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USAID TEACHER EDUCATION PROJECT

Teacher Certi fi cati on and Li censi ng


in Pakistan: A Discussion Paper





















Date: 21 February 2013


The contents of this paper are the sole responsibility of Education Development Center, Inc. and do not
necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.


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"#$%&'()$*&#
numerous sLudles and reporLs have shown LhaL Lhe lnconslsLenL and low quallLy of Leachers ln aklsLan
(and consequenLly learnlng ouLcomes) ls a conLlnulng lssue, parLlcularly ln publlc schools. 1here are a
number of reasons why Lhe lssue has noL been resolved buL perhaps Lhe mosL lmporLanL of Lhese ls Lhe
fallure Lo approach a soluLlon from a sysLemlc perspecLlve. A sysLemlc sLraLegy Lakes lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe
whole conLlnuum of Leacher educaLlon and developmenL. Cne such measure LhaL has been proposed Lo
lncrease and susLaln Lhe quallLy of Leachlng ls Lo cerLlfy and/or llcense Leachers.
1hls paper ouLllnes Lhe conLexL for, elemenLs of, challenges relaLed Lo and lssues Lo be consldered ln
Leacher cerLlflcaLlon and llcenslng wlLhln Lhe global goal of ralslng and susLalnlng Lhe capaclLy of Lhe
Leacher workforce. As each counLry, and ofLen sLaLes or provlnces wlLhln a counLry have Lhelr speclflc
requlremenLs and sLandards for Leachers and Leacher educaLlon programmes, Lhls paper wlll hopefully
promoLe reflecLlon, conslderaLlon and debaLe abouL a poLenLlal Leacher cerLlflcaLlon and llcenslng sysLem ln
aklsLan.
+,-$ *. /0-),0% 10%$*2*)-$*&# -#' 3*)0#.*#45
8efore examlnlng Lhe raLlonale, examples of, beneflLs and challenges of Leacher cerLlflcaLlon and llcenslng,
lL ls helpful Lo dlsLlngulsh beLween Lhe Lwo concepLs.
A )0%$*2*0' $0-),0% ls a Leacher who has earned credenLlals (verlflcaLlon of quallflcaLlon, compeLence, or
auLhorlLy lssued Lo an lndlvldual by a Lhlrd parLy wlLh a relevanL or de facLo auLhorlLy or assumed
compeLence Lo do so) ln a speclflc sub[ecL from an auLhorlLaLlve source, such as Lhe governmenL or an
accredlLed hlgher educaLlon lnsLlLuLlon. Lxamples of cerLlflcaLlons lnclude academlc dlplomas, academlc
degrees or cerLlflcaLes.
1hese cerLlflcaLlons allow Leachers Lo Leach ln schools whlch requlre auLhorlzaLlon ln general, as well as
allowlng educaLors Lo Leach speclflc phases/age-ranges, parLlcular conLenL or sub[ecL areas and across
Lhe currlculum. Whlle many auLhorlzlng enLlLles requlre sLudenL Leachlng (pracLlcum) before earnlng
Leacher cerLlflcaLlon, rouLes Lo a Leachlng cerLlflcaLlon vary from counLry Lo counLry.
/0-),0% )0%$*2*)-$*&# ls Lhe process by whlch prospecLlve Leachers geL llcensed Lo Leach wlLhln a glven area
afLer compleLlng requlred coursework, degrees, LesLs and oLher speclfled crlLerla.
A 6*)0#.0' $0-),0% ls one LhaL has been awarded formal recognlLlon of Lhe ablllLy Lo Leach - an age-range,
Lype of educaLlon programme or provlslon (e.g. wlLhln Speclal needs), or a sub[ecL. 1hls recognlLlon ls
usually ln Lhe form of some klnd of cerLlflcaLlon (and ofLen reglsLraLlon) wlLh a body or organlsaLlon
accredlLed or delegaLed Lo do so by Lhe SLaLe. 1hese Leachers are usually %04*.$0%0' as evldence of havlng
reached Lhese sLandards and acqulred Lhese compeLencles. 1hls llcense may be for a speclflc perlod or,
more ofLen, ls a permanenL one. ln mosL counLrles, lL ls mandaLory for Leacher ln publlc schools Lo possess
such a llcense.
1he followlng Lable summarlzes Lhe ma[or dlsLlncLlons beLween cerLlflcaLlon and llcenslng:
3*)0#.*#4 10%$*2*)-$*&#
Legal framework CfLen volunLary
Cverall governmenL conLrol rofesslonal body or accredlLed lnsLlLuLe regulaLed
Llnked Lo sLandards May be quallflcaLlon or sub[ecL-speclflc
usually noL Llme-llmlLed Can be Llme-llmlLed
Lnforceable Cpen Lo corrupLlon


