, and to persuade consumers to buy the products. We can imagine that many businessmen extremely want to use evaluative ad!ectives to describe their products and services. #herefore, it is reasonable for appearing a series of modified ingredients in front of noun or noun phrase in all of &nglish advertisings.""" =.D. (eech , a well1known linguist in Britain, lists in his Language in Advertising )*+445 *B,/ the following most fre$uently used ad!ectives5 )*/ new ),/ crisp )-/ good;better;best )6/ fine )B/ free )4/ big )K/ fresh ):/ great )+/ delicious )*./ real )**/ full, sure )*,/ easy ,bright )*-/ clean )*6/ extra, safe )*B/ special )*4/ rich. Cor example5 )*B/ &What’s on the Best1Aeller list in %B7 personal >omputer Aoftware '*B )"dvertising for %B7/ <eople prefer %B7 <ersonal >omputer software for a variety. Because, for !ust about anything you want the %B7 <ersonal >omputer to help you do, there’s software to help you do it. Aoftware helps improve productivity, efficiency and planning. #o help teachers teach and students learn. 0r help you

become an even more astute games player. Every program in our software library makes the %B7 <ersonal >omputer a truly useful tool for modern times. #hat’s why a lot of buyers like you have made them best sellers. "nd the library is still growing. )*4/ &Why do our special teas make your precious moments even more precious '*4 )"dvertising for (ipton/' Crom these two advertisements you will find the &1er' and &1est' form of words as mentioned are also widely used in English advertisings. "d!ectives add vividly images into the advertising and help create a natural feeling so as to strengthen attraction. )*K/ &@ent. +resh& Calm& ,ild. @ent. #he taste you’ll feel good about. #he 7ild %nternational cigarette.'*K "s we all know, ladies are unwilling to get close to smokersM however, when you hear the advertisement of &@ent', you may imagine a picture5 a man is smoking a @ent and a beautiful lady is nestling beside him. #his advertisement wants to let you know that you need not worry about losing your lover, and that when you smoke the @ent, your sweet would love you more. Pust owing to these ad!ectives in this advertising, the advertiser get the effect expected. #he ad!ectives mentioned above are associated with products, showing their $ualities and properties.

2.3 Fre,uent use of compounds %n English advertisements, you can see compounds everywhere. Aome compounds are written as single words and some with a hyphen, but others appear as two separate words. Because lexical restraints on compounds are few, the advertisers are relatively free to create English compounds which are appropriate to the copy text. "s a result, English compounds become a conspicuous characteristic of English advertisements. %n business advertising, compounds can express the thought that the manufacturers want to show exactly and completely. Cor this reason, compounds are fre$uently employed Cor example5

)*:/ &Chocolate-flavored cereal'*: )*+/ &fresh-tasting milk'*+ ),./ &top-%uality bulbs',.

#he following are the main ways of word forming5 ad!Jnoun5 short1term goal, high1fashion knitwear nounJad!5 the farmhouse1fresh faste, brand1new v1ingJad!5 shining1clean nounJv1ed5 honey1coated sugar puffs, home1made ad!;advJv1ed5 warm1hearted, perfectly1testured cakes nounJv1ing5 a relief1giving li$uid, record1breaking ad!Jv1ing5 innocent1looking, fresh1tasting milk advJv1ing5 hard1working, the best1selling soft toilet tissue nounJnoun5 economy1size shredded wheat, a state1of1the1art cell sorcer advJnoun5 up1to1the1minute sculling ad!Jinfinite5 easy1to dressM hard1to1reach place >ompounds are very flexible and embody the innovative spirit of advertising fullyM they can also make a profound impression on people’s mind when the consumers see the product for the first sight. Cor example5 #here is a famous magazine called elf in "merica, the compound &Aelf17ade' that appears in the magazine encourages women to be independent. ),*/ &#he elf-,ade woman. Ahe’s living better all the time.',* ),,/ &Evergreen, .ound-the-world service.',, #he advertisement of Evergreen 7arine >orp is very short, but the compound &Oound1the1world' focuses on the different service form other company"". ),-/ &@odak ingle-use-cameras take pictures where you wouldn’t normally take your camera.',The properties and usage of this camera is performed perfectly through the compound &Aingle1use1cameras'.

