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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A pastiche is a literary or other artistic genre that is a "hodge-podge" or an imitation. The word is also a linguistic term used to describe an early stage in the development of a pidginlanguage.
2 Imitation 3 See also 4 Further reading
In this usage, a work is called pastiche if it is cobbled together in imitation of several original works. As the Oxford English Dictionary puts it, a pastiche in this sense is "a medley of various ingredients; a hotchpotch, farrago, jumble." This meaning accords with etymology: pastiche is the French version of the greco-Roman dish pastitsio or pasticcio, which designated a kind of pie made of many different ingredients. Some works of art are pastiche in both senses of the term; for example, the David Lodge novel and the Star Wars series mentioned below appreciatively imitate work from multiple sources. Mass A pastiche mass is a mass where the constituent movements are from different Mass settings. Masses are composed by classical composers as a set of movements: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei. (Examples: the Missa Solemnis by Beethoven and the Messe de Nostre Dame by Guillaume de Machaut.) In a pastiche mass, the performers may choose a Kyrie from one composer, and a Gloria from another, or, choose a Kyrie from one setting of an individual composer, and a Gloria from another. Most often this convention is chosen for concert performances, particularly by early music ensembles. Imitation
In this usage, the term denotes a literary technique employing a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style; although jocular, it is usually respectful. For example, many stories featuring Sherlock Holmes, originally created by Arthur Conan Doyle, have been written as pastiches since the author's time. A similar example of pastiche is the posthumous continuations the Robert E. Howard stories, written by other writers without Howard's authorization. This includes the Conan stories of L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter. David Lodge's novel The British Museum Is Falling Down (1965) is a pastiche of works by Joyce, Kafka, and Virginia Woolf. Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead is a pastiche of Shakespeare's Hamlet.
who used the technique in his String Quartet No. as they often pay tribute to (or imitate) pulp novels. The Light Fantastic. The fact that Lucas's films have been influential (spawning their own pastiches . Many post-war European neighborhoods can in this way be described as pastiches from planners like Le Corbusier or Ebenezer Howard. Many genre writings. which was inspired by the plays of William Shakespeare. Many of "Weird Al" Yankovic's songs are pastiches: for example. describing it as "blank parody" (Jameson. a pastiche is used to refer to neighborhoods as imitations of building styles as conceived by major planners. andmise en scène. For instance. Pastiche can also be a cinematic device wherein the creator of the film pays homage to another filmmaker's style and use of cinematography. since they adopt many conventions of action films. Whereas pastiche used to be a humorous literary style. 1991). "Bohemian Rhapsody" by Queen is unusual as it is a pastiche in both senses of the word. comedy and horror films as well). a humorous pastiche of the fantasy genre. and "Bob" from the album Poodle Hat is a pastiche of Bob Dylan. media and literature can be characterized by intertextuality as the narrative mode. without any political or historical content. pastiche in the postmodern era has become a "dead language". and Edvard Grieg's Holberg Suite was written as a conscious homage to the music of an earlier age. Well-known academic Fredric Jameson has a somewhat more critical view of pastiche. especially with reference to the postmodern parodic practices of self-reflexivity and intertextuality. Postmodern art. in postmodernism. The same definition is said to apply to the video games of Hideo Kojima as well. as there are many distinct styles imitated in the song. particularly in his early works Strata. Charles Rosen has characterized Mozart's various works in imitation of Baroque style as pastiche. are essentially pastiches. though some say his films are more of an homage. A film's writer may also offer a pastiche based on the works of other writers (this is especially evident in historical films and documentaries but can be found in non-fiction drama. a pastiche of various science fiction themes. blaxploitation and/or Chinese kung fu films. local . including camera angles. and the postmodern period can be characterized by the death of the grand narratives as proclaimed by Jean-François Lyotard in The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (1979). and Wyrd Sisters. Perhaps one of the best examples of pastiche in modern music is the that ofGeorge Rochberg. ideologies and the enlightenment project have been substituted by the small. The grand narratives such as religions. Pastiche is also found in non-literary works. and so has also become unable to satirize in any effective way. all 'hodge-podged' together to create one piece of music. become "devoid of laughter" (Jameson. Pastiche is prominent in popular culture.The fantasy writer Terry Pratchett is known for his use of pastiche. particularly in fantasy. including art and music. particularly Macbeth and Hamlet. In urban planning. lighting. The films of Quentin Tarantino are often described as pastiches. Rochberg turned to pastiche from serialism after the death of his son in 1963.vis the 1983 3D filmMetalstorm: The Destruction of Jared-Syn) can be regarded as a function of postmodernity. The Star Wars series of films by George Lucas is often considered to be a pastiche of traditional science fiction television serials (or radio shows). 3 of 1972 and Music for the Magic Theater. By this is meant that rather than being a jocular but still respectful imitation of another style. 1991). it has. "Dare to Be Stupid" is a Devo pastiche.