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7-$*&#-6089-):4%&(#' 2&% /0-),0% 10%$*2*)-$*&# -#' 3*)0#.*#4
1he quallLy of Leachers and Leachlng ln aklsLan has been decllnlng for a number of years. 1he causes for
Lhls have been:
Absence of accuraLe daLa regardlng Lhe number of servlng Leachers, deploymenL and shorLages
lneffecLlve recrulLmenL LhaL ls noL based on accuraLe daLa lndlcaLlng Lhe acLual requlremenLs ln Lerms
of numbers and sub[ecL areas and ls noL merlL-based ln Lerms of selecLlon procedures
oor lnlLlal 1eacher LducaLlon (l1L) where a number of dlfferenL Lralnlng programmes are offered by
varlous provlders, none of whlch ls properly quallLy assured or sLandardlzed
non-sysLemaLlc, unLargeLed and unsupporLed ConLlnulng rofesslonal uevelopmenL (Cu) whlch has
frequenLly resulLed ln Lhe same Leachers aLLendlng Lralnlng courses a number of Llmes whllsL oLhers
recelve no developmenL
A lack of a moLlvaLlonal and developmenLal career paLh, llnked wlLh Lhe facL LhaL Leachers may only
achleve senlorlLy" and promoLlon Lhrough progresslvely Leachlng older age groups
Low quallLy of governmenL colleges (ln Lerms of physlcal envlronmenL, equlpmenL and quallLy of
Leacher educaLors) responslble for provldlng Lralnlng
lrequenL posLlng of Leachers heavlly lnfluenced by corrupLlon and pollLlcal lnLerference.
Cood candldaLes are ofLenLlmes recrulLed lnLo Lhe prlvaLe educaLlon sysLem
Long-sLandlng lssues relaLed Lo deploymenL of and LransporL of women Leachers, parLlcularly ln rural
areas
A general lack of advocacy and undersLandlng of Lhe naLure, purpose and lmpacL of educaLlon reform
over Lhe years
1here are a number of reasons why Lhe lssue of low quallLy Leachlng has noL yeL been resolved. erhaps Lhe
mosL lmporLanL of Lhese ls Lhe fallure Lo approach a soluLlon from a sysLem perspecLlve (a shared and
wldely undersLood pollcy) raLher Lhan aLLempLlng Lo provlde plecemeal remedles LhaL lmpacL on aspecLs of
Leacher educaLlon and developmenL ln a raLher fragmenLed fashlon and Lherefore do noL resulL ln
conslsLenL and susLalnable lmprovemenL.
A sysLemlc sLraLegy Lakes lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe whole conLlnuum of Leacher educaLlon and developmenL:
hlgh quallLy pre-servlce Leacher educaLlon, sLrucLured buL flexlble ConLlnuous rofesslonal uevelopmenL
(Cu), a moLlvaLlonal career paLh whlch llnks Cu Lo promoLlon and, supporLlng all of Lhese, Lhe key
elemenL of Lhe regulaLlon and conLrol of Leacher capaclLy, provlslon, safeguardlng and professlonallsm
Lhrough approprlaLe llcenslng arrangemenLs. 1eacher llcenslng ls deslgned Lo ralse Lhe quallLy of Lhose
enLerlng Lhe Leachlng professlon and Lo malnLaln, manage, and conLlnually updaLe LhaL quallLy LhroughouL
one's worklng llfe.
8esearch from CLCu
1
has lndlcaLed LhaL Lhe Lwo ma[or facLors LhaL ensure hlgh-quallLy learnlng
envlronmenLs and ouLcomes for chlldren and young people are Lhe quallLy of school leadershlp and
susLalned engagemenL wlLh hlgh quallLy Leachlng. 1hese also lllusLraLe Lhe need Lo ensure LhaL Leachers
have Lhe capaclLy Lo enable young people Lo be adequaLely prepared Lo be fully- parLlclpaLlng clLlzens ln Lhe
21
sL
CenLury.

1
1he CuallLy of Lhe 1eachlng Workforce, CLCu ollcy 8rlef, lebruary 2004
reparlng 1eachers and ueveloplng School Leaders for Lhe 21sL CenLury: LLSSCnS l8CM A8Cunu 1PL WC8Lu,
CLCu, 2012

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Many of Lhe processes and feaLures LhaL wlll faclllLaLe Lhe approprlaLe developmenL of Leacher llcenslng
wlLhln an overall framework for 1Lu are elLher ln place and undergolng lnlLlal lmplemenLaLlon or are ln Lhe
early sLages ln some provlnces ln aklsLan. 1here ls also an lndlcaLlon of Lhe commencemenL of Lhe
necessary shlfL from plecemeal pro[ecL-based" reforms Lo Lhe more susLalnable and [olned up sysLem-
based" approach Lo lncreaslng Lhe capaclLy of Leachers and subsequenL quallLy of learnlng ouLcomes for all.
/0-),0% 10%$*2*)-$*&# -#' 3*)0#.*#4 -. - ;0),-#*.< 2&% "<=%&>*#4 $,0 ?(-6*$@ &2 /0-),*#4
Cne measure LhaL has been proposed Lo lncrease and susLaln Lhe quallLy of Leachlng ls Lo cerLlflcaLe and/or
llcense Leachers. 1he mosL common purpose of llcenslng ls Lhe provlslon of proof of Lhe quallLy and
professlonal sLandlng of Lhe person holdlng Lhe llcense. A cerLlflcaLe or llcense can be applled Lo all newly
Lralned Leachers who have obLalned a degree-level quallflcaLlon and can be exLended Lo lnclude servlng
Leachers who can demonsLraLe agreed and requlred compeLences and Lhose parLlclpaLlng ln brldglng
programmes. Such a scheme/reglme can also be used Lo llcense graduaLes who are underLaklng sLrucLured
on-Lhe-[ob" Lralnlng programmes (such as CraduaLe 1ralnlng rogrammes).
1he recenLly lnLroduced naLlonal rofesslonal SLandards for 1eachers (nS1) provldes a framework and
poLenLlal mechanlsm for llcenslng Leachers Lhrough assessmenL based on acqulslLlon of Lhe compeLences of
Lhe SLandards. 1hls assessmenL can be admlnlsLered as:
An lnLegral parL of a sLrucLured professlonal degree programme followed by an
lnducLlon/probaLlonary year ln school, or
SeparaLely by means of brldglng courses for Lhose who graduaLed wlLh a non-professlonal sub[ecL
degree + Lhe probaLlonary year,
Cn-Lhe-[ob LuLor assessmenLs for graduaLes (who may have been ln oLher employmenL) who are
supporLed by a Plgher LducaLlon lnsLlLuLe or accredlLed Lralnlng lnsLlLuLlon ,or
vla upgradlng" Cu programmes for servlng Leachers whlch focus on Lhe acqulslLlon of Lhe
professlonal compeLences and SLandards.
All rouLes would resulL ln whaL ls ofLen Lermed: Cuallfled 1eacher SLaLus" whlch would carry Lhe llcense Lo
Leach ln publlc and prlvaLe secLors. 1hls sLaLus acknowledges aL leasL enLry-level compeLence Lo Leach
based on Lhe followlng componenLs:
A#&B60'40 of pedagoglcal Lheory and sub[ecL(s)
C:*66. ln Lhe pracLlcal meLhodologles of effecLlve Leachlng
D$$%*E($0. demonsLraLlng Lhose psychologlcal LralLs, values and personal behavlours whlch make
Lhe person sulLable Lo work wlLh chlldren/young people.
AL Lhe hearL of llcenslng ls Lhe way ln whlch Lhese are acqulred and assessed.
F06*>0%@ C@.$0<. G D..0..<0#$ &2 /0-),0% 10%$*2*)-$*&#. -#' 3*)0#.0.
ln Lhe counLrles wlLh Lhe besL educaLlonal ouLcomes for sLudenLs, Leachers are well-quallfled and have
good/hlgh soclal sLaLus. 1hls ls usually valldaLed by Lhe possesslon of a degree. 1hls can be ln a sub[ecL
dlsclpllne wlLh Lhe addlLlon of a posL-graduaLe dlploma ln educaLlon, or vla an educaLlon degree from a
programme LhaL has been accredlLed by a Plgher LducaLlon Commlsslon wlLh a good naLlonal sLandlng.
Powever, Lhe Cuallfled 1eachlng SLaLus (C1S) elemenL ls essenLlally separaLe from Lhe acqulslLlon of a
professlonal degree/dlploma because lL ls Lhe SLaLe's recognlLlon/acknowledgemenL of a person's
)&<=0$0#)0 $& $0-), ln lLs school neLwork. 1hls ls usually assessed agalnsL =%&20..*&#-6 .$-#'-%'.H lL ls Lo
Lhls elemenL LhaL Lhe llcense applles. 1herefore, Lhe acqulslLlon of C1S compeLences musL be LransparenL
and evldenced - elLher speclflcally wlLhln a professlonal degree/dlploma programme or Lhrough a dlsLlncL