III. (ynta' in &nglish Advertising Te'ts
"s a particular branch of language, advertising language should be concise and attractive. %t usually has its own characteristics in syntax, such as the fre$uent use of simple declarative sentences, interrogative sentences and imperative sentences. 3owever, no matter what syntactical features advertisers are adopted, they should perform the following functions5 to get attentionM to show people an advantageM to arouse interest and create desireM to ask for action. #his part concentrates on the ma!or grammatical characteristics of English advertisements. #he function of declarative sentence is to describe the products reasonably and perfectlyM the function of imperative sentence is to persuade consumers to buy the productM the function of interrogative sentences is to raise a $uestion then answer it, which helps the consumer to eliminate the doubt of the product. #hese three types of sentences are all fit for the principle that advertising should have attention value and memory value.

3.1 $ore simple sentences fe)er comple' sentences #he function of declarative sentences is to describe the products reasonably and perfectly. %t will get better effect to use simple sentences than compound sentences, because the readers will get bored on reading complex sentences. "nother reason is to reduce the cost of advertising, and effectively stimulate the consumers. Ao &use the least words to express as much information as possible', that is the truth for the advertisement. Cor example5 )-+/ &%t comes with a conscience'-+ )6./ &Atouffer’s presents *6days to get your life, on the right course'6. Example )-+/ is an advertisement of 3onda cars and Example )6./ is a food advertisement. #hey are mostly made up of simple sentences, which render these two advertisements smooth and easy to understand. )6*/ &#he label of achievement.'6* )"dvertisement for wine/

&label' means &piece of paper describing the name, ect', and it also can explain that &famous brand', a simple noun phrase describes the product appropriately and be remembered easily. )6,/ &Cresh up with Aeven1Qp'6, #his advertisement only uses five words to describe the benefits of the beverage and to urge readers to buy. )6-/ &Datural herb, pure honey.'6#he distinctive characteristics of honey which displayed through simple language and symmetrical structure persuade readers to buy it. Aimple sentences can not only make English advertising easy to read, hear and understand, but also leave a deep impression on the readers’ minds.

#.2. $ore interrogative sentences and imperative sentences "ccording to statistics, in every -. sentences there is one interrogative sentence. #he main reason is that interrogative sentences can effectively arouse readers’ response. 7oreover, especially at the beginning of an advertisement, interrogative sentences will excite readers’ interests in this product. Cor example5 )66/&What)s so special a#out Lurpark /anish #utter0 Well, can you remember what butter used to taste like 9 real fresh farm house butter 8o you remember how you used to en!oy it when you were young #oday 9 the taste of (urpark bring it all back to you 9 that’s why it’s so special.'66 #his is an advertisement of (urpark 8anish butter, the writer raises a $uestion, which attracts readers to read this advertisement. 8uring the progress of )atching advertising""" consumers get to know this product and develop interests in it. >ontrary to the ordinary description, interrogative sentences can catch consumer’s eyes easier.

%mperative commanding









"s the goal of advertising is to persuade and urge consumers to

accept its product or service, there are lots of imperative sentences in advertising, Cor example5 )6B/&1ave a little fruit after dinner.'6B #he manufacturers offers some advice to consumers in this advertisementM in fact, they urge consumers to buy their products through a tactful way. )64/&*et ready to encounter the new trend in timepieces.'64 11>itizen Watch

