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Outlines:

CHAPTER 7

Introduction

Model reduction

165

166

Flexible structures can be modeled as bar, beam, plate, shell, and etc. Suspension heads in hard disk drives

1.Analytical model

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration

167

168

nodes

d4

d3

Bar Elements

d1 d2

Element

du EA 2 = 0 dx

u(x,t)

d1 d2 M d

n

E, , L

Procedure:

1

1 2

u4(t)

2

3

3 elements, 4 nodes

Divide (discretize) the structure into a number of small simple elements. The elements are connected to each others by nodes. All node displacement are chosen as DOFs, so called nodal DOF. Displacement function within the element are approximated by a linear combination of low-order polynomials. For vibration application, we construct the matrices K and M w.r.t. all nodal DOF using energy method.

169

1

Consider any element, e.g., the 1st element. Assume a displacement function within the element as

u ( x, t ) = c 1 ( t ) x + c 2 ( t )

170

B.C.s:

Rewrite a displacement function in matrix form:

Strain energy:

u ( x, t ) d x 1 l V ( t ) = - EA x 2 0

or

x, u ( x, t ) = 1 -l

u(x,t) Shape functions 1 l x 1-x/l u2 l x x/l u1

x u 1 ( t ) = Nu ( t ) -l u2 ( t )

l T T 1 V ( t ) = -- EA [ u B Bu ] dx 2 0

T T 1 V ( t ) = 1 u ( t ) EA 1 1 u ( t ) = -- u ( t ) ku ( t ) ------2 2 l 1 1

1 1 EA k = -----l 1 1

Differentiate u w.r.t. x:

u ( x, t ) dN 1 = = u ( t ) --, x dx l

u1 ( t ) 1 = Bu ( t ) -l u2 ( t )

171

172

Kinetic energy:

Kinetic energy of the bar element T(t) is

2

u ( x, t ) d x 1 l T ( t ) = - A( x) t 2 0

where ( x ) is the bar density. Since

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

u4(t)

u ( x, t ) u ( t ) = Nu (t) = N t t Therefore

l T T 1 N Nu ] dx T ( t ) = -- A( x)[u 2 0

or

T 1 T Al 2 1 1 ( t ) mu (t) u u ( t ) ( t ) = T ( t ) = ---u -------2 2 6 12

Strain energy:

1-st element:

u1 T V 1 ( t ) = 1 u ku = 3 EA ----------- 2 2 L u2

2-nd element:

1 1 u1 1 1 u2

21 Al m = -------6 12

u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------- 2 L u3

2

1 1 u2 1 1 u3

173

174

3-rd element:

T

u3 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------- 2 L u4

3

1 1 u3 1 1 u4

u2 3 EA V ( t ) = ---------- u3 2L u4

2 1 0 u2 T 1 1 2 1 u 3 = -- u Ku 2 0 1 1 u4

V = V1 + V2 + V3

or

T

u1 u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------2 L u3 u4 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 1

With boundary conditions; u ( 0, t ) = u 1 ( t ) = 0 , then

u1 u2 u3 u4

0 u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------2 L u3 u4 1 1 0 0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1

0 0 0 u2 1 u3 1 u4

175

176

21 Al 2 1 AL m = -------= ---------18 1 2 6 12

u 1 2 AL u T = ---------3 36 u u 4

2 1 0 0

1 4 1 0

0 1 4 1

0 0 1 2

u 1 u 2 u 3 u 4

Kinetic energy:

1-st element:

T

u T mu = AL 1 T (t) = 1u ----------2 2 36 u

1

1 21 u 2 12 u

2-nd element:

0 2 AL u T = ---------3 36 u u 4

2 1 0 0

1 4 1 0

0 1 4 1

0 0 2 0 u 3 1 u 2 u 4

u T ( t ) = AL 2 ---------3 36 u

2

2 21 u 12 u 3

3-rd element:

u T ( t ) = AL 3 ---------4 36 u

3

3 21 u 4 12 u

u 2 AL T = ---------3 - u 36 u 4

T (t) = T 1 + T 2 + T 3

or

177

178

Notes:

To analyze vibration of the structure, we use the global mass matrix M and global stiffness matrix K to construct the matrix equation

( t ) + Ku ( t ) = 0 Mu

Questions:

For L = 1m, = 2700 kg/m3, and E = 7 10 N/m2. n from FEM %difference Exact n

1-element model:

10.3%

3-element model:

1.18%

10.3%

20.3%

Rule of thumb: At least twice as many elements must be used than number of accurate frequencies required.