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assessmenL underLaken afLer successfully obLalnlng Lhe professlonal quallflcaLlons. 1hls opens up dlfferlng
ways of acqulrlng and securlng Lhls recognlLlon.
"##$##%$&' ()*+$##$# , -).%$/*)0#
1he rouLes for Lhe acqulslLlon of C1S and Lhe subsequenL llcense aLLached Lo Lhls could be:
1. rofesslonal degree (conLalnlng C1S assessmenL): 1hls normally feaLures as a 3-year sLandard or
(more frequenLly) 4-year honours educaLlon degree. 1hls wlll conLaln lncremenLal amounLs of
pracLlcal Leachlng. C1S compeLences wlll be relaLed Lo and LransparenL wlLhln Lhe unlLs of Lhe
programme. 1he means of assessmenL (whereby Lhe Leachlng sLudenL demonsLraLes successful
acqulslLlon of Lhe compeLences) wlll be lnLerwoven lnLo Lhe assessmenL framework of Lhe degree
programme or can be assessed ln sLand-alone" formaL alongslde Lhe assessmenL of Lhe conLenL of
Lhe degree/dlploma.
2. Sub[ecL uegree + osL-graduaLe CerLlflcaLlon: 1ralnee Leachers wlll flrsL compleLe an accredlLed
sub[ecL degree (aL normal or honours level) and wlll Lhen be requlred Lo sLudy a posL-graduaLe
course, usually of one year's duraLlon. 1hls conLalns pedagoglcal Lheory and pracLlce and also
focuses on how Lo Leach Lhe respecLlve sub[ecL dlsclpllne - wlLh lncreaslng exposure Lo pracLlcal
Leachlng as Lhe programme progresses.

3. Cn-Lhe-[ob" Lralnlng: rospecLlve Leachers holdlng an accredlLed degree and havlng work
experlence of aL leasL 3 years (alLhough Lhls Llme requlremenL does vary from counLry Lo counLry),
are lnLervlewed and selecLed by a Plgher LducaLlon rovlder (publlc or prlvaLe). ln collaboraLlon
wlLh Lhe LducaLlon ueparLmenL or deslgnaLed AuLhorlLy (ln Lhe case of Slndh, for example, Lhls
would be Slndh 1eacher LducaLlon and uevelopmenL AuLhorlLy - S1LuA or ulrecLoraLe of SLaff
uevelopmenL - uSu ln un[ab), asslgn Lhe candldaLe Lo a speclflc school. 1he Lralnee would Lhen
spend Llme Leachlng a reduced LlmeLable over a perlod of 1-2 years wlLh lnLernal Leacher-menLor
supporL and exLernal college LuLor supporL. uurlng Lhe asslgnmenL, Lhe Lralnee would have some
onllne and face-Lo-face/LuLorlal supporL and wlll be assessed lncremenLally agalnsL Lhe C1S
compeLences. AL Lhe end of Lhe asslgned perlod, Lhe Lralnee Leacher wlll be granLed Lhe llcense
(permanenLly or for a flxed perlod).
noLe - ln Lhe case of 1 and 2 above, candldaLes would noL acqulre C1S and recelve Lhelr llcense Lo Leach
unLll Lhey had compleLed a =%&E-$*&#-%@8*#'()$*&# @0-%" ln school Lo whlch Lhey were appolnLed on
compleLlon of Lhelr sLudles. 1hls year would be supporLed by a Leacher-menLor and flnal assessmenL
agalnsL C1S compeLences underLaken by advlsers or lnspecLors from Lhe ulsLrlcL, or represenLaLlves of Lhe
approprlaLe AuLhorlLy.
?(-6*$@ D..(%-#)0 I?DJK
1he CuallLy Assurance (CA) funcLlons have Lwo dlsLlncL focl:
1. 1he accredlLaLlon of Lhe professlonal degree/dlploma programme - 1hls ls normally Lhe prerogaLlve
of an agency of a Plgher LducaLlon Councll such as nAC1L. 1he accredlLaLlon procedure granLs a
Plgher LducaLlon lnsLlLuLlon (publlc or prlvaLe) Lhe rlghL Lo lssue degrees/dlplomas and Lhe CA
process ensures LhaL Lhe sLandards requlred Lo do Lhls are meL and malnLalned. 1hus, Lhe quallLy of
Leachers and Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe llcense are also assured and malnLalned.
2. 1he accredlLaLlon/verlflcaLlon of Lhe process for acqulrlng C1S - ln mosL counLrles, because
Leachers are elLher clvll servanLs or are requlred Lo demonsLraLe capaclLy agalnsL C1S naLlonally,