3.3. Dis2unctive elements %t is often observed that the advertising copy writer has a tendency to chop up sentences into shorter bits by using full stops, dash, semi1colon and hyphen, where ordinary prose would use commas or no punctuation at all. (eech )*+445+.1K, **-1 *4,*6:1B., *K.16/ refers to this phenomenon as 2dis!unctive syntax’. 8is!unctive elements which are widely used in English advertisements have become a special phenomenon in English advertising language. Cor example5 )6K/ &an automatic applicator gently smooth on soft crRme or high1shine color for a smooth silky finish that lasts. And lasts.'6K )6:/ &colors that look lastingly tempting. Longer.'6: )6+/ &+inally. #he convenience of Ailver Atone combined with glassG %t’s a cook’s dream true'6+ )B./ &2taly)s masterpiece. " delightful li$ueur created from wild peanuts, herbs and berries. "hG +rangclico.'B. #hese examples contain dis!unctive elements5 2"nd lasts.’M 2(onger.’M 2Cinally.’M 2%taly’s masterpiece.’ and 2Crangclico.’. Each of these is separated from the preceding sentences by a full stop. %n fact, each is an element or a constituent of the preceding sentence. #he effect of this is to cut up the sentence sinto more information units. "s each information unit is articulated in a stressed falling tone and, therefore, emphasizes the message contained, more information units means more emphasized messages. %t is easy to see that by fre$uently using dis!unctive syntax advertisers want


to emphasize those key or important messages, to render them more attractive to the addressees and to achieve the purpose of promoting consumption. "s can be seen from the examples, dis!unctive elements or sentence fragments end in full stops and look as if they were complete sentences. %n fact, they are !ust parts of the sentences concerned. #he separate parts are often the key ones that are emphasized in advertising texts. #hey are very attractive. #hey are to be read in a stressed falling tone. #hey usually pro!ect or highlight the special features, or characteristics, or fantastic functions of the advertised product or service.

I4. *ommon 5hetorical Devices in &nglish Advertising Te'ts
Ohetorical devices are various forms of expression deviating from the normal arrangement or use of words, which are adopted in order to give beauty, variety or force to a composition. 7any of them are used in English advertising to achieve three goals5 first, it is to form the brand image or corporate image in consumer’s mindM second, to stress the uni$ueness of the advertised productM thirdly, to stress the uni$ue sales proposition of the advertised product. "mong them, the third is the most important because of its attraction. 3egel says, 2beauty comes out of image’ )"lbert E. 8ipippo, *+:45-/. #he beauty of English advertising is first characterized by its ideographic image. %t embodies the materialized labor in a lively and vivid way. <sychologically, image is realized through imagination. With the help of rhetorical devices advertising leads people to an artistic conception. %n order to make their advertisements uni$ue and eye1catching, the copywriters have to make elaborate designs and draw up remarkable verbal blueprints by working creatively and aptly applying rhetorical devices. %t can be said without any exaggeration that the success of English advertisements has much to do with apt employment of rhetorical devices. Cre$uently used rhetorical devices are5 simile, metaphor, personification, pun, etc. #he following rhetorical devices are often used in


English advertising, which are discussed briefly in this part.

3.1. 6ersonification "ccording to A 1and Book to Literature, published by the BobbsS7errill >ompany in *+K,, personification is &a figure of speech which endows animals, ideas, abstractions, and inanimate ob!ects with human form, character, or sensibilitiesM the representing of imaginary creatures or things as having human personalities, intelligence, and emotionsM whether real or fictitious, by another person.' 3owever, the definition in Oxford Advanced Learner)s /ictionary Of Current !nglish With Chinese Translation is more concise5 &treating sth. that is without life as a human being or representing it in human form' )*++*5*4-/. #hrough personification, animals are endowed with human form or feelings, and inanimate ob!ects, or ideas and abstractions are given life and personal attributes. <ersonification is often employed in English advertisements. <ersonifying the advertised product and giving it feeling and emotion, which only people possess, make an advertisement more acceptable. Cor example5 ),6/ &#hey will stay on the !ob longer than most employees.',6 ),B/ &%t handles the road as easily as it handles 7other Dature',B #hese two advertisements are for ?olvo and Cord. &stay on the !ob' and &handles the road' are employed to give the car hummer beings’ life and ability, and they are read vividly. ),4/ &%t’s for your lifetime',4 3ere the watch is personified. %t is described as a person who accompanies you for your all life. >onsumers want to own this watch as soon as they read this advert. ),K/ &Clowers by 2nterflora speak from the heart.',K )"dvertising for %nterflora/ %n Example ),K/, flowers are personified5 they seem to be human beings who speak from the heart. %n other words, they are endowed with human feelings of love, kindness, friendship, so they’re really invaluable gifts. When customers see this advertisement, they are likely to buy some of the advertised flowers to express their

true and profound feelings. ),:/ &Ahe has her own spirit and it graces everyone she comes near',: )(auren perfume/ #he perfume, (auren, is personified as a graceful lady. &Ahe' refers not only to the perfume itself, but to the beautiful lady who loves the perfume. #he use of the feminine gender &she' indicates that the perfume is used exclusively by females. We can come to the conclusion that the use of personification in advertising attracts the audiences’ attention, stimulates their interest in what is being advertised and helps create an impressive image of the product or service.