2001. "Diplopia. 1991. Fredric. Film. 1989. pp. 111 . author. satiric or ironic imitation. Pastiche: Cultural Memory in Art. This is for instance the case with Francis Gl ebas’ "Pomp and Circumstance". style. love of one’s family. its subject. Practice: Perspectives. See also Archetype Bricolage Doujinshi Fan fiction Homage Parody Pasticcio Simulacrum Further reading Jameson.g. not . Jameson. Ingeborg.125 Hoesterey. the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. or some other target. or poke fun at an original work. Though the grand narratives may be dead as ontological frames. In the postmodern pastiche the older text (the hypotext) may reflect one of the bygone grand narratives. see Gina Parody. "parody … is imitation with a critical difference. 234-246 Parody From Wikipedia. in which the grand religious narrative of the Deluge is merged with the local narrative of personal love. Durham: Duke University Press. Literature Indiana University Press. 2004. also called send-up or spoof). pp. (ISBN 0-253-33880-8) Christensen. Postmodernism. they can here in the pastiche narrative regain some of their ontological strength when the local narratives are confronted by them in this narrative way. "Postmodernism and Consumer Society" in The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Post-Modern Culture. Ben Dorfman.narratives. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon (2000: 7) puts it. comment on. so that the two enter into a dialogue in the pastiche. Media. Fredric. by means of humorous. Pastiche is intertextual in its very form as it is a recreation of an earlier text. or Ontological Intertextuality in Pastiche" in Culture. Theory. yet its new postmodern version may reflect a local narrative. A parody (pronounced /ˈpærədiː/. Seattle: Bay Press. Jørgen Riber. ed. personified in Donald Duck and Daisy. e. is a work created to mock.the seventh segment in Fantasia 2000 from 1999. the free encyclopedia For the Colombian politician. Aalborg University Press. in contemporary usage. or. Hal Foster (ed).
Thus. Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody. a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light. including literature. the apparent Greek roots of the word are para. 5). for example. counter. In ancient Greek literature. Indeed. music (although "parody" in music has a rather wider meaning than for other art forms).always at the expense of the parodied text. 10). by slightly altering the wording in well-known poems he transformed the sublime into the ridiculous. as in an ode). ii.(which can mean beside. the most satisfying element of a good parody is seeing others mistake it for the genuine article. Parodies are sometimes colloquially referred to as spoofs or lampoons. defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice. satirical or mock-heroic subjects" (Denith. and cinema. or against) and ody (song. The Oxford English Dictionary. Parody may be found in art or culture." Often. an imitation that is set against the original.1 Historic examples 12 References Origins According to Aristotle (Poetics. Contents [hide] 1 Origins 2 Music 3 English term 4 Modernist and post-modernist parody 5 Reputation 6 Film parodies 7 Self-parody 8 Copyright issues 9 Social and political uses 10 See also 11 Examples o 11." Another critic. Simon Dentith (2000: 9). the original Greek word parodia has sometimes been taken to mean counter-song. defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect" (quoted in .
