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An Effective Privacy Protection Scheme for Cloud Computing

ABSTRACT The rapid development of cloud computing, more cloud services are into our daily life, and thus security protection of cloud services, especially data privacy protection, becomes more important. o!ever to perform privacy protection causes huge overhead. Thus it is a critical issue to perform the most suitable protection to decline performance consumption !hile provide privacy protection. "n this paper, the Effective Privacy Protection Scheme #EPPS$ is proposed to provide the appropriate privacy protection !hich is satisfying the user demand privacy re%uirement and maintaining system performance simultaneously. At first, !e analy&e the privacy level users re%uire and %uantify security degree and performance of encryption algorithms. Then, an appropriate security composition is derived by the results of analysis and %uantified data. 'inally, the simulation results sho! that the EPPS not only fulfills the user( demand privacy but also maintains the cloud system performance in different cloud environments. The e)ecution result of EPPS outperforms other security schemes by *+, to +-,. .B/ECT"0E To provide data security and maintain cloud system performance, an Effective Privacy Protection Scheme #EPPS$ is proposed to resolve the security problem. According to user(demand privacy re%uirement and the result of analy&ed related information, the EPPS selects an appropriate security composition and provides a privacy protection and reduces the e)tra performance overhead.

"1TR.23CT".1 Cloud computing is an emerging computing style !hich provides dynamic services, scalable and pay(per(use. The different bet!een cloud computing and other computing models are service(driven, sharing resource, and data hosting in outsourcing storage 456. Sharing resource ma7es the hard!are performance be used more efficient and provides economic benefits for users to reduce the capital cost and additional e)penditure 486. 2ata hosting in outsourcing storage lets cloud environment rapidly deliver service to users, and do not spend the

!aiting time of data transmission re%uired by the services. According to the advantages of cloud computing, !e can en9oy more convenient services in our daily life. o!ever, ne! security issues are raised at the same time due to the fic7le system environment. 2ifferent !ith other computing models, there are no e)plicit users boundaries or perimeters in cloud computing. The infrastructure is shared to multi(tenants, and users: data are stored and processed in the sharing resource. Since the infrastructure of the sharing resource stored and processed users: data that do not o!ned by them, users: data may be revealed or breached by other malicious user in the cloud. 'or this reason, the re%uirement of data privacy protection in cloud environment becomes more prominent than in other computing models. 1evertheless, some e)isted data protection mechanisms are invalid because the e)act data location in the cloud is uncertain, data may migrate to different servers according to performance or scalability needs. Therefore, providing the solution of data protection is an important issue in the cloud. A feasible solution for data protection is data encryption. Encryption algorithm offers the benefit of minimum reliance on cloud provider 4*6. Thus, users: data can migrate from one provider to another provider !ithout limiting to the specific provider. 'urthermore, encryption algorithm protects data no matter !here is its physical location. 3nfortunately, !hen performing the encryption algorithm, it often consumes a lot of system resources, such as CP3 utili&ation, and stronger algorithm that generates more significant impact to the system performance. The tradeoff bet!een security and system performance become an important issue !hen applying an encryption algorithm in cloud environment. "n order to provide the data security and maintain cloud system performance, Effective Privacy Protection Scheme #EPPS$ in the paper is proposed to resolve the problem. According to user(demand privacy re%uirement and the result of analy&ed related information, the EPPS selects an appropriate security composition that provides enough privacy protection and reduces the e)tra performance overhead at the same time.

S;STE< A1A=;S"S> E)isting System ?ith the rapid development of cloud computing, more cloud services are into our daily life, and thus security protection of cloud services, especially data privacy protection, becomes more important. o!ever to perform privacy protection causes huge overhead. Thus it is a critical issue to perform the most suitable protection to decline performance consumption !hile provide privacy protection Some e)isted data protection mechanisms are invalid because the e)act data location in the cloud is uncertain, data may migrate to different servers according to performance or scalability needs. Therefore, providing the solution of data protection is an important issue in the cloud. 2isadvantage> o!ever, ne! security issues are raised at the same time due to the fic7le system environment. 2ifferent !ith other computing models, there are no e)plicit users boundaries or perimeters in cloud computing. The infrastructure is shared to multi(tenants, and users: data are stored and processed in the sharing resource. Since the infrastructure of the sharing resource stored and processed users: data that do not o!ned by them, users: data may be revealed or breached by other malicious user in the cloud. 'or this reason, the re%uirement of data privacy protection in cloud environment becomes more prominent than in other computing models. 1evertheless, some e)isted data protection mechanisms are invalid because the e)act data location in the cloud is uncertain, data may migrate to different servers according to performance or scalability needs. Therefore, providing the solution of data protection is an important issue in the cloud.

Proposed System "n order to provide the data security and maintain cloud system performance, Effective Privacy Protection Scheme (EPPS) in the paper is proposed to resolve the problem. According to user(demand privacy re%uirement and the result of analy&ed related information, the EPPS selects an appropriate security composition that provides enough privacy protection and reduces the e)tra performance overhead at the same time. The applications running on a cloud infrastructure provide service to consumer, and it is accessible from various clients through a thin client interface such as a !eb bro!ser. Some e)amples are @oogle Apps #mail, docs, and etc.$ and Sales force. Method: Effective Privacy Protection Scheme (EPPS)

5$ Sharing resource ma7es the hard!are performance be used more efficient and provides economic benefits for users to reduce the capital cost and additional e)penditure 486. 2ata hosting in outsourcing storage lets cloud environment rapidly deliver service to users, and do not spend the !aiting time of data transmission re%uired by the services. According to the advantages of cloud computing, !e can en9oy more convenient services in our daily life.

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"n order to protect the data security. 'irst name. users !ill !orry about that the sensitive information is easy to disclose. Registration Phase> =ogin form is provided for user. 'ile 3ploading 2etails> To upload files three privacy levels are given to send the files in a secure manner. H Privacy =evel 8 # ybrid$> The re%uirement of this level presents that data include some sensitive information. sub9ect and bro!se the location of the uploaded file and then send it. =ast name. "n this !e have option for member !ho have already registered he can directly give the username and pass!ord provided by the administrator of this site. ?hen they agree for the terms and conditions provided and then submit their details !ill be updated to the database and they !ill be considered as valid member. "f the data uses the !ea7 encryption for protection. 2ate of birth. H Privacy =evel 5 #Speed$> The re%uirement of this level presents that no sensitive information in the data. "n this module they need to give the details to !hich they !ant to upload the file. Alternate E(<ail id. 1evertheless. other for ne! user !ho is !illing to register. To registering the follo!ing details are gathered from the user. @ender. The user can select their re%uired privacy level and can send it to the receiver to !hom they !ant to send. 3sers !ant to use the !ea7 encryption composition to obtain more performance for using cloud services. E(<ail id.5. 3sername. the data contains most important information. 8. users also !ant to the performance of re%uiring cloud services not influence too much. H Privacy =evel * #Security$> "n this privacy level. Architectural 2iagram> . Address. Phone number. users prefer to sacrifice more performance to ensure the confidentiality.

