You are on page 1of 6



1. 2. 3.

Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das formed swaraj Party. Shiv Sena, Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party. The sum of the value of final goods and services produced in each sector during a particular year is called gross domestic produced. The two difficulties of Barter system : (i) Double co-incidence of wants (ii) Difference in value



Trade barriers means the restrictions foreign trade and foreign investments in the form of duties and taxes. 24th December is celebrated as the consumer day in India. (i) - c, (ii) - d, (iii) -a, (iv)- b Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation. (a) Primitive Subsistence Farming : (i) Practised in few pockets of India (ii) Practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/community labour works on these patches. (iii) Depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown. (b) Commercial Farming : (i) Use of higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides. (ii) Degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another.

6. 7. 8.



(i) Construction of small bunds in water eroded areas. (ii) Construction of terraces, plugging of gullies in hilly areas. (iii) Preparation of shelter belt of plants. (iv) Control on overgrazing . (v) More afforestation. (vi) Mulching and check dams. (vii) Contour ploughing and strip cropping.


Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries.

10th RBSE Soluton S.Sc_PAGE # 1


Some causes of environmental destruction

Inequitable consumption of resources Unequal access

Forest fires

Habitat destruction


Hunting and poaching

Environmental pollution

Over exploitation

grazing and fuel-wood collection


Differential sharing of responsibility in environmental well being

13. 14.

(i) Advanced and renwed technology of machinaries. (ii) Constant availibility of Water nad Electricity. The Ottoman Turkish Empire was defeated in the First World War. A harsh peace treaty was imposed on the Turkish Emperor - The Khalifa. The Khalifa was considered the spiritual head of the Muslim world and protector of their holy places. The Turkish empire was totally dismembered by 1920. Two brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, Muslim leaders founded a Khilafat common in March 1919, to defend the Khilafats rights. The anti Rowlatt satyagraha was limited to cities and towns. Gandhiji wanted to launch a more broad -based movement. This could only be done by bringing Hindus and Muslims together. He took up the khilafat issue. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj. Indentured labour means bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time, to pay off his passage to a new country or home.In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines, and in road and railway construction projects around the world. In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer's plantation. The novel Debganer Martye Aagaman written by Durgacharan Ray concludes the following aspects of city life by symbolic story of The Gods Visit Earth. (a) The Positive aspects : (i) The simple city is changed in to modern metro city. (ii) The city has the features of big markets having big shops with variety of commodities. (iii) Flourished trade and commerce, schools and collages for education and variety of job opportunities. Besides these features Calcutta city changed a lot. (b) The Negative aspects : (i) Anti social activities like theft and cheating were also growing. (ii) The extreme gap between poor and rich. (iii) Distinction on the basis of caste, creed and gender the predominant features of Hindu society were in a changed position. (iv) The city was in transitional state having contradictory experience such as extreme wealth and poverty, opportunities and frustration, glamour and dirt. God Brahma was cheated while buying the glasses. The creator of world, Brahma was astonished by splendid form of city as cited in the novel of Durga Charan Ray.



10th RBSE Soluton S.Sc_PAGE # 2


Till the first world war industrial growth was slow. The war created a dramatically new situations. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years industrial production boomed. After the war, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market. Unable to modernise and compete with the US, Germany and Japan , the economy of Britain crumbled after the war. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically. Within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufactures and capturing the home market. (i) Coming together federation : The first route involves independent States coming together on their own to form a bigger unit, so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity they can increase their security. (ii) Holding together federation : The second route is where a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government. India, Spain and Belgium are examples of this kind of holding together federations.




