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Marine Engineering System

Introduction

Life and Measurement

Administration

Course content Class Class notes Assessment -Homework assignments and solutions Final Exam Labs Others Collaborati!e work" attitude" communication" learning through !ariation and creati!it# and new ideas$

%ariation
& 'e onl# learn because of !ariation ( when something new or different challenges our )re-concei!ed ideas & 'hat we learn de)ends on the !ariation we ha!e ex)erienced

*ub+ect ,eneral Ob+ecti!e


Introduction to shipping ships and general marine engineering systems Co!erage

Common marine engineering terms Safe working practice onboard ships Type of Merchant ships Type of Naval ships Type of auxiliary crafts Shipboard systems Engine room and Machinery layout

Course -a!igation
-

Marine engineering terms and system O)erating )rinci)le" characteristics and classification of marine engines and su))orting s#stems .rinci)le of o)eration shi)s auxiliar# machineries s#stem Marine electrical )ower generation and distribution s#stem Marine )ro)ulsion s#stem

/his lecture ( Introduction to marine engineering and shi) s#stem At the end of the lesson student will be able

to : Define common terms of ship and marine engineering system Ship types Marine engineering system Propulsion layout Hull Safety consideration Design consideration

A$ Marine engineering and marine engine

E!olution of marine engine

Effort to apply mechanical power to propulsion and operation of ship since eighteen century as never been easy. Why?

0esign re1uirement

Because ship is a have never been a simple product It require exceptional number of specialization to plan design and build a ship !his ma"e maritime technology distinctive integrated technology in part of many engineering disciplines require for the design of system of transport exploration naval craft which have one thing in common. What ?

0esign re1uirement

#perate on the surface of water !he field of engineering under maritime technology $ naval architecture and marine engineering is with at least the following% Inland waterway and ocean transportation &aval engineering #cean engineering 'ontention between naval architecture and marine engineer in system design

2$ Common terms

Common terms

(hips )essels (ubmarines !ugs *erries Boats 'lass societies + ,ardep -ropulsion system

Common terms 3Contd4


.uxiliary -ower system .ir system (W system *W system *uel system /ospitality systems &avigation and steering system

5$ *afe working )ractice

*afe working )ractice

(pecial constraints of ship operation


(hip is a floating and moving ob0ect (ub0ect to flooding rolling + -itching 1imited space for machinery #perates away from shore facilities &o neutral line to earth

'arries heavy and dangerous cargo

How to enforce *afet#


-roper safety attire 2egular and effective maintenance


2epairs 3 drydoc"ing3inspection 1oad !esting of lifting equipment !est of *irefighting system

-eriodic certification and validation of ships and its systems

3. Ship Types & Hull Forms

/#)es of *hi)s

,erchant ships Bul" carriers #il !an"ers 'hemical tan"ers 1&4 tan"ers 'ontainer ships -assenger liners

&aval (hips *rigates 5estroyers 'ruisers .ircraft carriers -atrol crafts (urvey ships (ubmaries

.uxiliary )essels !ugs *erries (upport vessels Barges

3.1 lassification of Ship by !sage


Merchant Ship Naval Coast !uard "essel

#ecreational "essel $tility Tugs #esearch %erries Environmental Ship

3.2 Classification of Ship by Support Type


Aerostatic Support
- ACV (Air Cushion Vehicles) - SES (Captured Air Bubble)

Hydrodynamic Support
- Hydrofoil - HYSWAS (HYdrodyna ic S all Waterplane Area Ship) -!lannin" Hull

Hydrostatic Support
- Con#entional Ship - Cata aran - SWA$H (S all Waterplane Area T%in Hull) - &eep &isplace ent

Submarine
- Sub arine - A'V()*V

3.3. Aerostatic Support


- Supported by cushion of air "enerated by a fan+ - AC! "Air Cushion !ehicle# hull aterial , rubber propeller , placed on the deca phibious operation - S$S "Surface $ffect Ship# side hull , ri"id %all(steel or .)!) bo% , s-irt propulsion syste , placed under the %ater %ater /et propulsion superca#itatin" propeller not a phibious operation

SES .erry

0YC SES .ireboat

1234 SES .erry

3.3.2 Hydrodynamic Support %lannin& Hull

- supported by the hydrodyna ic pressure de#eloped under the hull at hi"h speed - V or flat type shape - co only used in pleasure boat5 patrol boat5 issile boat5 racin" boat 'estriero