g.also has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside. some simply recycles musical ideas. and Alonso Mudarra all did to Josquin des Prez motets. and T. Major modernist examples of this recontextualizing parody include James Joyce's Ulysses. Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. parody means a reworking of one kind of composition into another (e. Music Main article: Parody music In classical music. a parody mass (missa parodia) or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets orcantatas. who also appended an explanation. and parody can also occur when characters or settings belonging to one work are used in a humorous or ironic way in another. it means to make fun of or re-create what you doing. a parodie! to make it absurder than it was. is common. as artists have sought to connect with the past while registering differences brought by modernity. in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie. In French Neoclassical literature. "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule" (Hutcheon. Palestrina. even satirical intent. Lassus. such as the transformation of minor characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern from Shakespeare's drama Hamlet into the principal characters in a comedic . Blank parody. the musical use of the word parody is wider than its general use .and while much musical parody does have humorous. In fact. parody can occur when whole elements of one work are lifted out of their context and reused. Eliot's The Waste Land. Because par." The next notable citation comes from John Dryden in 1693. which incorporates elements of Homer's Odyssey in a twentieth-century Irish context. in which an artist takes the skeletal form of an art work and places it in a new context without ridiculing it. Hutcheon argues that this sense of parody has again become prevalent in the twentieth century. including Dante's The Inferno. and other notable composers of the 16th century used this technique. 32).. 32). which incorporates and recontextualizes elements of a vast range of prior texts. not necessarily to be ridiculed. Modernist and post-modernist parody In the broader sense of Greek parodia. English term The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson. Pastiche is a closely related genre. parody was also a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another for humorous effect.Hutcheon. Bach also used existing cantatas for his Christmas Oratorio. suggesting that the word was in common use. S. Victoria. a motet into a keyboard work as Girolamo Cavazzoni. Antonio de Cabezón.) More commonly.
as a personal rule. Others were spoofs of Broadway plays. Yes. parodied as Yes. which followed the first-ever Hollywood parody of the Nazis. Don Quixote. Some were send-ups of popular films. Another notable case is the novel Shamela by Henry Fielding (1742). are much better known than the (largely forgotten) originals. writing and acting in a number of them. a Stan Laurel film that made fun of Rudolph Valentino's movie Blood and Sand. the audience laughed. Jekyl and Mr. Reputation Sometimes the reputation of a parody outlasts the reputation of what is being parodied. His career of parodying other musical acts and their songs has outlasted many of the artists or bands he has parodied. who decided to use 29 seconds of the music from the song When Sonny Gets Blue to parody Johnny Mathis' singing style even after being refused permission. . underwent a parody stage. which was a parody of the gloomy epistolary novel Pamela. This combination of established and identifiable characters in a new setting is not the same as the post-modernist habit of using historical characters in fiction out of context to provide a metaphoric element. and when these expectations were inverted. and an assortment of cowboys all assemble in an inn in Dublin: the mixture of mythic characters. is much better known than the novel that inspired it. following Bakhtin. he does seek permission to parody a person's song before recording it. Father William". Pyckle and Mr. for example. such as No. characters from genre fiction. which mocks the traditional knight errant tales. Finn MacCool. Hyde (1920)--parodied in the comic Dr. see parody as a natural development in the life cycle of any genre. Such theorists note that Western movies. Fisher v. mad King Sweeney. Nanette (1925). One of the best-known examples is that of "Weird Al" Yankovic. in which those same conventions were ridiculed and critiqued. Because audiences had seen these classic Westerns. Stella Gibbons's comic novel Cold Comfort Farm has eclipsed the pastoral novels of Mary Webbwhich largely inspired it. Some artists carve out careers by making parodies. Many of Lewis Carroll's parodies of Victorian didactic verse for children. Perhaps the earliest parody was the 1922 Mud and Sand. No. In the US legal system the point that in most cases a parody of a work constitutes fair use was upheld in the case of Rick Dees. In Flann O'Brien's novel At Swim-Two-Birds. For example. for example. such as "You Are Old. they had expectations for any new Westerns. and a quotidian setting combine for a humor that is not directed at any of the characters or their authors. such as Dr. a pookah. In more recent times. Nanette (1925). In 1940 Charlie Chaplin created a satirical comedy about Adolf Hitler: The Great Dictator. this idea has proven especially fruitful for genre film theorists. 1986) Film parodies Some genre theorists. or Virtue Rewarded (1740) by Samuel Richardson. the Three Stooges' short subject You Nazty Spy! . the television sitcom 'Allo 'Allo! is perhaps better known than the drama Secret Army of which it is a parody (although a full appreciation of the humour largely depends on a knowledge of the earlier work). Amadis de Gaula (although Amadis is mentioned in the book). after the classic stage defined the conventions of the genre. Although he is not required under law to get permission to parody.2d 432 (9th Cir. An appeals court upheld the trial court's decision that this type of parody represents fair use.perspective on the same events in the play (and film) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Dees 794 F. Pride (1926). however. Laurel specialized in parodies in the mid-20s.
