You are on page 1of 17

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Finite Element Method (FEM) for Vibration


Outlines:

CHAPTER 7

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) FOR VIBRATION

Introduction

K and M of bar elements

K and M of beam elements

Lumped mass matrices Trusses

Model reduction

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

165

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

166

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Vibration of Flexible Structures

Model of Flexible Structures

Flexible structures can be modeled as bar, beam, plate, shell, and etc. Suspension heads in hard disk drives

Two ways to model:

1.Analytical model

(beyond scope of this class)

Airplane wing structure

use the knowledge of strength of material and dynamics to derive EOM.

EOMs are in form of Partial Differential Equations (PDE).

Use discretization technique to solve PDE.

2.Finite Element Model (FEM)

Flexible robot arm

so called Distributed-Parameter Systems


2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration
167

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

168

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

FEM: Approximation method


nodes
d4
d3

Bar Elements

From solid mechanics, static displacement of the bar is governed by

d1 d2

Element

du EA 2 = 0 dx

u(x,t)

d1 d2 M d
n

E, , L

Step I: divide the bar into elements.

Procedure:

di is nodal degree of freedom

u1(t) u2(t) u3(t)


1
1 2

u4(t)
2
3

3 elements, 4 nodes

Divide (discretize) the structure into a number of small simple elements. The elements are connected to each others by nodes. All node displacement are chosen as DOFs, so called nodal DOF. Displacement function within the element are approximated by a linear combination of low-order polynomials. For vibration application, we construct the matrices K and M w.r.t. all nodal DOF using energy method.
169

u 1 ( t ) , u 2 ( t ) , u 3 ( t ) , and u 4 ( t ) are nodal displacements.

Step II: a displacement function


1

Consider any element, e.g., the 1st element. Assume a displacement function within the element as

u ( x, t ) = c 1 ( t ) x + c 2 ( t )

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

170

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

B.C.s:

Step III: Construct local K and M

x = 0 , u ( x, t ) = u 1 ( t ) x = l , u ( x, t ) = u 2 ( t ) u 2 ( t ) u 1 ( t ) and c 2 ( t ) = u 1 ( t ) Hence c 1 ( t ) = ----------------------------l


Rewrite a displacement function in matrix form:

Strain energy:

Strain energy of the bar element V(t) is

u ( x, t ) d x 1 l V ( t ) = - EA x 2 0
or

x, u ( x, t ) = 1 -l
u(x,t) Shape functions 1 l x 1-x/l u2 l x x/l u1

x u 1 ( t ) = Nu ( t ) -l u2 ( t )

l T T 1 V ( t ) = -- EA [ u B Bu ] dx 2 0

T T 1 V ( t ) = 1 u ( t ) EA 1 1 u ( t ) = -- u ( t ) ku ( t ) ------2 2 l 1 1

where k is a local stiffness matrix dened as

1 1 EA k = -----l 1 1

Differentiate u w.r.t. x:

u ( x, t ) dN 1 = = u ( t ) --, x dx l

u1 ( t ) 1 = Bu ( t ) -l u2 ( t )

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

171

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

172

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Kinetic energy:
Kinetic energy of the bar element T(t) is
2

Step IV: Assembly

Lets consider a three-element bar belows. l

u ( x, t ) d x 1 l T ( t ) = - A( x) t 2 0
where ( x ) is the bar density. Since

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

u4(t)

u ( x, t ) u ( t ) = Nu (t) = N t t Therefore
l T T 1 N Nu ] dx T ( t ) = -- A( x)[u 2 0

1 1 For any one element, k = EA -----l 1 1

1 1 L 3 EA In this case l = -, k = ---------3 L 1 1

or
T 1 T Al 2 1 1 ( t ) mu (t) u u ( t ) ( t ) = T ( t ) = ---u -------2 2 6 12

Strain energy:
1-st element:

where m is a local mass matrix dened as

u1 T V 1 ( t ) = 1 u ku = 3 EA ----------- 2 2 L u2
2-nd element:

1 1 u1 1 1 u2

21 Al m = -------6 12

u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------- 2 L u3
2

1 1 u2 1 1 u3

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

173

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

174

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

3-rd element:

V(t) can be reduced to


T

u3 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------- 2 L u4
3

1 1 u3 1 1 u4

Total strain energy is

u2 3 EA V ( t ) = ---------- u3 2L u4

2 1 0 u2 T 1 1 2 1 u 3 = -- u Ku 2 0 1 1 u4

V = V1 + V2 + V3
or
T

where K is a global stiffness matrix.

u1 u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------2 L u3 u4 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 1
With boundary conditions; u ( 0, t ) = u 1 ( t ) = 0 , then

u1 u2 u3 u4

2 1 0 3 EA K = ---------- 1 2 1 , for the 3-element bar L 0 1 1

0 u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------2 L u3 u4 1 1 0 0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1

0 0 0 u2 1 u3 1 u4

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

175

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

176

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Again, consider the three-element bar: For any one element,

21 Al 2 1 AL m = -------= ---------18 1 2 6 12

u 1 2 AL u T = ---------3 36 u u 4

2 1 0 0

1 4 1 0

0 1 4 1

0 0 1 2

u 1 u 2 u 3 u 4

Kinetic energy:
1-st element:
T

With boundary conditions; u ( 0, t ) = u 1 ( t ) = 0 , then

u T mu = AL 1 T (t) = 1u ----------2 2 36 u
1

1 21 u 2 12 u

2-nd element:

0 2 AL u T = ---------3 36 u u 4

2 1 0 0

1 4 1 0

0 1 4 1

0 0 2 0 u 3 1 u 2 u 4

u T ( t ) = AL 2 ---------3 36 u
2

2 21 u 12 u 3

V(t) can be reduced to

3-rd element:

u T ( t ) = AL 3 ---------4 36 u
3

3 21 u 4 12 u

u 2 AL T = ---------3 - u 36 u 4

2 410 u T 1 Mu 3 = -141 u -u 2 012 u 4

where M is a global mass matrix.

Total kinetic energy is

T (t) = T 1 + T 2 + T 3
or

410 AL M = ---------- 141 18 012

, for the 3-element bar

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

177

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

178

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Notes:

To analyze vibration of the structure, we use the global mass matrix M and global stiffness matrix K to construct the matrix equation

Comparison of Natural Frequencies

( t ) + Ku ( t ) = 0 Mu
Questions:

For L = 1m, = 2700 kg/m3, and E = 7 10 N/m2. n from FEM %difference Exact n

Can we determine K and M , if the element size is not uniform?

1-element model:

n1 = 7,998 rad/s n1 = 8,819 rad/s

10.3%

How accurate is the FEM result?

3-element model:

n1 = 7,998 rad/s n1 = 8,092 rad/s

1.18%

n2= 23,994 rad/s n2 = 26,458 rad/s

10.3%

n3= 39,900 rad/s n3 = 47,997 rad/s

20.3%

Rule of thumb: At least twice as many elements must be used than number of accurate frequencies required.

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

179

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

180

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Beam Elements
From solid mechanics, static displacement of the beam is governed by
2 d w d EI = 0 2 2 dx dx 2

B.C.s:

x = 0 , w ( 0, t ) = w 1 ( t ) and w ( 0, t ) = 1 ( t ) x

w(x,t) x EA, , I, L

x = l , w ( l, t ) = w 2 ( t ) and w ( l, t ) = 2 ( t ) x
Hence

Step I: divide the beam into elements.


w1(t) l w2(t) 1 element, 2 nodes

1 c 1 ( t ) = -- [ 2 ( w1 w2 ) + l ( 1 + 2 ) ] l3

1 c 2 ( t ) = -- [ 3 ( w2 w1 ) l ( 2 1 + 2 ) ] l2 c 3 ( t ) = 1 ( t ) and c 4 ( t ) = w 1 ( t )

1(t)

2(t)

w 1 ( t ) and w 2 ( t ) are nodal linear displacement. 1 ( t ) and 2 ( t ) are nodal angular displacement.