3.3.3 Hydrodynamic Support


Hydrofoil Ship

- supported by a hydrofoil5 li-e %in" on an aircraft

- fully sub er"ed hydrofoil ship - surface piercin" hydrofoil ship


Hydrofoil .erry

HYSWAS 6uest

Hydroplane #essel

3.3.( Hydrostatic Support


'isplacement ship

- con#entional type of ship - carries hi"h payload - lo% speed SWATH


- s all %aterplane area t%in hull (SWA$H) - lo% %a#e- a-in" resistance - e7cellent roll stability - lar"e open dec- disad#anta"e , deep draft and cost

Catamaran)Trimaran - t%in hull - other characteristics are si ilar to the SWA$H Submarine

SWA$H #essel

SWA$H #essel Seashadow

$ri-Hull co bat concept #essel

6$ *hi)board s#stems

*hi)board s#stems

-ropulsion system

(team 5iesel 4as turbine .ll electric '#5.5 '#5.4 '#(.4 .'35' 1) /)

.ux power system


contd

(ea Water system *ire fighting system -umping and flooding system *W system .ircon and ventilation system *W system 'argo system &avigation system and steering

Fuel oil .i)ing *#stem

"#$SH %A&$# S'S&$M

Fresh 'ater Cooling *#stem


/789OCHA8,E8 /O ; F 8OM 0IE*EL ,E-E8A /O8

E6-.&(I#& 3 /E.5E2 !.&7

*:' O7/

< AC=E/ 'A/E8 COOLE8

< =/$ 'A/E8 COOLI-, . :. * C>LI-0E8 9LOC= ; C>LI-0E8 HEA0 0I*/8I9 7/IO- M A -IFOL0 HEA/E8 *:' I-

*:' O7/

,.I& 5IE(E1 E&4I&E

. I*/O-* 0I*/8I97/IO- M A-IFOL0 . I/O'A /E8 . I*/O- 'A/E8 COOLI-, . :. * COOLE8

COLLEC /IO- M A-IFOL0 F 8OM . I*/O-

*:' I-

. I*/O- 08A I- /A -=

Lubrication Oil *#stem

(!)#* A&*+, +*( S'S&$M


'81I&5E2 19B2I'.!I&4 #I1 (E2)I'E !.&7

!E,-E2.!92E
C>LI-0E8 L79 8ICA/IO9O?E*

'#&!2#1 ).1)E

(E. W.!E2 #9!1E!

C8O**HEA0 ; . I*/O0I*/8I9 7/IOM A -IFOL0

19B #I1 '##1E2 (E. W.!E2 I&1E!