Duck Dodgers (Buck Rogers). and Disaster Movie. 11th Circuit. Epic Movie. Copyright issues Although a parody can be considered a derivative work under United States Copyright Law. Acuff-Rose Music. or an artist or genre repeats elements of earlier works to the point that originality is lost. e. at least in part. After The Producers (1968) Brooks became one of the most famous film parodists and did spoofs on any kind of movie genre. The famous British comedy group Monty Python is also famous for its parodies. which told the same story from the point of view of Scarlett O'Hara's slaves. which is codified in 17 USC § 107. Their most popular movies are the Hot Shots! and the Naked Gunmovies. Seth MacFarlane. and Spaceballs (1987) is still presumed to be the best science fiction spoof ever. Blazing Saddles (1974) is one of his most popular parodies. I don't think he would. Jim Abrahams and Jerry Zucker. . Furthermore Daffy Duck has a talent for film parody[clarification needed]-appearing as Stupor Duck (Superman). comments on that author's works. and. the King Arthur spoof Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1974) or the Jesus satire Life of Brian(1979)." That commentary function provides some justification for use of the older work. The Supreme Court of the United States stated that parody "is the use of some elements of a prior author's composition to create a new one that. spent the entirety of the episode asking questions to other actors which always received a negative response.About 20 years later Mel Brooks started his career with a Hitler parody as well. One famous film parody is the Scary Movie franchise. Robin Hood Daffy (Errol Flynn's classic The Adventures of Robin Hood).Date Movie. See Campbell v. such as: Q) Seth: If Jesus were ever to come back. Another notable example of this is episode 100 of "Family Guy" in which the writer and producer. Other notable genre parodies include Not Another Teen Movie. upheld the right of Alice Randall to publish a parody of Gone with the Wind called The Wind Done Gone. Inc. in Suntrust v. In the 1980s there came another team of parodists including David Zucker. I don't know who that is. Nowadays parodies have taken on whole movie genres at once. the United States Court of Appeals. and Sam in Carrotblanca. do you think he would watch Family Guy? A) Man: No. Q) David: Do you think Peter Griffin is a hero? A) Woman: To be honest. who were glad to be rid of her. Houghton Mifflin. it can be protected from claims by the copyright owner of the original work under the fair use doctrine.g. In 2001. Meet the Spartans. Self-parody Main article: Self-parody A subset of parody is self-parody in which artists parody their own work (as in Ricky Gervais's Extras) or notable distinctions of their work (such as Antonio Banderas's Puss in Bootsin Shrek 2).