System Architecture CDPS architecture Bloc7 2iagram: Computing Machine 2ata Encrypted 2ata Encryption Data Division Decryption Merge Storage .

the word encryption also implicitly refers to the reverse process.. $ee.g. . !ncryption is also used to protect data in transit. or Tro:an horse. !ncryption. The result of the process is encryptedinformation (in cryptography. to make the encrypted information readable again (i. '() of companies surveyed utili*ed encryption for some of their data in transit.Encryption Algorithm> In cryptography. In many contexts. !ncrypting data in transit also helps to secure it as it is often difficult to physically secure all access to networks. referred to as ciphertext).e. and +. “software for encryption can typically also perform decryption).g. 1luetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines. can protect the confidentiality of messages. In recent years there have been numerous reports of confidential data such as customers2 personal records being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives. $tandards andcryptographic software and hardware to perform encryption are widely available. but successfully using encryption to ensure security may be a challenging problem. verification of a message authentication code (78#) or a digital signature. -%. such as files on computers and storage devices (e. 3igital rights management systems which prevent unauthori*ed use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection) are another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest. traffic analysis. by itself. to make it unencrypted). wireless microphones. e4commerce). !ncrypting such files at rest helps protect them should physical security measures fail. for example data being transferred via networks (e.) utili*ed encryption for some of their data in storage. !ncryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. encryption is the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) using an algorithm (called a cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge. mobile telephones.decryption (e.-(.g. $ometimes an adversary can obtain unencrypted information without directly undoing the encryption. e.g. !ncryption is now commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. T!79!$T. 8 single slip4up in system design or execution can allow successful attacks. There have been numerous reports of data in transit being intercepted in recent years. usually referred to as a key.!ncryption can be used to protect data /at rest/. wireless intercom systems. 0$1 flash drives). the Internet. the #omputer $ecurity Institute reported that in %&&'. but other techni5ues are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of a message6 for example. "or example.

therwise any node between the sender and the encryption agent could potentially tamper it. It was written in (==( by 9hil >immermann and was purchased by $ymantec in %&(& of the earliest public key encryption applications was called 9retty <ood 9rivacy (9<9). on the same device it has been composed) to avoid tampering. 2ata 'lo! 2iagram> Login User Exis ts No Create Account Yes Home Upload iles !n"ox Sent iles Change #ass$ord Logout Lo$ Level Hy"rid Level High Level %eceived iles Details Sent iles Details Sending Do$nload selected &iles . .e..-. 3igital signature and encryption must be applied at message creation time (i.

3secase 2iagram> Login Upload &iles to multiple users $ith privacy levels 'ie$ %eceivecd &iles details in in"ox 'ie$ sent &iles details in in"ox 2atabase 3ser Do$nload %eceived iles Change #ass$ord .

Logou t Class 2iagram> User !n"ox Sent items Hy"rid Lo$ Medium Login Username #ass$ord rom user (o user User in"ox Sender id %eceiver id Su")ect ilename Data User sent item %eceiver id User id Security Su")ect ilename .

Threading and @raphics. and running ?eb(based applications.About . "t enables the developers to focus on !riting the business logic code for their applications. 'ollo!ing are the core features of 2ot1et 'rame!or7 • • • • • Simplified Programming <odel Simplified 2eployment Programming =anguage "ntegration @arbage Collection Consistent Error andling Simplified Programming <odel All operating system services accessed through common ob9ect(oriented programmingmodel #E. The C=R removes many cumbersome concepts. smart client applications. deploying. The . and F<= ?eb services.$ 'ile Access.g. Simplified 2eployment .1ET environment for building. 2ata Access.1ET 'rame!or7 includes the commonlanguage runtime and class libraries.1ET> 2ot1et 'rame!or7 2ot1et 'rame!or7 is a Programmingmodel of the .

'or e)ample.1ET compliant language should map its data types to these standard data types. 9ust delete the files.1et through its "nteger data type Common =anguage Specification #C=S$ 2efines the minimum set of features that all ."nstalling most . This ma7es it possible for the 8 languages to communicate !ith each other by passingCreceiving parameters toCfrom each other. To uninstall. reported via E)ceptions. 1o more @3"2s. etc are re%uired.1ET applications involves copying files to a directory. CTS defines a type "nt*8. or Auic7 =aunch bar and registry access. Adding a shortcut to Start menu. =anguage "nteroperability The C=R allo!s different programming languages to share types. all failures are Common =anguage Runtime #C=R$ o o Common type system for all languages Rich runtime environment • Rich class libraries #. it can be released and reused #collected$ Consistent Error andling Traditional ?in*8 programming incorporates many different error handling mechanisms Status Codes. Each . @et=astError.1ET 'rame!or7$ . Class"2s. 2ot1et 'rame!or7 Components • RES3=TS and Structured E)ceptions. des7top. "n the C=R.The C=R provides a Common Type System #CTS$ CTS is also a set of standards.1ET languages that target the C=R must support ar!age Co""ection The C=R automatically trac7s all references to memory ?hen a bloc7 of memory no longer has any JliveK references to it. an integral data type of *8 bits #I bytes$ !hich is mapped by CG through int and 0B. CTS defines the basic data types that "= understands.

o o • Base class libraries.1ET 'rame!or7 . "t Provides features such as memory management. A2.. thread management. security.1ET o o Rich. etc. ob9ect type safety.1ET and F<= ?indo!s 'orms for rich.1ET Code #such as CG applications$. "t is a part of the . interactive pages Po!erful !eb services DotNet #rame$or% Architecture Common =anguage Runtime The Common =anguage Runtime #C=R$ is a runtime engine that manages . ?in*8 applications ?eb application platform ASP.

including CG.1ET =anguage. enumerations and structures$.<anaged code is a code that targets the C=R. 0isual Basic. Common =anguage Runtime 'rame!or7 Class =ibrary 2otnet frame!or7 contains a huge collection of reusable types#class. Cobol.. A complete ob9et oriented toolbo) is available !it 0isual Studio 2ot1et. etc. . This types are used for common tas7 such as ". Any . <emory and Thread management. CLL. /ava.