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Lhls ls underLaken by a MlnlsLry/ueparLmenL of LducaLlon or lLs represenLaLlve AuLhorlLy, delegaLed
Lo do so. ln Lhe case of Slndh, for example, Lhls wlll be done by S1LuA.
ln some cases, Lhe LesLlng/assessmenL of C1S compeLence and Lhe consequenL lssulng of a llcense are
delegaLed (as ln Lhe uSA where lL ls verlfled and CuallLy Assured aL SLaLe level). Powever, Lhere ls a growlng
Lendency for Lhere Lo be common lnLerchange ablllLy as a resulL of Lhe lncreased moblllLy of Leachers.
1he CA framework also usually lncludes a =%&20..*&#-6 )&'0 &2 )&#'()$ LhaL has been agreed/negoLlaLed
wlLh Lhe Leachlng unlons. 1hls ls of beneflL Lo and proLecLs Lhe Leacher, parenLs, sLudenLs, CovernmenL and
professlonal assoclaLlons and ls elLher parL of Lhe llcenslng procedure or ls a requlred parallel elemenL as
parL of overall C1S. ln some counLrles Lhe malnLenance and quallLy assurance of Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe code
ls Lhe responslblllLy of a councll or speclflc lndependenL auLhorlLy, ln oLhers lL ls wlLhln Lhe purvlew of Lhe
governmenL or an agency of Lhls.
AnoLher lmporLanL parL of Lhe CA elemenL of llcenslng ls a '-$-E-.0 of llcensed Leachers. Cnce a Leacher ls
llcensed Lo pracLlse lL ls normal for Lhem Lo be reglsLered on a daLabase as evldence of Lhls. 1hls daLabase ls
an essenLlal feaLure for regulaLlng and malnLalnlng Lhe quallLy of Lhe Leacher workforce. lL also can provlde
daLa abouL Lhelr numbers, sub[ecL speclallsms, locaLlon and professlonal developmenL. lL can be effecLlvely
used Lo hlghllghL shorLages, recrulLmenL requlremenLs and Lhe geographlcal spread/balance of Lhe
workforce. lL can be servlced and malnLalned Lhrough governmenLal deparLmenLs and agencles, unlons or
by an lndependenL body. 1here are clear advanLages for lLs uses ln sLraLeglc plannlng and Lhe evaluaLlon of
allocaLlons and deploymenLs, and penslon managemenL. 1here are cosL conslderaLlons ln relaLlon Lo daLa
collecLlon, enLry and processlng, handllng querles relaLlng Lo llcenslng and quallflcaLlons, and ln Lhe
updaLlng and malnLenance of Lhe daLa.
LM-<=60. &2 3*)0#.*#4 +&%6'B*'0
lnLernaLlonally, Lhere are a qulLe a number of dlfferenL sysLems and procedures for cerLlfylng and
subsequenL llcenslng Lhose consldered Lo be capable of becomlng new, effecLlve Leachers. 1hese are ofLen
dependenL upon hlsLorlc, culLural, soclal and economlc facLors LhaL have emerged ln Lhe respecLlve
counLrles. Powever, ln Lhe lasL 10 years Lhere has been a drlve Lo ralse and susLaln Lhe quallLy of Leachlng ln
response Lo research wlLh has clearly lndlcaLed Lhe llnk beLween Lhe ouLcomes for learners and Lhe capaclLy
of Leachers ln relaLlon Lo Lhelr academlc knowledge and pedagoglcal experLlse. 1hls has led Lo a sLronger
focus on compeLence-based selecLlon and cerLlflcaLlon. (CLher facLors lnclude: reLenLlon ln servlce, access
Lo approprlaLe professlonal developmenL, approprlaLe career developmenL opporLunlLles and Lhe
speclallzaLlon ln age-speclflc or parLlcular educaLlon needs [e.g. physlcal dlsablllLy, emoLlonal and
behavloural lssues, hearlng and vlsual lmpalrmenL, eLc.).
1he ma[or elemenLs of Lhese rouLes have been summarlzed ln Lhe followlng Lable. 1hese are dlverse and
were selecLed Lo reflecL and lllusLraLe Lhls:
1.23$ 45 67.%83$# *9 '$.+:$) 3;+$&#;&< 9)*% .)*=&> ':$ /*)3>
(1bese telote to ptlmoty/elemeototy ooJ secooJoty teocbets. Mooy cooottles olso bove ptovlsloo fot tbe
llceosloq ooJ teqlsttotloo of pte-scbool, kloJetqotteo ooJ cbllJcote teocbets).
Lxamples shown lllusLraLe Lhe ma[or Lypes of llcenslng rouLes/processes avallable
2
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2
See also: 1eacher LducaLlon AccredlLaLlon A 8evlew of naLlonal and lnLernaLlonal 1rends and racLlces", 1eachlng AusLralla, 2006