to satirize political and social trends and events. the judge in the case. Alan Donaldson. In Canwest v. which satirizes English neglect of Ireland by parodying emotionally disengaged political tracts." through which marginalized or oppressed groups "selectively appropriate. The Daily Show and The Colbert Report. Parody is a frequent ingredient in satire and is often used to make social and political points. there is no explicit protection for parody and satire. aspects of more empowered cultures. and critics such as Christopher Hitchens. respectively. Editorial Manager of the news parody publication The Onion. Examples include Swift's A Modest Proposal.S. told Wikinews in an interview the questions that are raised when addressing difficult topics: “ I know the September 11 issue was an obviously very large challenge to approach.  . A chorus of disreputable men support a lone anti-suffrage woman. Do we even put out an issue? What is funny at this time in American history? Where are the jokes? Do people want jokes right now? Is the nation ready to laugh again? Who knows. such as a national tragedy. ” Parody is by no means necessarily satirical. ruled that parody is not a defense to a copyright claim. Chet Clem. Some events. There will always be some level of division in the back room. while not being a heedless sarcastic attack. Sociolinguist Mary Louise Pratt identifies parody as one of the "arts of the contact zone. and may sometimes be done with respect and appreciation of the subject involved. It’s also what keeps us on our toes. Caption "I did not raise my girl to be a voter" parodies the anti-World War I song "I Didn't Raise My Boy To Be A Soldier". A 9/11 update of George Orwell's novella Animal Farm—Snowball's Chance by U. 1915. the publisher of Vancouver Sun launched a lawsuit against a group which had published a pro-Palestinian parody of the paper." or imitate and take over. October 9. in contemporary culture. Social and political uses Satirical political cartoon that appeared in Puck magazine. Horizon. can be difficult to handle. and. author John Reed—raised the ire of the George Orwell estate. which parody a news broadcast and a talk show. Parody has also been used to facilitate dialogue between cultures or subcultures.Under Canadian law. although there is protection for Fair Dealing.
In the social context of his era. by John Dryden A Tale of a Tub by Jonathan Swift The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope Namby Pamby by Henry Carey Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift The Dunciad by Alexander Pope Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus by John Gay. John Arbuthnot.parody of incompetent contemporaries of Mozart. Kat Kongby Dav Pilkey The History of Rasselas. an anonymous 17th century ballad Hudibras by Samuel Butler "MacFlecknoe". et al. by Geoffrey Chaucer Don Quixote by Miguel Cervantes Beware the Cat by William Baldwin The Knight of the Burning Pestle by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher Dragon of Wantley. See also Intertextuality Literary technique Stealth parody Parody advertisement Parody music Parody religion Parody science Subvertising Joke Examples Historic examples Sir Thopas in Canterbury Tales.522 (1787) . Alexander Pope. an example can be seen in King Lear where the fool is introduced with his coxcomb to be a parody of the king.Shakespeare often uses a series of parodies to convey his meaning. K. Prince of Abissinia [sic] by Samuel Johnson Mozart's A Musical Joke (Ein musikalischer Spaß). as assumed by some theorists .
been replaced by pastiche: "Pastiche is. Batrachomyomachia (battle between frogs and mice). ISBN 0-252-06938-2. or The aged. New York: Routledge.). Jr. Routledge. (1988). Dentith. Anthony. ISBN 1-55849-183-X.ca/Mediacheck/2008/12/11/CanwestSuit/ Canwest Suit May Test Limits of Free Speech. an Iliad parody by an unknown ancient Greek author Britannia Sitting On An Egg a machine-printed illustrated envelope published by the stationer W. like parody. "An anthology including Arts of the Contact Zone" Rose. Profession (New York: MLA) 91: 33-40. seeing an implicit political critique and historical awareness in such parodic works. References 1. Watching with The Simpsons: Television. ed. Mikhail. & Slam Dunking: A Reader in African American Expressive Culture . According to Jameson. Wikinews. Sartor Resartus by Thomas Carlysle Ways and Means. Parody. Gates. Jameson characterizes postmodern parody as "blank parody" without any political bite. Petrosky. ISBN 84-8442-559-2. ISBN 978-0312454135. New York: Bedford/St. Parody (The New Critical Idiom). (See the Hutcheon module on parody. ^ http://thetyee. in the postmodern age. parodying the machine-printed illustrated envelope (commissioned by Rowland Hill (postal reformer) and designed by the artist William Mulready) used to launch the British postal service reforms of 1840. Ways of Reading (5th ed. November 25. Hutcheon. Trans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Los reflejos en juego (Una teoría de la parodia). Simon (2000). Theory. Ed. and Intertextuality . Bakhtin. Henry Louis. . and Research". Juan Carlos (2002). David Shankbone. ISBN 0-415-18221-2. Dan (2000).) Whereas Hutcheon sees much to value in postmodern literature's stance of parodic self-reflexivity. Martin’s. FREDRIC JAMESON's concept of "pastiche" is usefully contrasted to Linda Hutcheon's understanding of postmodern parody. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. ISBN 0-4153-6202-4. Parody: Ancient. ISBN 0-292-71527-7. Mary Louise Pratt (1991). Much of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass is parodic of Victorian schooling. New York: Methuen. aged man. University of Massachusetts Press. "archived at University of Idaho. ISBN 0-851-70802-1. 2007. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. London: BFI. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petroksky (1999). Valencia (Spain): Tirant lo Blanch. Oxford University Press. 11 December 2008. Gena Dagel (1999). Sanctifyin'. Modern and Post-Modern. Linda (1985). Gray. by Lewis Carroll. Scotland. ISBN 0-521-41860-7. Austin and London: University of Texas Press. 2. Jonathan (2006). Harries. ^ An interview with The Onion. Margaret (1993). Pueo. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (1981). Michael Holquist. Film Parody. "Arts of the Contact Zone" (pdf). Hume of Leith. ISBN 019-503463-5. Signifyin(g). Rhetoric and Composition: History. parody has.R. Caponi. English 506.