CSC. Assemblies can be private or shared. "t contain resource data #strings. and versioning. • To provide a code(e)ecution environment that minimi&es soft!are deployment and versioning conflicts. e)ecuted locally but "nternet(distributed. <ultiple assemblies can contributed to a namespace ASP .1ET Microsoft&NE' #rame$or% The . • To provide a code(e)ecution environment that guarantees safe e)ecution of code.e)e. "t is a logical grouping of one or more modules or files.Assemblies Assemblies are the basic unit of any application. icons. including code created by an un7no!n or semi(trusted third party. 2CC"=. security. or e)ecuted remotely.1ET 'rame!or7 is a ne! computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the "nternet. Smallest unit of reuse.g. Assemblies can be created directly by compiler #e.e)e$.e)e. The . . it is designed to eliminate name collisions. "t can also be stored in @lobal Assembly Cache #@AC$ 1amespaces A namespace is a logical container for types. 0BC.1ET 'rame!or7 is designed to fulfill the follo!ing ob9ectives> • To provide a consistent ob9ect(oriented programming environment !hether ob9ect code is stored and e)ecuted locally.$ and are loaded at runtime based on user locale. etc. An assembly can contribute to multiple namespaces.

the concept of code management is a fundamental principle of the runtime. both of !hich are discussed later in this topic. .1ET 'rame!or7 can integrate !ith any other code. ob9ect(oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command(line or graphical user interface #@3"$ applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.1ET 'rame!or7 can be hosted by unmanaged components that load the common language runtime into their processes and initiate the e)ecution of managed code. ASP. The .• To provide a code(e)ecution environment that eliminates the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments. . The .1ET 'rame!or7 class library. Code that targets the runtime is 7no!n as managed code.1ET. ASP.1ET 'rame!or7 has t!o main components> the common language runtime and the .1ET 'rame!or7.1ET 'rame!or7.ou can thin7 of the runtime as an agent that manages code at e)ecution time. !hile also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness.1ET hosts the runtime to provide a scalable.1ET !or7s directly !ith the runtime to enable ?eb 'orms applications and F<= ?eb services. thereby creating a soft!are environment that can e)ploit both managed and unmanaged features. thread management. but also supports the development of third( party runtime hosts. such as ?eb 'orms and F<= ?eb services. The common language runtime is the foundation of the . is a comprehensive. • To ma7e the developer e)perience consistent across !idely varying types of applications. 'or e)ample. and remoting. the other main component of the .1ET 'rame!or7 not only provides several runtime hosts. "n fact. such as ?indo!s(based applications and ?eb(based applications. • To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the . !hile code that does not target the runtime is 7no!n as unmanaged code. server(side environment for managed code. providing core services such as memory management. The class library. The .

or net!or7. The follo!ing illustration sho!s the relationship of the common language runtime and the class library to your applications and to the overall system. users can trust that an e)ecutable embedded in a ?eb page can play an animation on screen or sing a song. or other sensitive functions. or local computer$. 3sing "nternet E)plorer to host the runtime enables you to embed managed components or ?indo!s 'orms controls in T<= documents. compilation. file system. The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict type( and code(verification infrastructure called the common type system #CTS$. depending on a number of factors that include their origin #such as the "nternet. . !hile strictly enforcing type fidelity and type safety. The runtime enforces code access security. code e)ecution. thread e)ecution. @enerate managed code that conforms to the CTS. The security features of the runtime thus enable legitimate "nternet(deployed soft!are to be e)ceptionally featuring rich. The illustration also sho!s ho! managed code operates !ithin a larger architecture. These features are intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the common language runtime. 'eatures of the Common =anguage Runtime The common language runtime manages memory. even if it is being used in the same active application. The various <icrosoft and third(party language compilers. This means that a managed component might or might not be able to perform file( access operations. ?ith regards to security. such as semi(trusted e)ecution and secure isolated file storage. 'or e)ample. but cannot access their personal data. registry(access operations. and other system services. but !ith significant improvements that only managed code can offer. osting the runtime in this !ay ma7es managed mobile code #similar to <icrosoftM ActiveFM controls$ possible. code safety verification. The CTS ensures that all managed code is self(describing. enterprise net!or7. managed components are a!arded varying degrees of trust. This means that managed code can consume other managed types and instances."nternet E)plorer is an e)ample of an unmanaged application that hosts the runtime #in the form of a <"<E type e)tension$.

managed code is never interpreted.1ET 'rame!or7 types easy to use. "n addition. the runtime can be hosted by high(performance. 'or e)ample.1ET 'rame!or7. server(side applications. providing types from !hich your o!n managed code can derive functionality. and components !ritten in other languages by other developers. Although the common language runtime provides many standard runtime services. The runtime is designed to enhance performance. This not only ma7es the .1ET 'rame!or7 ma7e the features of the . !hile still en9oying the superior performance of the industryOs best enterprise servers that support runtime hosting. releasing them !hen they are no longer being used. 'or e)ample. but also reduces the time associated !ith learning ne! features of the . such as <icrosoftM SA= ServerN and "nternet "nformation Services #""S$. Any compiler vendor !ho chooses to target the runtime can do so. =anguage compilers that target the . ?hile the runtime is designed for the soft!are of the future.1ET 'rame!or7 class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate !ith the common language runtime. 'inally. it also supports soft!are of today and yesterday. A feature called 9ust(in(time #/"T$ compiling enables all managed code to run in the native machine language of the system on !hich it is e)ecuting. the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many common soft!are issues.< components and 2==s. programmers can !rite applications in their development language of choice."n addition. The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. <ean!hile. greatly easing the migration process for e)isting applications. the runtime automatically handles ob9ect layout and manages references to ob9ects.1ET 'rame!or7 available to e)isting code !ritten in that language. memory lea7s and invalid memory references. This infrastructure enables you to use managed code to !rite your business logic. The class library is ob9ecting oriented. This automatic memory management resolves the t!o most common application errors. the class library.1ET 'rame!or7. "nteroperability bet!een managed and unmanaged code enables developers to continue to use necessary C. the memory manager removes the possibilities of fragmented memory and increases memory locality(of(reference to further increase performance. . 1ET 'rame!or7 Class =ibrary The . yet ta7e full advantage of the runtime. third(party components can integrate seamlessly !ith classes in the .

1ET applications. "n addition to these common tas7s. menus. the . 'or e)ample. Client applications include applications such as !ord processors and spreadsheets. 'or e)ample. These are the types of applications that display !indo!s or forms on the des7top. as !ell as custom business applications such as data(entry tools. the . and they li7ely access local resources such as the file system and peripherals such as printers. buttons. including tas7s such as string management. database connectivity.1ET 'rame!or7. and file access. reporting tools. ?indo!s services.'or e)ample. enabling a user to perform a tas7. data collection. . the class library includes types that support a variety of speciali&ed development scenarios. "f you !rite an ASP.1ET 'rame!or7 to develop the follo!ing types of applications and services> • • • • • • Console applications. As you !ould e)pect from an ob9ect(oriented class library.1ET ?eb 'orm application. and other @3" elements. . Scripted or hosted applications. ?indo!s @3" applications #?indo!s 'orms$. F<= ?eb services. ASP. Client applications usually employ !indo!s.1ET 'rame!or7 collection classes implement a set of interfaces that you can use to develop your o!n collection classes. and so on. Client Application 2evelopment Client applications are the closest to a traditional style of application in ?indo!s(based programming. you can use the ?eb 'orms classes. you can use the . the ?indo!s 'orms classes are a comprehensive set of reusable types that vastly simplify ?indo!s @3" development.1ET 'rame!or7 types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tas7s.our collection classes !ill blend seamlessly !ith the classes in the .