,.I& 5IE(E1 E&4I&E

*I&E *I1!E2(
M AI- 9EA8 I-, ; C8A -=. I0I*/8I97/IO- M A-IFOL0

19B #I1 -9,-(

(!2.I&E2(

528 (9,- !.&7

,.4&E!I' *I1!E2(

(!E., /E.!I&4

19B2I'.!I&4 #I1 '#11E'!I&4 !.&7 19B #I1 -92I*IE2 /E.!E2

S$A %A&$#

++(*,- S'S&$M

*ea 'ater Cooling *#stem


/789OCHA8,E8 < A C=E/

*2E(/ W.!E2 '##1E2


CHA 8,E AI8 C OOLE8

,.I& 5IE(E1 E&4I&E

-I(!#& W.!E2
COOLE8

L79 OIL COOLE8

*EA 'A/E8 COOLI-, . 7M . * FIL/E8 *EA CHE*/ FIL/E8 *EA C HE*/

Air *tarting *#stem


*/A8/I-, AI8 %AL%E* . ILO/ %A L%E

S&A#&*,- A*# S'S&$M

AI8 9O//LE -o 2 O8 8E*E8 %OI8 -o 5

,.I& 5IE(E1 E&4I&E

AI8 0I*/8I97/O8

M AI- A I8 C OM . 8E**O8*

-o 2

-o 5

Main 0iesel Engine Cooling *#stem

@$ /#)es Marine Engine

8A)90E !)*!':S9*0 E0;90E

S$EA8 E0;90E

;AS $')B90E E0;90E

&9ESE: E0;90E

S$EA8 $')B90E E0;90E

)EC9!)*CA$90; S$EA8 E0;90E S!A)< 9;09$9*0 C*8!)ESS9*0 9;09$9*0 .*') S$)*<E

$W* S$)*<E

A&$#-+#*$S

(team !urbine Engine 4as turbine engine (team Engine 5iesel engine

.rime mo!ers

4as !urbines 4as turbine have been selected as the future prime mover primarily because of their high power to weight ratio. :. Weight sensitive ship designs favor gas turbines and pro0ected light weight fuel cell power plants such as -E,. !hey also provide significant reduction in the amount of routine maintenance required when compared with diesel generators. !he other significant factor is the low emissions. 5iesel engine 5iesel engines offer fuel costs savings of ;<= if heavy fuels can be used and if emissions can be maintained at acceptable levels. ,aintenance may include engine modifications such as dual fuel capability for in>port use water in0ection and timing retard and exhaust treatment such as selected catalytic reduction and oxidation catalysts. /eavy fuel use also requires careful selection of cylinder material and lube oil

/urbine

. gas turbine also called a combustion turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of hot gas produced by combustion of gas or fuel oil in a stream of compressed air. It has an upstream air compressor radial or axial flow mechanically coupled to a downstream turbine and a combustion chamber in between. Energy is released when compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited in the combustor !he resulting gases are directed over the turbine?s blades spinning the turbine and mechanically powering the compressor. *inally the gases are passed through a nozzle generating additional thrust by accelerating the hot exhaust gases by expansion bac" to atmospheric pressure. . steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical wor".

*team /urbine engine

!he (team turbine is use to obtain mechanical wor" from the energy stored in steam. (team enters the turbine with high energy content and leaves after giving up most of it. !he high pressure steam from the boiler is expanded in nozzles to create a high velocity 0et of steam which produces the force which causes rotation of the shaft.

,as turbine

!he 4as turbine is use for obtaining mechanical wor" from the energy stored in 4ases in which combustion ta"e place in the combustion chamber. !he hot gases enters the turbine with high energy content and leaves after giving up most of it. !he high pressure gases from the combustion chamber is expanded in nozzles to create a high velocity 0et of gases which produces the force which causes rotation of the shaft.

,as /urbine

*irst @ shaft concept Aanuary BC:;

Coberra 6000 Starting Sequence Typical Arrangement


RB2
.I2 I&!.7E I' &' 44 '#,B9(!#2

RT - 56 RT - 62

Centrifugal Compressor
4E.2 B#6

-#WE2 !92BI&E

44 '#,-2E((#2( 44 !92BI&E(

Roll Royce Gas Generator

*team engine

CO,A,

Combined gas turbine and gas turbine (C)!*!+ is propulsion system for ships using two gas turbines connected to a single propeller shaft. . gearbox and clutches allow either of the turbines to drive the shaft or both of them combined. 9sing one or two gas turbines has the advantage of having two different power settings. (ince the fuel efficiency of a gas turbine is best near its maximum power level a small gas turbine running at its full speed is more efficient compared to a twice as powerful turbine running at half speed allowing more economic transit at cruise speeds.

0iesel engine

Electric dri!e
Electric drive transmissions have a higher specific fuel consumption specific weight and volume than mechanical drive systems but has advantages in arrangement which may compensate for these disadvantages. .dvanced technology motors can be located very close to and on line with the propulsors at the extreme aft end of the ship or in external pods. Electrical generator sets can be optimally spaced around the ship and electrically connected. In the longer term combined with fuel cells (*' specific weight and volume are comparable with gas turbine and diesel prime movers for direct drive systems. Done 'oncept % !he concept of dividing future classes of ship into zones to maximize survivability also extends to the power system. Each zone would be autonomous and include ventilation systems cooling systems power distribution and other services which could be affected by damage to another part of the ship. .t least two supplies would be provided for all essential loads. 'urrent classes using split generation and distribution rely on the provision of normal and alternative supplies via .utomatic 'hange>#ver (witches

Fuel cell

!he fuel cell stac" operates by utilizing electrochemical reactions between an oxidant EairF and a fuel EhydrogenF with two electrodes separated by a membrane. !he voltage of the fuel cell output can be controlled by a converter and it is therefore able to connect to any point in the ship service or propulsion distribution system. !he fuel cell stac" is modularity give redundancy advantage. It also has the additional advantages of zero noxious emissions and low thermal and acoustic signatures. In the short term the fuel cell system is required to use marine diesel fuel. 5iesel fuel will require reforming within the fuel cell stac" or using an external process to produce a hydrogen rich gas which the fuel cell stac" is capable of processing. !he reformer will clearly add both size weight and complexity to the fuel cell system. In the longer term technologies such as the (olid #xide *uel 'ell E(#*'F are contenders which are more forgiving of impurities and can use a fuel available world>wide either methanol or gasoline.