Rewrite a displacement function in matrix form:

Step II: a displacement function


Assume a displacement function within the element as

w ( x, t ) = N 1 N 2 N 3 N 4

w1 ( t ) 1 ( t ) = Nd ( t ) w2 ( t ) 2 ( t )

Shape functions

w ( x, t ) = c 1 ( t ) x 3 + c 2 ( t ) x 2 + c 3 ( t ) x + c 4 ( t )

where

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

181

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

182

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

2 3 x 2 x + ---N 1 ( x ) = 1 3 x + 2 x- N 2 ( x ) = x ------------------2 l 3 2 l l l 3 x- ------2 xN 3( x) = 3 ------3 2 l l 2

Step III: Construct local K and M

Strain energy

x x + ---N 4 ( x ) = ---l l2

Strain energy of the beam element V(t) is

w ( x, t ) d x 1 1 l V ( t ) = - = - EI 2 2 2 0 x

1 0.8

N1(x) N3(x)

where EI is the exural rigidity of the beam.

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Plug w ( x, t ) = N ( x ) d ( t ) into V ( t ) and integrate V ( t ) , we get

0.8

0.9

x/l

T 1 V ( t ) = -- d ( t ) kd ( t ) 2

0.15 0.1 0.05

where k is a local stiffness matrix dened as N2(x)


1 1

0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

12 6 l 12 6 l
N4(x)
x/l

6 l 4 l 6 l 2 l EI k = ----3 l 12 6 l 12 6 l

6 l 2 l 6 l 4 l

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

183

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

184

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy of the beam element T(t) is
l w ( x, t ) 1 T ( t ) = -dx - A( x) t 2 0 2

Step IV: Assembly

Lets consider a two-element beam belows. w1(t)

w2(t)

w3(t)

where ( x ) is the beam density. Since

1(t) For one element,

2(t)

3(t)

w ( x, t ) d ( t ) = Nd ( t ) = N t t Therefore
l 1 T N T Nd ] dx T ( t ) = -- A( x)[d 2 0

12 6 l 12 6 l

or

6 l 4 l 6 l 2 l EI k = ----3 l 12 6 l 12 6 l 2 2 6 l 2 l 6 l 4 l

( t ) T ( t ) md 1 T ( t ) = --d 2
where m is a local mass matrix dened as

156 22 l

54 13 l

22 l 4 l 13 l 3 l Al m = -------420 54 13 l 156 22 l

13 l 3 l 22 l 4 l

156 22 l
2

54 13 l
2

22 l 4 l 13 l 3 l m = Al -------420 54 13 l 156 22 l 13 l 3 l 22 l 4 l
2 2

L For 2-element l = -- , then 2

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

185

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

186

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

12 3 L L 3 L 0.5 L k = 8 EI -------3 L 12 3 L 12 3 L 3 L 0.5 L 3 L L 54 6.5 L 0.75 L 156 11 L


2 2 2 2 2 2

3L

12

3L

2-nd element:

156 11 L AL m = ---------840 54 6.5 L 0.75 L 11 L L


2

11 L L 6.5 L
2

6.5 L

T 1 1 V 2 ( t ) = -- - d 2 kd 2 = -2 2

w2 2 w3 3

w2 k 2 w3 3

Total strain energy is

V = V1 + V2 Extended matrix form of V(t) is w1 1 w2 1 V ( t ) = -2 2 w3 3


T

Strain energy
1-st element:
T

1 T V 1 ( t ) = -d 1 kd 1 = 2 w1 1 w2 2

w1 k 1 w2 2

w1 1 w2 2 w3 3

With xed-free B.C.s,

w ( 0, t ) = w 1 ( t ) = 0 and

w ( 0, t ) = ( t ) = 0 , 1 x V(t) is then

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

187

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

188

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

0 0 w2 1 V ( t ) = -2 2 w3 3 k k
V(t) can be reduced to
w2 ( 12 + 12 ) ( 3 L + 3 L ) 12 ( 3 L + 3 L ) ( L + L ) 3 L 0.5 L 12 3 L 12 3 L w3 3 = 1 -- d Kd 2
T 2 2 2 T

0 0 w2 2 w3 3

Kinetic energy
1-st element:

T 1 T 1 ( t ) = -1 md 1 = -d 2
2-nd element:
w2 2

w 1 w 1 m 1 w 2 2

1 w 2 2

3L

2 EI V (t) = 8 -------3 2 L w3 3 3L 0.5 L


2

3 L

where K is a global stiffness matrix.