7
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7&($08=%&)0.. 2&% 3*)0#.*#4 10%$*2@*#4 9&'@ 1&(#$%@
uegree + onllne or wrlLLen raxls" LesL AccredlLed bodles ln each
SLaLe
unlLed SLaLes of
Amerlca
Assessors - leadlng Lo enLry lnLo lnlLlal 1eacher
reparaLlon programme (l1)
3

MlnlsLry of LducaLlon LLhlopla
Cnllne AppllcaLlon + LxamlnaLlon non-CovernmenL
1eachers' 8eglsLraLlon and
CerLlflcaLlon Agency
8angladesh
Slngle LducaLlon uegree + ulploma (laLe enLry
revlewed/agreed by nAPL)
Plgher LducaLlon lnsLlLuLe
or naLlonal Agency for
Plgher LducaLlon (nAPL).
Sweden
uegree + on-[ob sLrucLured Lralnlng
l1 course/programme
uegree + on [ob Lralnlng
(All above use lnducLlon or probaLlonary perlod +
assessmenL agalnsL Cuallfled 1eacher SLaLus"
naLlonal sLandards)
1ralnlng Agency/uepL. for
LducaLlon
Plgher LducaLlon
lnsLlLuLlon
School CenLred lnlLlal
1eacher 1ralnlng
accredlLed group
Lngland
uegree + l1 Lander Cermany
3 year degree or dlploma programme +
examlnaLlon + 1 year l1 course
Plgher LducaLlon
lnsLlLuLlons
lrance
lnlLlal 1eacher reparaLlon course (l1) MCL vla 27 1ralnlng
lnsLlLuLes
Malaysla
1L21" Model 3-year l1 rogramme dellvered by
naLlonal lnsLlLuLe for LducaLlon or osL CraduaLe
ulploma for Lhose holdlng sub[ecL degree. 8oLh
seLs of graduaLes musL conLracL" for a mlnlmum
of 3 years' servlce ln Lhe school ln whlch Lhey are
deployed.
MlnlsLry of LducaLlon Slngapore
l1 programme + one year lnducLlon supporL Cueen 8anla 1eacher
Academy (seml-
auLonomous governmenL
agency)
!ordan
4 year educaLlon degree programmes

Plgher LducaLlon
lnsLlLuLlons
MonLenegro
LducaLlon uegree or sub[ecL degree + osL
CraduaLe CerLlflcaLe ln LducaLlon, or
2 years' experlence ln classroom + recognlsed
1eacher CuallflcaLlon from speclfled counLrles
Abu uhabl LducaLlon
Councll
Abu uhabl

Analysls suggesLs LhaL mosL of Lhe world's besL performlng school sysLems use a balanced comblnaLlon of
ob[ecLlve lnlLlal screenlng (ofLen Lhrough crlLerla seL ouL ln programme/recrulLmenL adverLlsemenLs - ofLen
Lhrough accredlLed organlsaLlons), requlre hlgh levels of sub[ecL knowledge, Lhe underLaklng of a speclflc

3
lnlLlal 1eacher reparaLlon (l1) replaclng lnlLlal 1eacher LducaLlon" (l1L) ln many counLrles because of Lhe lncreased rouLes Lo
quallflcaLlon and cerLlflcaLlon (nobsoo, A. I. et ol. (2010), lotetootloool Apptoocbes to 1eocbet 5electloo ooJ kectoltmeot, Ocu
Jocotloo wotkloq lopets, No. 47, Ocu lobllsbloq)

8
!
l1 programme and some form of compeLency/sLandards-based assessmenL whlch lncludes
lnducLlon/probaLlonary arrangemenLs as Lhe basls for cerLlflcaLlng and llcenslng Leachers.
1he cenLral Lheme ls one of robusL recognlLlon and rlgorous accredlLaLlon of Lhe adequaLe/Lhorough
preparaLlon of Leachers
4
who can demonsLraLe sound pedagoglcal knowledge and pracLlce, have aL leasL
degree-level knowledge, and have a proven ablllLy Lo faclllLaLe effecLlve learnlng and developmenL. 1hey
musL also be (as far as can be ascerLalned and checked) safe Lo work wlLh chlldren and/or young people.
1he verlflcaLlon of Lhese essenLlal elemenLs ls largely by means of LesLlng or assessmenL agalnsL
compeLences and/or agreed sLandards. 1hls ls done by an accredlLed organlsaLlon or agency of Lhe
governmenL aL reglonal or naLlonal levels. Powever, evldence suggesLs LhaL LesLlng alone, even for Lhe key
areas of llLeracy and numeracy compeLence should noL be Lhe maln crlLerlon for Lhe cerLlflcaLlon and
llcenslng of Leachers
3
. 1hls ls why, (as lllusLraLed ln 1able 1), ln Lhe counLrles where young people
demonsLraLe Lhe hlghesL levels of developmenLal and educaLlon aLLalnmenL, Lralnee Leachers are requlred
Lo have and demonsLraLe a degree-level compeLence, possess Lhe approprlaLe psychologlcal
LralLs/behavlours and Lhe ablllLy Lo comprehend and apply pedagoglcal skllls aL a hlgh level.
90#02*$. &2 /0-),0% 10%$*2*)-$*&# -#' 3*)0#.*#4
1. 1he beneflLs are evldenL Lo all .$-:0,&6'0%. ln Lhe educaLlon sysLem:
SLudenLs can be assured of Lhe quallLy of Lhe Lralnlng, knowledge and aLLrlbuLes of Lhelr
Leachers
arenLs wlll have Lhe confldence LhaL Leachers are professlonal, skllled, knowledgeable and
dedlcaLed Lo Lhe developmenL of Lhelr chlldren
1eachers wlll have Lhe opporLunlLy Lo demonsLraLe Lhelr professlonallsm and Lo feel secure
LhaL Lhey meeL unlversal and LransparenL sLandards and compeLencles
unlons can ensure LhaL members are compeLenL and are worklng Lo Lhe recognlzed code of
conducL
Pead Leachers wlll have an lncreased pool of quallfled Leachers Lo draw upon
LducaLlon ueparLmenLs and 1eacher LducaLlon and uevelopmenL bodles wlll be able Lo
regulaLe and manage membershlp of Lhe professlon and have a much more accuraLe plcLure
of Lhe numbers, deploymenL and sub[ecL skllls of Leachers Lo supporL lmproved sLraLeglc
plannlng