Situations were people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their potential. This kind of underemployment is hidden in contrast to someone who does not have a job and is clearly visible as unemployed. Hence, it is also called disguised unemployment. suggestions : 1.More emphasis on the literacy. 2.More investment in the cottage industries. 1.Establishment of more rural banks in the villages area. 2.Availability of loan at chep interest rate and accebility of banks within close range. 3.Flexibility in the mode of loan repayment. Globalisation and greater competition among producers- both local and foreign producers- has been of advantage to consumers, particularly the well-off sections in the urban areas. There is greater choice before these consumers who now enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products. These people today, enjoy much higher standards of living than was possible earlier. Among producers and workers, the impact of globalisation has not been uniform (i) MNCs have increased their investments in India over the past 15 years, which means investing in India has been beneficial for them. New jobs have been created. Local companies supplying raw materials, etc. to these industries have prospered. (ii) Several of the top Indian companies have been able to benefit from the increased competition. They have increased competition. They have invested in newer technology and production methods and raised their production standards. Some have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies. (iii) Globalisation has enabled some larger Indian companies to emerge as multinational themselves. (iv) Globalisation has also created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly those involving IT.



10th RBSE Soluton S.Sc_PAGE # 3


In October 2005, the Government of India enacted a law, popularly known as RTI (Right to Information) Act, which ensures its citizens all the information about the functions of government departments.under this any citizen can file an inquiry about the functioning of the govt. offices,expences made in different projects,or about activities of the govt. Basically it gives power in the hands of the citizen that they can keep a tab over what work is being done by the govt . for them and whether it is done properly or not.In case of any malfunctioning they can ask for reason s because it is their right as they are the ones who have paid for the work in the form of taxes. (i) During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house. Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations. (ii) During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary (iii) Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Italain Republic. He formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war & still had many problems.Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy. OR In 1907-08 some 300 Vietnamese nationalists students went to Japan to acquire modern education. For most of them the primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and reestablish the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. These nationalists looked for foreign arms and help. They appealed to the Japanese as fellow Asians.Most of the nationalists also wanted to establish a strong military in Vietnam on the lines of Japan which had defeated Russia in 1907. Vietnamese students established a branch of the Restoration Society in Tokyo but after 1908, the Japanese Ministry of Interior clamped down on them. Many historians argued that the print culture created the conditions which brought about the French Revolution in 1789. (i) The print culture laid emphasis on the rule of reason rather than custom, demanded that everything should be judged through the application of reason and rationality, attacked the sacred authority of the church and despotic powerof the state. Those who read these, saw the world through new eyes, eyes that were questioning, critical and rational. (ii) Secondly, the print culture created an atmosphere of dialogue and debate. As such, all existing ideas and beliefs began to be questioned by the public. Such a thing created the ground for social revolution. OR (i)Colonial administrators found vernacular novels a valuable source of information on native life and customs. Such information was useful for them in governing Indian society, with its large variety of communities and castes. The new novels in Indian languages often had descriptions of domestic life. Some of these books were translated into English, often by British administrators or Christian missionaries. (ii) Indians for e.g. Viresalingam, used the novel as a powerful medium to criticise what they considered defects in their society and to suggest remedies. (iii) Novels also helped in establishing a relationship with the past. Through glorified accounts of the past, these novels helped in creating a sense of national pride among their readers. Novels also helped in creating a sense of collective belonging on the basis of ones language. (iv) With the coming of novels, language variations entered the world of print for the first time. The way characters spoke in a novel began to indicate their region, class or caste. Thus novels made their readers