1ET 'rame!or7 automatically recreates the forms. and other screen elements !ith the fle)ibility necessary to accommodate shifting business needs.1ET 'rame!or7 provides simple properties to ad9ust visual attributes associated !ith forms. . consistent development environment that drastically simplifies the development of client applications.1ET 'rame!or7 incorporates aspects of these e)isting products into a single. and includes graphical elements. The ?indo!s 'orms classes contained in the .B/ECTS. and in these cases the . many applications that once needed to be installed on a userOs system can no! be safely deployed through the ?eb. "n some cases the underlying operating system does not support changing these attributes directly.our applications can implement the features of a local application !hile being deployed li7e a ?eb page. "n the past. has access to local resources. Because of code access security.1ET 'rame!or7 integrates the developer interface. developers created such applications using CCCLL in con9unction !ith the <icrosoft 'oundation Classes #<'C$ or !ith a rapid application development #RA2$ environment such as <icrosoftM 0isual BasicM. 3nli7e ActiveF controls. This application is much li7e other client applications> it is e)ecuted natively. menus. buttons. The .ou can easily create command !indo!s. toolbars. This means that binary or natively e)ecuting code can access some of the resources on the userOs system #such as @3" elements and limited file access$ !ithout being able to access or compromise other resources. the .Another 7ind of client application is the traditional ActiveF control #no! replaced by the managed ?indo!s 'orms control$ deployed over the "nternet as a ?eb page. "ntroduction ACT"0E F 2ATA .1ET . ?indo!s 'orms controls have semi(trusted access to a userOs computer. This is one of many !ays in !hich the .1ET 'rame!or7 are designed to be used for @3" development. 'or e)ample. . ma7ing coding simpler and more consistent.

At the center of this approach is the 2ataAdapter. 1o!.. data processing has been primarily connection(based.1ET and previous data architectures is that there e)ists an ob9ect (( the 2ataSet (( that is separate and distinct from any data stores. based on operations performed !hile the 2ataSet held the data. there are tables. !hich provides a bridge to retrieve and save data bet!een a 2ataSet and its source data store. the managed provider has detailed and specific information. "t does this by having no O7no!ledgeO of the source of its data.1ET uses some A2. Bey ne! A2.. such as the Connection and Command ob9ects. . and so forth. relational. Then..1ET ob9ects include the 2ataSet. A 2ataAdapter is the ob9ect that connects to the database to fill the 2ataSet. and persist the 2ataSet to and from data stores. it is manipulated through the same set of standard AP"s e)posed through the 2ataSet and its subordinate ob9ects. much li7e in a database. columns.. data access model that directly addresses user re%uirements for developing scalable applications. ob9ects. and hierarchical. The F<=(based 2ataSet ob9ect provides a consistent programming model that !or7s !ith all models of data storage> flat. statelessness. data processing is turning to a message(based approach that revolves around chun7s of information. fill. in an effort to ma7e multi(tiered apps more efficient. "nside a 2ataSet. constraints. the 2ataSet functions as a standalone entity.ou can thin7 of the 2ataSet as an al!ays disconnected recordset that 7no!s nothing about the source or destination of the data it contains. "t accomplishes this by means of re%uests to the appropriate SA= commands made against the data store. and 2ataAdapter. and also introduces ne! ob9ects. ?hile the 2ataSet has no 7no!ledge of the source of its data.=E 2B and SA= Server . Because of that.1ET is an evolution of the A2. it connects bac7 to the database to update the data there. A2. "t !as designed specifically for the !eb !ith scalability.1ET 2ata Providers . The . The role of the managed provider is to connect. relationships. The important distinction bet!een this evolved stage of A2. and by representing the data that it holds as collections and data types. 1o matter !hat the source of the data !ithin the 2ataSet is.ADO. "n the past. 2ataReader.NET Overview A2. vie!s. and F<= in mind.

Commands travel over connections and resultsets are returned in the form of streams !hich can be read by a 2ataReader ob9ect. Connections Connections are used to Otal7 toO databases.1et 'rame!or7 provide four basic ob9ects> the Command.=E 2BCSA= Server .=E 2B underneath$.1ET 2ata Provider. "n these samples !e !ill use the SA= Server .=E 2B .2ata.=E 2B provider #as it uses . !eOll !al7 through each part of the 2ataSet and the .2ata. 'or reading a for!ard(only stream of data records from a SA= Server data source. 2ataReader and 2ataAdapter. F<= data and relational data.le2b and System. These are !ritten to tal7 directly to <icrosoft SA= Server. and some that are ne!. ?hen dealing !ith connections to a database.1ET 2ata Provider #System.=E 2B . 'or pushing data into a 2ataSet.1ET 2ata Provider is used to tal7 to any .. or pushed into a 2ataSet ob9ect. and ho! to program against them.1ET 2ata Provider #System. • 2ataSets. These ob9ects are> • • • Connections.2ata.2ata. 'or storing.1ET 2ata Providers e)plaining !hat they are. The follo!ing sections !ill introduce you to some ob9ects that have evolved. there are t!o different options> SA= Server . 'or issuing SA= commands against a database.S%lClient$ and . • 2ataAdapters..#System. Commands . The . 2ataReaders.le2b$. Commands. and are respresented by provider(specific classes such as SA=Connection.S%lClient$ that are part of the . Connection. "n the remaining sections of this document. 'or connection to and managing transactions against a database. remoting and programming against flat data. and reconciling data against a database.

The @etChanges method of the 2ataSet ob9ect actually creates a second 2atSet that contains only the changes to the data. 'or e)ample. an 3P2ATE statement. from code. This 2ataSet is then used by a 2ataAdapter #or other ob9ects$ to update the original data source. relationships. Then. Recordset ob9ect. or user input can all be placed into 2ataSet ob9ects. A 2ataReader ob9ect is returned after e)ecuting a command against a database. 2ataReaders The 2ataReader ob9ect is some!hat synonymous !ith a read(onlyCfor!ard(only cursor over data. an F<= file. A command can be a stored procedure call. columns. and return values as part of your command synta). 2ataSets and 2ataAdapters 2ataSets The 2ataSet ob9ect is similar to the A2. The e)ample belo! sho!s ho! to issue an "1SERT statement against the 1orth!ind database. 2ata coming from a database. including the ability to produce and consume F<= data and F<= schemas. and constraints.ou can also use input and output parameters. F<= schemas can be used to describe schemas interchanged via . !ith database(li7e structures such as tables. or a statement that returns results. and !ith one other important distinction> the 2ataSet is al!ays disconnected. The 2ataReader AP" supports flat as !ell as hierarchical data. though a 2ataSet can and does behave much li7e a database. you might use the 2ataReader to sho! the results of a search list in a !eb page. The format of the returned 2ataReader ob9ect is different from a recordset. it is important to remember that 2ataSet ob9ects do not interact directly !ith databases. or other source data. This allo!s the developer to !or7 !ith a programming model that is al!ays consistent. The 2ataSet has many F<= characteristics. The 2ataSet ob9ect represents a cache of data.Commands contain the information that is submitted to a database. as changes are made to the 2ataSet they can be trac7ed and verified before updating the source data. o!ever. . and are represented by provider(specific classes such as SA=Command. but more po!erful. regardless of !here the source data resides.