2. lannlng for 1&#$*#(&(. N%&20..*&#-6 F0>06&=<0#$ for servlng Leachers can be more
sysLemaLlcally organlzed and dellvered and can be llnked wlLh sLrucLured )-%00% =%&4%0..*&#

3. uependlng upon Lhe sLrucLure and condlLlons of llcenslng arrangemenLs, Leachers can be asked Lo
updaLe Lhelr llcense wlLhln a glven Llmescale.
?(0.$*&#.O "..(0. -#' 1,-660#40. I*# - .@.$0<*) -==%&-),JK
uesplLe Lhe pleLhora of beneflLs, Lhe lnLroducLlon of llcenslng (and reglsLraLlon) of Leachers as a core
elemenL of Lhe sysLemaLlc lmplemenLaLlon of 1Lu pollcy faces Lhe followlng lssues and challenges:
1$.+:$) >.'.. 1he sysLem for Lhe collecLlon, analysls and sLorage of daLa abouL/for Leachers musL be robusL
and accuraLe. SLMlS are ln place buL ln order for Lhe daLabase of llcensed Leachers Lo be valld and up Lo

4
1he quallLy of Lhe process and framework for Lhe accredlLaLlon of l1/l1L programmes ls also a key elemenL ln susLalned Leacher
capaclLy- see examples ln: Pobson, A. !. et ol. (2010), lnLernaLlonal Approaches Lo 1eacher SelecLlon and 8ecrulLmenL", Ocu
Jocotloo wotkloq lopets, no. 47, CLCu ubllshlng, 1able 1, p. 28
3
Cp. clL. p.20

9
!
daLe, Lhe sysLems currenLly supporLlng Lhese wlll requlre revlew and sLrengLhenlng. 1he daLabase lLself wlll
requlre servlclng and Lechnlcal supporL.

?.';*&.3;@.';*& *9 '$.+:$)#A An effecLlve llcenslng process would lnfluence Lhe conLracLual condlLlons of
Leachers and Lhe procedures for Lhem belng hlred and flred.
B.)$$) 8.':C%*';D.';*&.3 8)*%*';*&A Llcenslng should be Lhe flrsL sLep on a clearly developmenLal and
moLlvaLlonal career paLh. lL should be Lhe passporL" Lo sLrucLured ConLlnuous rofesslonal uevelopmenL
(Cu) LhaL wlll susLaln moLlvaLed Leachers and reward excellenL pracLlce and lnnovaLlon.
"++)$>;'.';*& .&> E=.3;'F "##=).&+$ 9*) 8)*D;>$)# *9 B(GA Slndh has worked wlLh Lhe sLakeholder group of
publlc and prlvaLe provlders of Cu ln order Lo develop and Lrlal a rovlnclal lramework for Cu. 1hls has
drafL sLandards and an agreed accredlLaLlon and reglsLraLlon process. A framework of Lhls klnd ls essenLlal
Lo supporL and susLaln Lhe quallLy of llcensed Leachers. lL wlll also be a vlLal faceL ln addresslng Lhe
challenge descrlbed ln polnL 7.6 below.
H8<).>;&< ':$ +.8.+;'F *9 '$.+:$)I$>=+.'*) #'.99 ;& .&> <*D$)&.&+$ *9 ':$ <*D$)&%$&' +*33$<$#.
CurrenLly, Lhe capaclLy of all caLegorles of sLaff ln governmenL colleges ls generally lnsufflclenL Lo be able Lo
supporL ralslng and susLalnlng Lhe quallLy of Leachers Lo Lhe level of compeLence LhaL wlll be requlred by a
robusL llcenslng framework.
H8<).>;&< *9 #$)D;&< '$.+:$)# '* 2$ .23$ '* .+J=;)$ ':$ E1K 3;+$&#$A 1he pracLlcal way of lnLroduclng
Leacher llcenslng ls Lo phase lLs lmplemenLaLlon, beglnnlng wlLh newly quallfled Leachers demonsLraLlng
acqulslLlon of C1S. WlLh Lhese Leachers formlng Lhe benchmark" for Lhe expecLed quallLy and compeLence
of Lhe Leachlng workforce, Lhe challenge wlll be Lo enable, or compel servlng Leachers Lo also aLLaln Lhls
benchmark. 1hls wlll requlre Lhe deslgn, dellvery and evaluaLlon of a scheduled programme of Cu or
brldglng" programmes LargeLed aL Lhls audlence. AccredlLed Cu provlders can achleve Lhls.
1:$ %.&.<$%$&' .&> )$<=3.';*& *9 '$.+:$) 3;+$&#;&<A ln many counLrles (as menLloned ln secLlon 3
above), a body or agency ls used for Lhe effecLlve managemenL and regulaLlon of Leacher llcenslng. 1hls
agency/body Lakes (and advlses on) pollcy dlrecLlon from Lhe LducaLlon ueparLmenL buL has Lhe capaclLy Lo
develop sLraLeglc measures for Leacher educaLlon and developmenL, and quallLy assurance procedures, and
Lo underLake research lnLo Leachlng meLhodologles and effecLlveness. lL works wlLh oLher sLraLeglc bodles
(for example, Lhose responslble for Currlculum and 1exLbooks) ln order Lo provlde coherenL feedback and
proposals for fuLure developmenL and Lhe lmproved capaclLy of Lhe Leachlng workforce and quallLy of
educaLlon overall. 1he challenge ls Lo sLaff such organlsaLlons wlLh sulLably experlenced and lnnovaLlve sLaff
LhaL can be adequaLely rewarded for Lhe responslblllLles of Lhelr offlce and reLalned Lo bulld and exLend
capaclLy. 1here are lmpllcaLlons here for resolvlng Lhe Lenslons beLween Lhe requlremenLs of Clvll Servlce
condlLlons and Lhe beneflLs of hlrlng from Lhe prlvaLe secLor, especlally where Lhe agency/body ls Lo
operaLe seml-auLonomously (as appears Lo be Lhe besL pracLlce lnLernaLlonally).
1&#)6(.*&#
1he lnLernaLlonal conLexL lndlcaLes LhaL almosL all counLrles have a sysLem for Lhe cerLlflcaLlon and llcenslng
of Leachers. 1he Lwo ma[or forms of Lhls are Lhe provlnclal/sLaLe framework and Lhe naLlonal/governmenLal
framework. 1he Lrend ls also lncreaslngly for Lhere Lo be an agreed basls for assessmenL of equlvalencles
beLween sysLems locally and lnLernaLlonally Lo supporL Lhe moblllLy of Leachers beLween locaLlons.
A robusL and LransparenL process for Lhe llcenslng of Leachers has slgnlflcanL value ln Lerms of regulaLlon
and conLrol of quallLy and provlslon. lL also dellvers confldence for all sLakeholders (young people, parenLs,