3.2. (imile and $etaphor Writers often use figures of speech in advertising English. Cirst, figures of speech are employed to describe the characteristics of commodities in a vivid lively manner so as to catch consumers’ eyes and leave a deep impressionM second using a simple and common sample to figure a complicated and unfamiliar product in order to""" achieve the effect of fresh1feeling, creativity and outstanding. -.,.*. (imile is a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are comparedM in this kind of figure vehicle and tenor appear at the same time, which are introduced or connected by like or as. Cor example5 ),+/ &Breakfast without orange !uice is like a day without sunshine.',+ #his example is a case of simile introduced by the word like. #he adman here compares breakfast without orange !uice to a day without sunshine. 3ow vivid and imaginative the simile isG "s we all know, a day without sunshine is not warm and cheerful. <eople usually do not like a cloudy or overcast day, or a day without sunshine, and some people might feel sad or gloomy during days without sunshine. %n the opinion of the adman, for some people it is not desirable to have breakfast without orange !uice. Ao how nice it is to have a breakfast with orange !uiceG #hough simile is an important rhetorical device in English advertisements, it is far less fre$uently employed than metaphor, which is one of the most fre$uently used

rhetorical devices in English advertisements. -.,.,. $etaphor 7etaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison. 7yers describes metaphor in this way, 27etaphor sets up a relation of similarity between two referents, as if they were the same thing. N is described in terms of H ’)7yers, *++65*,B/. >. 3ugh 3olmanm defines metaphor in A 1and#ook to Literature as &"n implied analogy which imaginatively identifies one ob!ect with another and ascribes to the first one or more of the $ualities of the second or invests the first with emotional or imaginative $ualities associated with the second'. 7etaphor, unlike simile, does not use like or as to indicate the comparison. Without as or like, it becomes more concise and produces profound associations. 7etaphor is considered by many to be the most important and the most common rhetorical device in English advertisements. Cor example5 )-./ &3odak is 0lympic color'-. )"dvertising @odacolor Cirm/ %n Example )-./, 3odak is compared to the color of 0lympic. @odak shows the real color !ust as 0lympic shows the real essence of the sports. #he metaphor in this implies that @odak develops itself by the 0lympic spirit9higher, faster and stronger. )-*/ &Hou’d better off under the 4m#rella'-* )"dvertising #ravelers %nsurance >o./ Aafety is the most important thing for travelers. #his #ravelers %nsurance >o. takes advantage of the typical psychology of travelers to complete this advertisement. #hey used &um#rella' to figure their services """let consumers feel comfortable and en!oy the travel relieved. #he advertisement is short, but the advertiser chose an appropriate metaphor to affirm the services of their company and increase the reliability of their advertising. 0bviously, appropriate application of metaphor plays an important role in English advertising, which can not only render advertisements attractive and pictures$ue, but also informative and persuasive. Qndoubtedly, metaphor contributes

to promotion of the sale of products and helps make advertised service thrive and flourish.