A2.1ET can be used to get data from a stream. for the . or to store data in a cache for updates.1ET !as created !ith n(Tier. Remember. *. 3sing the 'ill method of the 2ataAdapter calls the SE=ECT commandP using the 3pdate method calls the "1SERT.1et 'rame!or7. I. updates.ou can e)plicitly set these commands in order to control the statements used at runtime to resolve changes. this run(time generation re%uires an e)tra round(trip to the server in order to gather re%uired metadata. a CommandBuilder ob9ect can generate these at run(time based upon a select statement... . . 8. 3P2ATE or 2E=ETE command for each changed ro!.le2bConnection ob9ects.. T!o ne! ob9ects.=E2BCSA=$ The 2ataAdapter ob9ect !or7s as a bridge bet!een the 2ataSet and the source data. There is a lot more information about A2. 2ataAdapters #. you can e)ecute a command directly against the database in order to do inserts. update. are provided for these scenarios. 5. A2. or delete it. . 'or ad(hoc scenarios. The 2ataAdapter ob9ect uses commands to update the data source after changes have been made to the 2ataSet. you !ould use the .=E 2B(supported databases.le2bCommand and .1ET is the ne)t evolution of A2. A2. statelessness and F<= in the forefront.1ET in the documentation. including the use of stored procedures. o!ever. and 2E=ETE commands at design time !ill result in better run(time performance.. a 2ataSet !ith a schema can actually be compiled for type safety and statement completion. 3P2ATE.?ebServices. so e)plicitly providing the "1SERT. and deletes. +.le2b2ataAdapter ob9ect and its associated . 'or other . 3sing the provider(specific S%l2ataAdapter #along !ith its associated S%lCommand and S%lConnection$ can increase overall performance !hen !or7ing !ith a <icrosoft SA= Server databases.ou donOt need to first put data into a 2ataSet in order to insert. the 2ataSet and 2ataAdapter. "n fact.

.Q. you can use a 2ataSet to bind to the data. F<= ?eb services technology is rapidly moving application development and deployment into the highly distributed environment of the "nternet. such as traditional client applications. move through the data. This model provides you !ith all the features of the common language runtime and class library !hile gaining the performance and scalability of the host server. unli7e ?eb(based applications. !hich allo!s your custom managed code to control the behavior of the server. ?eb(based applications. F<= ?eb services components have no 3" and are not targeted for bro!sers such as "nternet E)plorer and 1etscape 1avigator. Both ?eb 'orms and F<= ?eb services use ""S and ASP. As a result. or even other F<= ?eb services. F<= ?eb services consist of reusable soft!are components designed to be consumed by other applications. Also. ASP. server( side application components similar to common ?eb sites. 3nmanaged applications host the common language runtime. "nstead.1ET is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the . are distributed.1ET 'rame!or7 to target ?eb(based applications. o!ever. The follo!ing illustration sho!s a basic net!or7 schema !ith managed code running in different server environments. and navigate data relationships ASP. Server(side managed code ASP. an important evolution in ?eb(based technology.1ET as the publishing mechanism for applications.1ET 'rame!or7. o!ever. Servers such as ""S and SA= Server can perform standard operations !hile your application logic e)ecutes through the managed code.1ET is more than 9ust a runtime hostP it is a complete architecture for developing ?eb sites and "nternet(distributed ob9ects using managed code. F<= ?eb services.1et Server Application 2evelopment Server(side applications in the managed !orld are implemented through runtime hosts. and both have a collection of supporting classes in the .

The . your F<= ?eb service !ill run !ith the speed of native machine language using the scalable communication of ""S. they ta7e full advantage of the runtime. unmanaged ASP pages are al!ays scripted and interpreted."f you have used earlier versions of ASP technology. more functional. you can develop ?eb 'orms pages in any language that supports the . The source code can create classes derived from classes in the class library that handle all the underlying communication using S. F<= #an e)tensible data format$. and produce CG or 0isual Basic source code that your application can use to become a client of the F<= ?eb service. the . 'inally. "f you develop and publish your o!n F<= ?eb service.1ET 'rame!or7. and ?S2= # the ?eb Services 2escription =anguage$. ?S2=.1ET 'rame!or7. 3sing those classes enables you to focus on the logic of your service. ASP. the ?eb Services 2escription =anguage tool and the other tools contained in the S2B facilitate your development efforts !ith the . Although you can use the class library to consume F<= ?eb services directly. li7e any other managed application. 'or e)ample. parse its ?S2= description.AP and F<= parsing.1ET 'rame!or7 also provides a collection of classes and tools to aid in development and consumption of F<= ?eb services applications. F<= ?eb services are built on standards such as S.1ET 'rame!or7 is built on these standards to promote interoperability !ith non(<icrosoft solutions.1ET 'rame!or7 provides a set of classes that conform to all the underlying communication standards.1ET . the ?eb Services 2escription =anguage tool included !ith the . your code no longer needs to share the same file !ith your TTP te)t #although it can continue to do so if you prefer$.AP.AP #a remote procedure(call protocol$. The . "n contrast. !ithout concerning yourself !ith the communications infrastructure re%uired by distributed soft!are development. ?eb 'orms pages e)ecute in native machine language because. you !ill immediately notice the improvements that ASP. "n addition. such as S. and F<=. and easier to develop than unmanaged ASP pages because they interact !ith the runtime li7e any managed application.1ET and ?eb 'orms offers. 'or e)ample. Active Server Pages.1ET pages are faster. li7e ?eb 'orms pages in the managed environment.1ET 'rame!or7 S2B can %uery an F<= ?eb service published on the ?eb.