10
!
Leachers, unlons and educaLlonal leaders) ln Lhe securlLy and capaclLy of Lhe professlon. lL ls mosL effecLlve
when supporLed by approprlaLe enabllng leglslaLlon and regulaLlons.
noL only does a llcenslng sysLem ensure Lhe quallLy and lnLegrlLy and approprlaLe behavlour of Leachers, lL
also upholds Lhelr sLaLus ln socleLy and Lhe respecL LhaL Lhey are glven, parLlcularly when supporLed by an
agreed code of conducL LhaL ls embedded ln Lhe llcenslng procedure.
Llcenslng ls mosL effecLlve when lL ls an lnLegral parL of a clearly arLlculaLed pollcy for Leacher educaLlon
and developmenL LhaL ls focused on ralslng and susLalnlng Lhe capaclLy of Leachers and Lhe consequenL
quallLy of learnlng ouLcomes. 1he funcLlon of Leacher llcenslng as a Lool for regulaLlng Lhe quallLy of Lhe
workforce has Lhe mosL lmpacL when lL ls under Lhe managemenL of an agency/body deallng wlLh overall
Leacher educaLlon and developmenL. 1he sLrucLure and capaclLy of Lhe agency/body wlll need Lo be
adequaLely resourced and funded ln order Lo supporL Lhls.
Llcenslng can be lmplemenLed as a llfeLlme reglsLraLlon of Lhe recognlLlon of compeLence Lo Leach or can
have condlLlonallLles relaLlng Lo Llme, furLher professlonal developmenL, quallLy assurance reassessmenLs
or geographlcal llmlLaLlons. 1here are lnfrasLrucLural and cosL lmpllcaLlons wlLh regard Lo Lhe esLabllshmenL
and malnLenance of a daLabase of llcensed Leachers. 1he efflclenL collecLlon and accuraLe analysls of
Leacher daLa ensure Lhe effecLlveness of Lhe daLabase ls a key conslderaLlon. AccuraLe reglsLraLlon of
llcensed Leachers ls an lmporLanL aspecL ln ensurlng Lhe effecLlve recrulLmenL of Leachers.
When lmplemenLed securely, Leacher llcenslng ls a core elemenL ln ralslng and susLalnlng Lhe quallLy of
Leachlng (and subsequenL learnlng ouLcomes). lL also provldes an effecLlve framework for lncenLlvlslng
LargeLed professlonal developmenL and promoLlon wlLhln a sLrucLured and moLlvaLlonal career paLh. lL ls
lmperaLlve LhaL Lhe processes for Lhe assessmenL and verlflcaLlon of Cuallfled 1eacher SLaLus" [C1S] are
underLaken uslng clear and agreed compeLences and sLandards, and LhaL Lhese are Lhe precursor Lo Lhe
award of a llcense.
1he relaLlve responslblllLles and quallLy assurance processes of Lhose concerned wlLh Lhe accredlLaLlon,
dellvery, assessmenL of professlonal educaLlon degrees/dlplomas and Lhe relaLlonshlp of Lhese Lo awardlng
of C1S need Lo be clearly and unequlvocally deflned and lmplemenLed.
70)&<<0#'-$*&#.
1. A lederal-level worklng parLy comprlslng represenLaLlves from all sLakeholder groups ls esLabllshed Lo
examlne, evaluaLe and reporL on Lhose lnlLlaLlves currenL belng underLaken Lo lnLroduce Leacher
cerLlflcaLlon and llcenslng wlLhln aklsLan. 8ecommendaLlons should be made regardlng Lhe general
lnLroducLlon of Leacher llcenslng and Lhe leglslaLlon requlred Lo enable and supporL Lhls.
2. A revlew ls underLaken of rovlnclal 1eacher LducaLlon and uevelopmenL ollcles wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlve of
ascerLalnlng and clarlfylng Lhe role and lmpacL of Leacher cerLlflcaLlon and llcenclng wlLhln Lhese.
3. Champlons" are ldenLlfled from wlLhln Lhose rovlnces who are currenLly lnLroduclng Leacher llcenslng
and are broughL LogeLher as an advlsory group ln order Lo lllusLraLe besL pracLlce, supporL Lhe worklng parLy
and advlse on plans for fuLure developmenL.
4. Convene a conference for PLC, nAC1L, PLl rovlders, unlons and rovlnclal LducaLlon ueparLmenLs
(lncludlng any relevanL bodles such as S1LuA and uSu) Lo revlew and make recommendaLlons concernlng
Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween professlonal educaLlonal quallflcaLlons, rouLes for Lhe acqulslLlon of C1S and
Leacher llcenslng. 1hese should also address and reporL on Lhe respecLlve CA requlremenLs and
responslblllLles of each of Lhe parLners ln maklng Lhese unlversally effecLlve.