3.3. 6un "ccording to We#ster)s Third 5ew 2nternational /ictionary )*+:45*46,/, the pun is &a humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest different meanings or applications of words having the same sound or nearly the same sound but different meanings5 a play on words.' %t is a play on words, or rather a play on the form and meaning of words. Dida ) *++-5:K / describes it as follows, &<laying on the meaning and formal resemblance of words )punning/ is a universal phenomenon, and in some languages this rhetorical device is extensively encouraged and practiced.' <un is a play on wordsM it increases the humor of advertising and makes the advertising pregnant with meaning. "ppropriate application of pun can attract readers’ attention, make the body copy readable and memorable and arouse consumers’ interest and imagination. Cor example5 )-,/ &>oke refreshes you like no other can'-, )>oca1>ola/ %n this advertising, &can' maybe understand as a bottle for drink, and it also can be used as an auxiliary verb. Ao this sentence has two meanings5 Cirst is &>oke refreshes you like no other can )can refresh you/'M Aecond is &>oke refreshes you like no other )drinks/ can )refresh you/' )--/ &"sk for ,ore'-&7ore' is an "merican cigarette brand, &7ore' and &more' has the same pronunciation and different meaning, consumer will connect &7ore' with the meaning of &much, more' when they heard the advertising. #he pun help the brand promote itself and guide consumer buy their product. )-6/ &>utex trongnail with nylon for long , strong, beautiful nails'-6. &nail' means & 指甲' and &赵子' show the $uality of &>utex Atrongnail nail oil' to the highest level. )-B/ &A /eal With QA 7eans " =ood 8eal #o Hou'-B

)"dvertising for 8epartment stores/ &a good deal' means &many, much, more' , the advertising is combined meaning with &a good business' increase the interesting of this advertising. )-4/ &Every @id Ahould 3ave An Apple "fter Achool'-4 )"dvertising for >omputer/ %n example )-4/, Apple refers to either the fruit we eat, or the computer with this brand name5 "pple. "merican children usually eat some fruits or candies as their desserts. #he advertisement means that children should not only eat apples, but also have an "pple computer, which is the spiritual food for them. )-K/ &Hou don’t have to be an angel to wear it'-K )3eaven Aent/ &sent' is past participate of &send' ,&sent' and &scent' are homophones. &sent' means &take', and &scent' is a kind of perfume, so we can understand the meaning of this advertisement1111&heaven sent' is &angel', it showed the perfume which is expensive form heaven. """"" )-:/ &#he role of the ?olunteer Oeserves is changing, %f you’ve got any $uestions, shoot.'-: & hoot' is slang in this advertisingM it means &please say it'. "s this advertising is about "rmy reserve and shooting, so the writer used pun made the language humorous and vivid, and also the topic is closer to us. <un which is often emp*oyed by the manufacturers to seek first1hand attention, is almost a most attention1getting device of the rhetorical figures. #he nature of pun in advertising is5 the pun is the product of a contest deliberately constructed to enforce an ambiguity, to render the choice between meanings impossible, to leave the reader or hearer thinking about products in semantic space. "s far as % know, pun is one of the most favored rhetorical devices employed by copy writers and one of the most common rhetorical devices used in English advertisements.


4. *onclusion
"s English is one of the most widely used languages in the world, it is necessary to study and analyze the language features of English advertising. >urrent advertisements reflect radical changes in the technology, media, the social and economic relations, the sense of personal and group identity. Qp to now, we have discussed briefly the language features of English advertising, focusing on the main features of diction or wording, ma!or syntactical characteristics and common rhetorical devices. #he thesis is intended to enable the readers to understand English advertising texts better and to design and create them when necessary. "lso, by learning English advertising texts, we can improve our language competence. #he author hopes that this thesis can trigger our interest in English advertising texts, which will help raise our language level. %t goes without saying that research into the language of English advertising is both interesting and rewarding. #o achieve this awareness, we should not only have a good understanding of the language of English advertising, but also know its influence on the English language. 0ne obvious influence of English advertising on the English language lies in the fact that English advertising contributes a lot of new words to the vocabulary stock of modern English. #he other type of words contributing to the English language are the advertising coinages, whose abundance is one of the lexical features of English advertising. Another main influence on &nglish advertising""" is so1called movement of &collo$uialisation', which is also a main contribution of English advertising to the English language. #he influence of English advertising !ustifies the relationship between a language and its users5 people create a language form as desiredM this form, in turn affects people’s conception of the language as a whole. (anguage is a carrier of advertisements. "dvertisers must continually ad!ust their language to conform to changes and grammatical rules. #his thesis is !ust an initial and brief discussion of English advertising language. 7ore detailed and more comprehensive research is needed on English advertising

languageM also, it is necessary to make a detailed comparative study of English and >hinese advertising texts.


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