9ust(in(time compilation.<(based development is preserved !hen migrating to ASP. ASP. ASP. • ?orld(Class Tool Support. 0isual Basic ( li7e forms processing model. • <anageability. The . hierarchical configuration system. 'or e)ample.1ET.1ET can ta7e advantage of early binding. 'urther. and caching services right out of the bo).1ET is a programming frame!or7 built on the common language runtime that can be used on a server to build po!erful ?eb applications. the po!er and fle)ibility of that entire platform is available to ?eb application developers. ?. <essaging.1ET offers several important advantages over previous ?eb development models> • Enhanced Performance.1ET is compiled common language runtime code running on the server.@ editing.1ET is also language(independent. and 2ata Access solutions are all seamlessly accessible from the ?eb.ASP. ASP. This amounts to dramatically better performance before you ever !rite a line of code. native optimi&ation. common language runtime interoperability guarantees that your e)isting investment in C. Because configuration information is stored as plain te)t.1ET employs a te)t(based. and automatic deployment are 9ust a fe! of the features this po!erful tool provides. ne! settings may be applied !ithout the .1ET ma7es it easy to perform common tas7s. 3nli7e its interpreted predecessors. Additionally.1ET is based on the common language runtime. the ASP. the common language runtime simplifies development. ASP. drag(and(drop server controls. • Po!er and 'le)ibility.1ET 'rame!or7 class library.1ET page frame!or7 allo!s you to build user interfaces that cleanly separate application logic from presentation code and to handle events in a simple. !ith managed code services such as automatic reference counting and garbage collection. from simple form submission and client authentication to deployment and site configuration. ASP. ASP. The ASP. Because ASP. • Simplicity. so you can choose the language that best applies to your application or partition your application across many languages.1ET frame!or7 is complemented by a rich toolbo) and designer in the 0isual Studio integrated development environment.S"?. !hich simplifies applying settings to your server environment and ?eb applications.

the ASP. This R&ero local administrationR philosophy e)tends to deploying ASP. you can be assured that your applications are secure. so that if one misbehaves #lea7s. ?ith built in ?indo!s authentication and per(application configuration.1ET 'rame!or7 applications as !ell. • Customi&ability and E)tensibility.1ET Platform currently offers built(in support for three languages> CG. !hich helps 7eep your application constantly available to handle re%uests. it is possible to e)tend or replace any subcomponent of the ASP. ASP.1ET runtime. even to deploy or replace running compiled code. ?hat is ASP.1ET runtime !ith your o!n custom( !ritten component. 'urther.1ET delivers a !ell(factored architecture that allo!s developers to Rplug(inR their code at the appropriate level.1ET provides synta) compatibility !ith e)isting pages$.1ET ?eb 'ormsS The ASP. "n fact.1ET has been designed !ith scalability in mind. 1o server restart is re%uired. Language Support The <icrosoft .1ET ?eb 'orms frame!or7 has been specifically designed to address a number of 7ey deficiencies in the previous model. ASP. it provides> • The ability to create and use reusable 3" controls that can encapsulate common functionality and thus reduce the amount of code that a page developer has to !rite. a ne! process can be created in its place. and /Script. An ASP. . "ntended as a logical evolution of ASP #ASP. "n particular.aid of local administration tools. processes are closely monitored and managed by the ASP. 0isual Basic.1ET 'rame!or7 application is deployed to a server simply by copying the necessary files to the server.1ET ?eb 'orms page frame!or7 is a scalable common language runtime programming model that can be used on the server to dynamically generate ?eb pages. • Scalability and Availability. "mplementing custom authentication or state services has never been easier. • Security. deadloc7s$. !ith features specifically tailored to improve performance in clustered and multiprocessor environments.

ASP. An ASP.asp) file is compiled only the first time it is accessedP the compiled type instance is then reused across multiple re%uests$.1ET ?eb 'orms pages are te)t files !ith an .U code bloc7s to program dynamic content.@ design support for pages #e)isting ASP code is opa%ue to tools$. Server controls are declared !ithin an . the ASP.1ET page developers can use ASP.1ET server controls to program ?eb pages. They can be deployed throughout an ""S virtual root directory tree. "ntroduction to ASP. .1ET page can be created simply by ta7ing an e)isting sample demonstrates a simple T<= file and changing its file name e)tension to . The ability for development tools to provide strong ?.1ET supports t!o methods of authoring dynamic pages. The first is the method sho!n in the preceding samples.1ET provides synta) compatibility !ith e)isting ASP pages. 'or e)ample.asp) file using custom tags or intrinsic T<= tags that contain a . This class can then be used to dynamically process incoming re%uests.1ET Server Controls "n addition to #or instead of$ using T. This includes support for T.asp) resources. ?hen a bro!ser client re%uests .asp) file name e)tension. These code bloc7s e)ecute in a top(do!n manner at page render time. . !here the page code is physically declared !ithin the originating .U code render bloc7s that can be intermi)ed !ith T<= content !ithin an . #1ote that the .S"?. Code(Behind ?eb 'orms ASP. • ASP.asp) file.asp) file.• The ability for developers to cleanly structure their page logic in an orderly fashion #not Rspaghetti codeR$.1ET runtime parses and compiles the target file into a . An alternative approach((7no!n as the code(behind method((enables the page code to be more cleanly separated from the T<= content into an entirely separate file.1ET 'rame!or7 class. the follo!ing T<= page that collects a userOs name and category preference and then performs a form postbac7 to the originating page !hen a button is clic7ed> ASP.asp) #no modification of code is re%uired$.

1ET ships !ith I+ built(in server controls. ASP. ASP. ASP. *. ASP. . I.1ET ?eb 'orms provide an easy and po!erful !ay to build dynamic ?eb 3".1ET templates provide an easy !ay to customi&e the loo7 and feel of list server controls.3". +. SA= SER0ER 2ATABASE A database management.1ET validation controls provide an easy !ay to do declarative client or server data validation. ASP. ASP. 5.3". ASP. Any tag that doesnOt e)plicitly map to one of the controls is assigned the type of System. tml@enericControl.1ET ?eb 'orms pages can target any bro!ser client #there are no script library or coo7ie re%uirements$. "<S. ASP. tmlControls namespace. ASP. Q.?eb. E. parado). 'or e)ample. update and e)tract information from their database. 2evelopers can also use controls built by third parties.1ET server controls provide an easy !ay to encapsulate common functionality. This control state is not stored on the server #it is instead stored !ithin an Tinput typeVRhiddenRU form field that is round(tripped bet!een re%uests$.1ET ?eb 'orms pages provide synta) compatibility !ith e)isting ASP pages.runatVRserverR attribute value. Server controls automatically maintain any client(entered values bet!een round trips to the server. W. gives the user access to their data and helps them transform the data into information.1ET enables developers to utili&e richer custom controls on their pages. "n addition to supporting standard T<= input controls. tmlControls. the follo!ing sample demonstrates ho! the Tasp>adrotatorU control can be used to dynamically display rotating ads on a page.1ET server controls can automatically pro9ect both uplevel and do!nlevel T<=.?eb. Such database management systems include dBase. 1ote also that no client(side script is re%uired. or 2B<S. These systems allo! users to create. 8. SA= Server and SA= Server. "ntrinsic T<= tags are handled by one of the controls in the System.