11
!
/,0 +-@ P&%B-%' Q A0@ ?(0.$*&#.K
1. ls Lhere pollcy supporL for Lhe lnLroducLlon of such a sysLem/process?
2. Whlch bodles/agencles/lnsLlLuLlons should be responslble for managlng Lhe sysLem?
3. WhaL ls Lhe capaclLy of such bodles (see 3.3) aL presenL Lo underLake Lhese Lasks/Lhls role and whaL
mlghL be needed Lo sLrengLhen Lhls?
4. Can you envlsage Lhe scope and posslble use of llmlLed llcenslng" for Leachers?
3. Who would be besL placed Lo Lake forward Lhe conslderaLlons/proposals and enLer lnLo dlalogue
wlLh sLakeholders regardlng Lhese? WhaL supporL would Lhey need Lo do Lhls?
6. Would a comblnaLlon of governmenLal and accredlLed prlvaLe provlders be an accepLable way of
dellverlng l1, cerLlflcaLlon and llcenslng?
7. Clven Lhe relaLlvely dlfferenL developmenL levels beLween A!k and Slndh, how can Lhe parLnershlp
be effecLlvely managed Lo help boLh rovlnces Lo make sulLable progress Lowards agreed goals?
8. WhaL would you percelve as Lhe nexL sLeps/prlorlLles LhaL you would llke Lo address as an ouLcome
from Lhese dlscusslons?
9. Wlll Lhere be llnkages Lo professlonal developmenL?



















12
!
7020%0#)0.
Schlelcher, A. (2012), Ld., ltepotloq 1eocbets ooJ ueveloploq 5cbool leoJets fot tbe 21st ceototy. lessoos
ftom otoooJ tbe wotlJ, CLCu ubllshlng
urew P. ClLomer (2007), 1eocbet Ooollty lo o cbooqloq lollcy looJscope - lmptovemeots lo tbe 1eocbet
lool", LducaLlonal 1esLlng Servlce
lngvarson, L, LllloL A, kllenhnez, L & Mckenlzle, (2006), 1eocbet Jocotloo AccteJltotloo - A kevlew of
Notloool ooJ lotetootloool 1teoJs and racLlces", 1eachlng AusLralla
Pobson, A. !. et ol. (2010), lnLernaLlonal Approaches Lo 1eacher SelecLlon and 8ecrulLmenL", Ocu
Jocotloo wotkloq lopets, no. 47, CLCu ubllshlng
8oyd, , Parrls, k & Murray, ! (2007), 8ecomloq o 1eocbet Jocotot LscalaLe, unlverslLy of 8rlsLol
Alexander, C (2004), uoes 1eocbet cettlflcotloo Mottet? 1eocbet cettlflcotloo ooJ MlJJle 5cbool
Motbemotlcs Acblevemeot lo 1exos", ueparLmenL of LducaLlonal AdmlnlsLraLlon, unlverslLy of
1exas aL AusLln
8ayanl ursollno Almacen (2010), 1eocbet Jocotloo ltoqtomme. 1be Moloysloo letspectlve", aper
norley, A (Aprll, 2011) O15 -llceoseJ teocbet cootext ooJ lssoes (v1.2)", concepL paper, SL8 l, World
8ank.
!amalca 1eachlng Councll (!anuary 2010), AJvoocloq tbe 1eocbloq ltofessloo", resenLaLlon
WebslLes:
SmlLhsonlan.com: wby ote llolooJs 5cbools 5o 5occessfol" (SepLember 2011)
unlverslLy of Pelslnkl: 5object 1eocbet Jocotloo ltoqtomme - 51l", (2011)
MlnlsLry of LducaLlon, Slngapore: 1eocbloq os o coteet - coteet lofotmotloo
1he Local [Sweden's news ln Lngllsh]: Covetomeot ltoposes New 1eocbet cettlflcotloo" (!anuary 2013)
AusLralla1eachers.com: 1eocbloq Iobs lo Aosttollo -cettlflcotloo ColJe"
unlverslLy of kenLucky, College of LducaLlon: 50 5totes cettlflcotloo kepoltemeots"

AddlLlonal slLes (conLalnlng relevanL lnformaLlon) hosLed by:
non-CovernmenL 1eachers' 8eglsLraLlon and CerLlflcaLlon AuLhorlLy (n18CA), 8angladesh
LLhloplan MlnlsLry of LducaLlon
naLlonal MlnlsLry of LducaLlon, ?ouLh & SporL, lrance
Luropean-agency.org/counLry-lnformaLlon/germany/naLlonal-overvlew/Leacher-Lralnlng-baslc-and-
speclallsL-Leacher-Lralnlng
1ralnlng
ueparLmenL for LducaLlon - 1ralnlng Agency (Lngland & Wales)
LducaLlon.sLaLeunlverslLy.com/pages/1466/Sweden-1LACPlnC-8ClLSSlCn.hLml#lxzz2AndnlZCC
Slngapore: moe.gov.sg/careers/Leach/career-lnfo/Lralnlng/