2) the way or la mode rétro represents the past for us in hyperstylized ways (the 50s in George Lucas's American Griffitti. which itself remains forever out of reach" ( Postmodernism 25). we lose our connection to history. leaving us with nothing but "a field of stylistic and discursive heterogeneity without a norm" (Postmodernism 17).. and '1930s-ness' or '1950s-ness' by the attributes of fashion" (Postmodernism 19). Wallace Stevens's inveterate hypostasis of nonsubstantive parts of speech ('the intricate evasions of as')". without any of parody's ulterior motives. The "history of aesthetic styles" thus "displaces 'real' history" (Postmodernism 20). postmodern architecture nostalgia film postmodern historical novels . become postmodernist codes" (Postmodernism 17). In such a situation. In such a world of pastiche. the play of random stylistic allusion. We can no longer understand the past except as a repository of genres. which gets turned into a series of styles and superceded genres. conveying 'pastness' by the glossy qualities of the image. it can only 'represent' our ideas and stereotypes about that past (which thereby at once becomes 'pop history')" (Postmodernism 25).. In postmodern pastiche. "inimitable" styles: "the Faulknerian long sentence. 3) the way that (those works Hutcheon characterizes as "historiographic metafiction") represent the past through pop images of the past. But it is a neutral practice of such mimicry. Jameson sees this turn to "blank parody" as a falling off from modernism. idiosyncratic style. Jameson points to a number of examples: 1) the way that "randomly and without principle but with gusto cannibalizes all the architectural styles of the past and combines them in overstimulating ensembles" (Postmodernism 19). Lawrentian nature imagery punctuated by testy colloquialism. Doctorow's Ragtime is a perfect example: "This historical novel can no longer set out to represent the historical past. and codes ready for commodification. of our lived possibility of experiencing history in some active way" (Postmodernism 21).the imitation of a peculiar or unique. or simulacra: "The new spatial logic of the simulacrum can now be expected to have a momentous effect on what used to be historical time" (Postmodernism 18). where individual authors were particularly characterized by their individual. amputated of the satiric impulse. (Postmodernism 16). Jameson gives E. according to Jameson. the Italian 1930s in Roman Polanski's Chinatown). In such works. L. Jameson sees this situation as a "symptom of the waning of our historicity. the wearing of a linguistic mask. Postmodern cultural productions therefore amount to "the cannibalization of all the styles of the past. speech in a dead language. "we are condemned to seek History by way of our own pop images and simulacra of that history. styles. leaving us with nothing but texts" ( Postmodernism 18). etc. for example. devoid of laughter" (Postmodernism 17). by contrast. "the past as 'referent' finds itself gradually bracketed. in such works we approach "the 'past' through stylistic connotation. and in general what Henri Lefebvre has called the increasing primacy of the 'neo'" (Postmodernism 18). "Modernist styles. and then effaced altogether. with its breathless gerundives.
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