"t stores data in t!o or more tables and enables you to define relationships bet!een the tables and enables you to define relationships bet!een the tables. the fields relating to a particular person. 2ata refers to the characteristics of people. things and events. you define any additional fields or change the definition of e)isting fields.A database is a structured collection of data. The 3ni%ue identifier is called the Primary Bey. "f your business needs change over time. SA= Server ma7es it very easy to lin7 the data in multiple tables. or simply the Bey. thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of data. SA= Server Tables SA= Server stores records relating to each other in a table. This is !hat ma7es SA= Server a relational database management system. Each record is made up of a number of fields. called a record #it can also be referred to as ra! or an occurrence$. "n SA= Server. or R2B<S. 1o t!o fields in a record can have the same field name. 'oreign Bey . the analysis of your business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest. SA= Server stores each data item in its o!n fields. Related tables are grouped together to form a database. locate and refer to one particular record in the database. 2uring an SA= Server 2atabase design pro9ect. <atching an employee to the department in !hich they !or7 is one e)ample. "t allo!s the user and the database system to identify. Primary Bey Every table in SA= Server has a field or a combination of fields that uni%uely identifies each record in the table. The primary 7ey provides the means to distinguish one record from all other in a table. Relational 2atabase Sometimes all the information of interest to a business operation can be stored in one table. 2ifferent tables are created for the various groups of information.

. 0ie! level> This is the highest level of abstraction at !hich one describes only part of the database. Conceptual =evel> At this level of database abstraction all the attributed and !hat data are actually stored is described and entries and relationship among them. Ensuring that the data among related tables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity. it also maintains consistency bet!een them. Advantages of R2B<S • • • • • • • • Redundancy can be avoided "nconsistency can be eliminated 2ata can be Shared Standards can be enforced Security restrictions can be applied "ntegrity can be maintained Conflicting re%uirements can be balanced 2ata independence can be achieved.?hen a field is one table matches the primary 7ey of another field is referred to as a foreign 7ey. This system hides certain details of ho! the data is stored and maintained. Physical level> This is the lo!est level of abstraction at !hich one describes ho! the data are actually stored. A foreign 7ey is a field or a group of fields in one table !hose values match those of the primary 7ey of another table. 2ata abstraction is divided into three levels. 2ata Abstraction A ma9or purpose of a database system is to provide users !ith an abstract vie! of the data. Referential "ntegrity 1ot only does SA= Server allo! you to lin7 multiple tables.

the hard!are has to be upgraded to allo! for the e)tensive programs and the !or7space re%uired for their e)ecution and storage. continuous operation and support for every database. SA= Server leads the industry in both performance and capability SA= SER0ER is a truly portable. SA= SER0ER R2B<S is high performance fault tolerant 2B<S !hich is specially designed for online transactions processing and for handling large database application. . 'rom comple) decision support systems #2SS$ to the most rigorous online transaction processing #. Portability SA= SER0ER is fully portable to more than E. "n addition to the cost of purchasing of developing the soft!are. distributed. <acintosh and do&ens of proprietary platforms. SA= SER0ER !ith transactions processing option offers t!o features !hich contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput.S. even application that re%uire simultaneous 2SS and . the lac7 of duplication re%uires that the database be Enterprise !ide 2ata Sharing The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the SA= SER0ER 2B<S enables all the systems in the organi&ation to be lin7ed into a singular. ade%uately bac7ed up so that in case of failure the data can be recovered. 'EAT3RES .=TP$ application.' SA= SER0ER #R2B<S$ SA= SER0ER is one of the leading database management systems #2B<S$ because it is the only 2atabase that meets the uncompromising re%uirements of today:s most demanding information systems.SC8.2isadvantages of 2B<S A significant disadvantage of the 2B<S system is cost. . !hich are ?hile centrali&ation reduces duplication.distinct hard!are and operating systems platforms. and open 2B<S that delivers unmatched performance. integrated computing resource.=TP access to the same critical data. <S2. including 31"F.

SA= Server commits transactions !ith at most se%uential log file on dis7 at commit time.. . 2istributed 2ata Sharing SA= Server:s net!or7ing and distributed database capabilities to access data stored on remote server !ith the same ease as if the information !as stored on a single local computer. A single SA= statement can access data at multiple sites. ?ith most database Systems application becomes Jcontention boundK X !hich performance is limited not by the CP3 po!er or by dis7 "C. unrestricted ro!(level loc7ing and contention free %ueries to minimi&e and in many cases entirely eliminates contention !ait times.ou can store data !here system re%uirements such as performance. application. SA= Server employs full. but user !aiting on one another for data access .pen Systems SA= SER0ER offers a leading implementation of industry Xstandard SA=. Bottlenec7s SA= Server:s fast commit groups commit and deferred !rite technologies dramatically reduce dis7 "C. 1o "C. and third party soft!are products SA= Server:s . SA= Server:s open architecture integrates SA= SER0ER and non XSA= SER0ER 2B<S !ith industries most comprehensive collection of tools.This portability gives complete freedom to choose the database sever platform that meets the system re%uirements.pen architecture provides transparent access to data from other relational database and even non(relational database. ?hile some database !rite !hole data bloc7 to dis7 at commit time. security or availability dictate.n . Sophisticated Concurrency Control Real ?orld applications demand access to critical data. . bottlenec7s. . 3nmatched Performance The most advanced architecture in the industry allo!s the SA= SER0ER 2B<S to deliver unmatched performance.

'unctional tests refer to e)ecuting the code !ith standard inputs. Performance testing !ill help the tuning of the system. A missing path error occurs. Since fast commits !rite all data necessary to the recovery to the log file. 3nit testing 3nit testing is performed prior to integration of the unit into a larger system. Structure testing is referred to as J?hite bo)K or Jglass bo)K testing. Structure tests verify logical e)ecution along different e)ecution paths. device utili&ation and throughput. !hen !ritten from memory to dis7. Stress tests drive the system to its limits. !hen a branching statement and the associated computations are accidentally omitted. A domain error occurs !hen a program traverses the !rong path because of an . computational errors and domain errors. performance and stress tests are collectively 7no!n as JBlac7 bo) testingK.high throughput systems. response time. 2ata read by the transaction remains as shared memory so that other transactions may access that data !ithout reading it again from dis7. Performance test determines the e)ecution time spent in various parts of the unit. SYS'EM 'ES'(N A JProgram unitK stands for a routine or a collection of routines implemented by an individual programmer. 'unctional. <issing paths can be detected only by functional specifications. "t might even be a stand(alone program or a functional unit a larger program. Program errors can be classified as missing path errors. one se%uential !rites typically group commit multiple transactions. modified bloc7s are !ritten bac7 to the database independently of the transaction commit. They are designed to intentionally brea7 the unit. Stress tests and Structure tests. Even if it loo7s li7e all possible e)ecution paths have been tested. there might still e)ist some more paths. "t is li7e Coding and debugging (U unit testing (U integration testing A program unit must be tested for 'unctional tests. for !hich the results !ill occur !ithin the e)pected boundaries. Performance tests.