*torage o)tion

!he technologies being assessed for energy storage include are electro> chemical batteries Eboth conventional and advancedF regenerative fuel cells Eotherwise "nown as redox flow cells F (uperconducting ,agnetic Energy (torage E(,E(F and (upercapacitors. 2egenerative fuel cells store or release electrical energy by means of a reversible electrochemical reaction between two salt solutions Ethe electrolytesF. !he reaction occurs within an electrochemical cell. !he cell has two compartments one for each electrolyte physically separated by an ion>exchange membrane. In contrast to most types of battery system the electrolytes flow into and out of the cells and are transformed electrochemically inside the cells. !he power is therefore determined by the size of the cell but the endurance is determined by the size of the two electrolyte tan"s

*torage s#stem

.rime mo!ers and emission

.ll prime movers are potentially compliant with emerging emission requirements however complexity for achieving compliance varies with prime mover and fuel type. 5iesels require the most attention to emissions control followed at some distance by gas turbines where ultra low emissions levels have been achieved for land>based systems. *uel cells emit the lowest levels of pollutants of all the prime movers /eavier fuel cell systems and diesels represent larger machinery and structural weight. *uel cells can be used as a prime mover in an Integrated *ull Electric -ropulsion EI*E-F system providing 5' electrical power output and are being developed as a replacement for diesel generators and gas turbine alternators.

*ail and solar )ower shi)

*k#sail

.ro)ulsion s#stem la#out

.ro)ulsion s#stem La#out

5epends on the type of ship its size and role


5irect coupled 4eared .zipods

=>

Ship ,rive Train and 'ower


Ship ,rive Train System
EH! $n&ine 2eduction 4ear

Bearin"

Strut Scre% Seals $H!

BH!

SH!

&H!
=?

Ship ,rive Train and 'ower


&orse 'ower in ,rive Train *ra+e Horse %o,er "*H%# - %o,er output at the shaft comin& out of the en&ine before the reduction &ears Shaft Horse %o,er "SH%# - %o,er output after the reduction &ears - SH%.*H% - losses in reduction &ear

==

Ship ,rive Train and 'ower


'eli/ered Horse %o,er "'H%# - %o,er deli/ered to the propeller - 'H%.SH% 0 losses in shaftin&1 shaft bearin&s and seals Thrust Horse %o,er "TH%# - %o,er created by the scre,)propeller - TH%.'H% 0 %ropeller losses E(; BH! )(; SH! Shaft Bearin" &H! !rop+ $H! Hull EH!

#elative Magnitudes *H%2SH%2'H%2TH%2$H%


@33

Effective &orse 'ower (E&'+


$H% 3 The po,er re4uired to mo/e the ship hull at a &i/en speed in the absence of propeller action (EHP is not related with Power Train System) $H% can be determined from the to,in& tan+ e5periments at the /arious speeds of the model ship. $H% of the model ship is con/erted into $H% of the full scale ship by Froude6s 7a,+ Towing Tank 8easured EH! V Towing carriage

@3@

Effective &orse 'ower (E&'+


Effective /orsepower E/- E/-F

' ) E #C $ # " E
8 . 2 5. ! 2 # 1' 2 . * !

B < < < I < < H < < : < < G < < < < G : H I B < B G B : B H

( h ip ( p e e d) s E7 n o ts F

$ypical EH! Cur#e of Y!

@31

/#)ical AB M' *team .ro)ulsion

Blow down gas B m@ 3s release @< ,W power but in port requirement is only H ,W

/#)ical 0iesel .ro)ulsion

,ain and aux power sources separate and independent re>liquefaction E; ,WF

/#)ical 0iesel .ro)ulsion

,ain and aux power sources separate and independent re>liquefaction E; ,WF

/#)ical 0iesel .ro)ulsion

,ain diesel engines drive aux generators

/#)ical 0iesel .ro)ulsion

/#)ical *chematic of IE.*

La#out of /#)ical IE.*

Medium s)eed 6-s diesel

.ictorial %iew of First IE.*

Hull

-ave.Making #esistance !cont"


*ulbous *o,

@@A

*ummar#

5evelopment of marine engineering system 'ommon terms of marine engineering system #verview of marine engineering system #verview of marine engines > 1# *uel )alve cooling 'ylinder 1# etc. #verview of marine propulsion layout