10th RBSE Soluton S.Sc_PAGE # 4

familiar with the ways in which people in other parts of their land spoke their language. 26. Religion is used in politics in exclusive and partisan terms. This manner of using religion in politics is communal politics. Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community. Communalism involves thinking along the following lines : (i) The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. (ii) Their fundamental interests should be the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life. (iii) Communalism also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community. If the followers of different religions have some commonalities, these are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict. (iv) Sometime communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations. OR Urbanisation has been one of the significant factor of removing the social differences in the society . As the people are moving to the urban areas the need of jobs ;the lack of settlement areas and the need of moving ahead in every walk of life has eliminated the petty differences .there we see that people are living in mixed societies where we have to mingle with people comong from different parts of the country and communities. even at our workplaces we have to get along with different kinds of people.Hence the sense of inequality has vanished.Only economic competition is there which soully depends on the individuals capbility and not on their caste,religion ,or gender. In India, like most other democracies in the world, these rights are mentioned in the Constitution. Some rights which are fundamental to our life are given a special status. They are called Fundamental Rights. The preamble of our Constitution talks about securing for all its citizens equality, liberty and justice. Fundamental Rights put this promise into effect. They are an important basic feature of Indias Constitution. (a) Right of Equality (b) The Right to Freedom is actually a cluster of rights (c) Right against Exploitation (d) Right to Freedom of Religion (e) Cultural and educational rights (f) the Right to Constitutional Remedies OR Some broad guidelines to be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India. (i) Law has an important role to play in political reform. Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones. But legal-constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. Political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens. (ii) Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Sometimes the results may by counter-productive. Generally, laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in good things have more chances of working. (iii) Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political practice. Therefore, the main focus of political reforms should be on ways to strengthen democratic practice. (iv) Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution but also about who will implement it and how. It is not very wise to think that the legislatures will pass legislations that go against the interest of all the political parties and MPs. But measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens organisations and the media are likely to succeed.


10th RBSE Soluton S.Sc_PAGE # 5


Democracies are based on political equality. All citizens have equal right in electing representatives but it is not so in the economic field. The poor are becoming poorer and sometimes they find it difficult to meet the basic needs of life (food, clothing, housing, education and health). Democratic governments have failed in this area. In Bangladesh more than half of its population lives below the poverty line. Many countries depend even for their food supplies on the rich countries. (i) Percentage of population below poverty line in India. (ii) The Human Development Index shows where India stands in the world as far as health education and income are concerned. Indias ranking is 127 among 177 countries. (i) The increase in income is not sufficient for a nation. Income can be a major base of economic growth of a nation. But experiences had shown that economic growth could not automatically translated into the improvement of levels of living of the poor masses. Therefore, economists redefined the concept of economic development in terms of the reduction of poverty, unemployment and inequality in the context of a growing economy. (ii) Now-a-days redistribution and growth have become the popular slogan in most of the progressive nations, including India. The concept of economic growth is related to the increase in output of goods and services in an economy. This can be expressed in two ways : (i) increase in total output or increase in gross domestic product (GDP): and (ii) rise in per capita income or rise in per capita GDP. (iii) Economic development is a broader concept than economic growth. Development concerns not only man's material needs but also the improvementof social conditions of life. It is, there fore, not only economic growth but growth plus change in social, cultural and institutional pattern. It includes both growth aspect and distribution aspect. Development must, therefore, be conceived of as a multi-dimensional concept. OR Sustainability is a matter of sharing development opportunity not the poverty and human deprivation. If the present is miserable and unacceptable to the majority of the world's people it must be changed before it is sustained. In other words, what must be sustained are worthwhile life opportunities, not human deprivation. Sustainable development is the real economic development accompanied by an increase in economic welfare which can be potentially shared by future generations also. (a) Features of Sustainable Development : (i) Productivity is increased. (ii) Increase in output in real terms. (iii) Standard of living of people is improved and there is addition to their welfare. (iv) Objectives of removal of poverty, inequality and illiteracy are achieved and more employment opportunities are generated. (v) It emphasizes that costs of development particularly costs of environmental loss should be taken care of. (vi) Standard of life improves. (vii) Stock of natural capital, i.e., stock of renewable and non-renewable resources is maintained or increased along with preservation of human capital and physical capital.



(1) Biogas : (i) Energy derived from shrubs, farm wastes, animal and human wastes. (ii) Has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to Kerosene, Dung cake and Charcoal. (iii) Energy produced can be used for cooking and lighting and the residual can be used as manure. (2) Roof top rainwater harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water particularly in Rajasthan.Under this the rainwater is collected on the roof of the house which is then diverted to an underground tank. this water can be used for different purposes of the household.

10th RBSE Soluton S.Sc_PAGE # 6