2ebugging 2ebugging is eliminating the cause of 7no!n errors. ?hen a test case fails to detect a computational error there is said to be a coincidental error. "mplement appropriate corrections Q. Re run the system and test again until satisfactory 2ebugging by deduction involves the follo!ing steps> 5. 3se the available information to eliminate various hypotheses *. ProveCdisprove hypotheses. =oo7 for patterns *. ProveCdisprove the remaining hypotheses I. 2ebugging by induction involves the follo!ing steps> 5. 'orm one or more hypotheses and ran7 Cclassify them. Carry out the corrections and verify 2ebugging by bac7trac7ing involves !or7ing bac7!ard in the source code from Point !here the error !as observed. =ist possible causes for observed failure 8.incorrect predicate in a branching statement. 0erify the corrections. "ntegration strategy stresses on the order in !hich modules are !ritten. I. Re e)amine +. deduction and bac7trac7ing. Commonly used debugging techni%ues are induction. performance tests and stress tests to verify . Run additional test cases and collect more information. debugged and unit tested. Acceptance test involves functional tests. System Testing System testing involves t!o activities> "ntegration testing and Acceptance testing. 2etermine the appropriate corrections +. Collect all the information about test details and test results 8.

Bottom(up integration consists of unit testing. Top(do!n integration offers the follo!ing advantages. recovery procedures. Errors are locali&ed to the ne! modules and interfaces that are being added. and throughput. control flo!. After a thorough chec7ing the top level becomes a test harness to its immediate subordinate routines. it may not be applicable in certain situations. 2isadvantages of bottom(up testing include that harness preparation. <odules are tested independently in an artificial environment 7no!n as a Jtest harnessK. Top(level routines provide a natural test harness for lo!er(level routines. decision logic. !hich can sometimes ta7e almost +-. Sometimes it may be necessary to test certain critical lo!(level modules first. This 7no!n as JBig bangK approach to integration testing. <odules are integrated as they are developed. System chec7ing chec7s the interfaces. Sand!ich integration is mostly top(do!n. "n such situations. "ntegration testing "ntegration testing strategies include bottom(up #traditional$. I. 3nit testing tries to discover errors in modules. capacity and timing characteristics of the entire system. top(do!n and sand!ich strategies. they are lin7ed and e)ecuted in one single integration and in isolationP they are lin7ed and e)ecuted in one single integration run. Test harnesses provide data environments and calling se%uences for the routines and subsystem that are being tested in isolation. Top(do!n integration starts !ith the main routine and one or t!o immediately ne)t lo!er level fulfillment. System integration is distributed throughout the implementation phase. Though top(do!n integrations seem to offer better advantages. follo!ed by testing entire system. a sand!ich strategy is preferable. . 8. or more of the coding and debugging effort for a smaller product. 5. "solating sources of errors is difficult in Jbig bang Japproach. follo!ed by sub system testing. Top(level interfaces are first test *. After testing all the modules independently and in isolation.

Coding standards are stated in the product re%uirements. The user tests the developed system and changes are made according the needs. Acceptance testing Acceptance testing involves planning and e)ecution of functional tests. A timing analy&er reports the time spent in various regions of the source code under different test cases. 'or e)ample. "n addition to functional and performance tests. System Testing Soft!are testing is an important element of soft!are %uality assurance and represents the ultimate revie! of specification design and coding. This mi)ed approach retains the advantages of both strategies. a complier may be tested for its symbol table overflo!s or a real(time system may be tested for its symbol table overflo!s or a real(time system may be tested to find ho! it responds to multiple interrupts of differentCsame priorities. <anual inspection is usually not an ade%uate mechanism from detecting violations of coding standards. performance tests and stress tests in order to chec7 !hether the system implemented satisfies the re%uirements specifications.but bottom(up techni%ues are used on some modules and sub systems. Acceptance test tools include a test coverage analy&er. The testing phase involves testing of developed system using various 7inds of data. Testing Objectives • • Testing is a process of e)ecuting a program !ith the intent of finding on errors. A good test is on that has a high probability of finding an undiscovered errors. and a coding standards chec7er. Test coverage analy&er records the control paths follo!ed for each test case. Auality assurance people as !ell as customers may simultaneously develop acceptance tests and run them. stress test are performed to determine the limitsClimitations of the system developed. ?hole testing is noted and corrections are made. An elaborated test data is prepared and system using the data. .

Preparation of test data plays a vital role in system testing. Effective Testing Prerequisites 1) Types o Testing Done 1. !ntegration Testing An overall test plan for the pro9ect is prepared before the start of coding. !hich ensures that the system !or7s accurately before live operations commence. The system has been verified and validated by running !ith both. ?hile testing the system by using the above testing and correction methods. i$ Run !ith live data ii$ Run !ith test data Run ?ith Test 2ata . System testing ma7es a logical assumption that the system is correct and that the goals are successfully achieved. "a#i$ation Testing This pro9ect !ill be tested under this testing using sample data and produce the correct sample output. After preparing the test data the system under study is tested using the test data. System testing is the state of implementation. Security Testing This pro9ect contains pass!ord to secure the data Test Data an$ !nput Ta7ing various types of data !e do the above testing.Testing is vital to the success of the system. Recovery Testing This pro9ect !ill be tested under this testing using correct data input and its product and the correct valid output !ithout any errors.

"n the case the system !as run !ith some sample data. Then the ne! reports !ere verified !ith the old one. Screen shots . Specification testing !as also done for each conditions or combinations for conditions. Run ?ith =ive 2ata The system !as tested !ith the data of the old system for a particular period.







According to the analysis result. The improved performances comparing !ith other security schemes are up to +-.. the simulation results sho! that the proposed scheme satisfies user(demand privacy re%uirement and offers the better performance at the same time.. By adopting an accurate security analysis. and at least *+.1C=3S". C2PS is capable of improving performance much. selecting the most suitable composition of encryption algorithm and number of data division to provide more secure protection or reduce performance overhead. !e !ill analy&e more factors. . our scheme can analy&e the related information. C2PS can divide each privacy level into many smaller levels to select more suitable security composition for real user(demand security.C. 'inally. to +-. such as different service types. According to different privacy level.1S ?e propose an Effective Privacy Protection Scheme in cloud environment to secure the confidentiality of users: data !ithout increasing system performance overhead too much. 'uture ?or7> The Effective Privacy Protection Scheme not only fulfills the user(demand privacy but also maintains the cloud system performance in different cloud environments. The e)ecution result of EPPS outperforms other security schemes by *+. ?e can use some other languages and algorithms for increasing the efficiency of the cloud computing . "n the ne)t step.

pd&.ama+on./ 2ct. 1. #ratt/ and A./ Availa"le:http:00a$s. Dragovic/ 5. . Lenstra and Eric Ama+on . Ho/ %.com0.Reference> *.S4Security4. Hand/ (. #. Ar)en 5.hitepa per. 1::.e" Services: 2vervie$ o& Security #rocesses/ Availa"le:http:00a$smedia. 3. 1@@3. *9/ pp.1<3/ *<<< 9. Harris/ A. raser/ S.S. 'erheul/ 6Selecting Cryptographic 5ey Si+es/7 8ournal o& Cryptology/ vol. .com0pd&0A.ama+ona$s. 6?en and the art o& virtuali+ation/7 !n #roceedings o& the Symposium on 2perating Systems #rinciples -S2S#. Ama+on .e" Services -A. =arham/ =. >euge"auer/ !.s3.