1 T T 2 ( t ) = -d md 2 2 = 2
2

2 w 2 w m 2 w 3 3

2 w 3 3

24
2

12

3L

Total kinetic energy is

0 2 L 3 L 0.5 L EI K = 8 -------3 L 12 3 L 12 3 L 2 2 3 L 0.5 L 3 L L


for the 2-element beam

T = T1 + T2

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

189

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

190

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Extened matrix form of T(t) is

T(t) can be reduced to

w 1 1 m 2 w 3 3 w T (t) = 1 2 -2 2 w 3 3 m
With xed-free B.C.s,

w 1 1 w 2

w 2 2 T ( t ) = -AL 1 ---------- 3 2 840 w 3

( 156 + 156 ) ( 11 L + 11 L ) 54

6.5 L

w 2

( 11 L + 11 L ) 54

(L + L ) 6.5 L

6.5 L 0.75 L 156 11 L

w 3

T Md = -1 -d 2

6.5 L

0.75 L

11 L

where M is a global mass matrix.

312 AL M = ---------840

54

6.5 L

w ( 0, t ) = w 1 ( t ) = 0 and ( 0, t ) = w 1(t ) = 0 , x T(t) is then 0 0 w 1 2 T ( t ) = -2 2 w 3 3 m


T

0 54

2L 6.5 L

6.5 L 0.75 L , 156 11 L

6.5 L 0.75 L 11 L

for the 2-element beam

0 0 w 2 m 2 w 3 3

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

191

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

192

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Lumped-Mass Matrices

M constructed from kinetic energy are called consistent-mass matrix and they are a full matrix.
It is difcult to calculate M matrix. of the full An alternative method is to construct M as a lumped-mass matrix.
1

Truss Structure
U2
1

U1 l 1 l 2
3

1
2

U6

u1 l

U5

U6

u2

U4

U5

Consider a bar element:

U3 u3

u4

u3

m = AL

U4

Lets consider element 2:

, A, L
m/2 m/2 Consider a beam element:

10 AL M = ---------2 01

U3

u 3 ( t ) = U 3 cos + U 4 sin

u 4 ( t ) = U 5 cos + U 6 sin

Rewrite in a matrix form

m = AL

1 0 0 0 L- 0 0 0 ---- AL M = ---------- 12 2 0 0 1 0
2

, A, L
m/2 m/2
2

u3 ( t ) = u4 ( t ) L0 0 0 ----12
2

U3 U4 cos sin 0 0 0 0 cos sin U 5 U6


or

1 m L - --- -I = -- 3 2 2

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

193

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

194

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

u2 ( t ) = U2 ( t )
where:
T

Element 1:
1

u = u3 u4
2

is the local coordinates of

T 1 V ( t ) = -- U1 K(1) U1 2

element 2,

where:
T

U2 = U 3 U 4 U 5 U 6
coordinates of element 2.

is the global

U1 = U 1 U 2 U 5 U 6

is the global

coordinates of element 1,

K
Element 2:
T T T T 1 V ( t ) = 1 u K u = 1 U K U = -e 2 e 2 2 2 --- U2 K(2) U2 2 2 2 2

in global coordinates

K ( 1 ) = K ( 2 ) for this example.

Assembly:

V (t ) = V 1(t ) + V 2(t )

where K ( 2 ) is the global stiffness matrix of element 2.


K( 2 ) cos 0 1 1 cos sin 0 0 sin 0 = -----EA 0 0 cos sin 0 cos 1 1 l 0 sin

T 1 T 1 1 T V ( t ) = -U U 1 K ( 1 ) U 1 + -2 K ( 2 ) U 2 = -- U KU 2 2 2

where:

U = U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6

is the full

or
( cos ) K( 2 )
2

global coordinates,
sin cos ( sin )
2

( cos )

sin cos sin cos ( sin )


2 2

sin cos = -----EA 2 l ( cos )

sin cos sin cos ( sin )


2

( cos )

sin cos sin cos ( sin )


2

K is the expanded global stiffness matrix associated with U .

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

195

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

196

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

M The full mass matrix M associated with U


can be determined the same way as K .

in global coordinates

CHAPTER 8

VIBRATION TESTING

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

197

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

198