179

180

Beam Elements

From solid mechanics, static displacement of the beam is governed by

2 d w d EI = 0 2 2 dx dx 2

B.C.s:

x = 0 , w ( 0, t ) = w 1 ( t ) and w ( 0, t ) = 1 ( t ) x

w(x,t) x EA, , I, L

x = l , w ( l, t ) = w 2 ( t ) and w ( l, t ) = 2 ( t ) x

Hence

w1(t) l w2(t) 1 element, 2 nodes

1 c 1 ( t ) = -- [ 2 ( w1 w2 ) + l ( 1 + 2 ) ] l3

1 c 2 ( t ) = -- [ 3 ( w2 w1 ) l ( 2 1 + 2 ) ] l2 c 3 ( t ) = 1 ( t ) and c 4 ( t ) = w 1 ( t )

1(t)

2(t)

w 1 ( t ) and w 2 ( t ) are nodal linear displacement. 1 ( t ) and 2 ( t ) are nodal angular displacement.

Assume a displacement function within the element as

w ( x, t ) = N 1 N 2 N 3 N 4

w1 ( t ) 1 ( t ) = Nd ( t ) w2 ( t ) 2 ( t )

Shape functions

w ( x, t ) = c 1 ( t ) x 3 + c 2 ( t ) x 2 + c 3 ( t ) x + c 4 ( t )

where

181

182

Strain energy

x x + ---N 4 ( x ) = ---l l2

w ( x, t ) d x 1 1 l V ( t ) = - = - EI 2 2 2 0 x

1 0.8

N1(x) N3(x)

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

0.8

0.9

x/l

T 1 V ( t ) = -- d ( t ) kd ( t ) 2

1 1

0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

12 6 l 12 6 l

N4(x)

x/l

6 l 4 l 6 l 2 l EI k = ----3 l 12 6 l 12 6 l

6 l 2 l 6 l 4 l

183

184

Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy of the beam element T(t) is

l w ( x, t ) 1 T ( t ) = -dx - A( x) t 2 0 2

w2(t)

w3(t)

2(t)

3(t)

w ( x, t ) d ( t ) = Nd ( t ) = N t t Therefore

l 1 T N T Nd ] dx T ( t ) = -- A( x)[d 2 0

12 6 l 12 6 l

or

6 l 4 l 6 l 2 l EI k = ----3 l 12 6 l 12 6 l 2 2 6 l 2 l 6 l 4 l

( t ) T ( t ) md 1 T ( t ) = --d 2

where m is a local mass matrix dened as

156 22 l

54 13 l

22 l 4 l 13 l 3 l Al m = -------420 54 13 l 156 22 l

13 l 3 l 22 l 4 l

156 22 l

2

54 13 l

2

22 l 4 l 13 l 3 l m = Al -------420 54 13 l 156 22 l 13 l 3 l 22 l 4 l

2 2

185

186

2 2 2 2 2 2

3L

12

3L

2-nd element:

2

11 L L 6.5 L

2

6.5 L

T 1 1 V 2 ( t ) = -- - d 2 kd 2 = -2 2

w2 2 w3 3

w2 k 2 w3 3

T

Strain energy

1-st element:

T

1 T V 1 ( t ) = -d 1 kd 1 = 2 w1 1 w2 2

w1 k 1 w2 2

w1 1 w2 2 w3 3

w ( 0, t ) = w 1 ( t ) = 0 and

w ( 0, t ) = ( t ) = 0 , 1 x V(t) is then

187

188

0 0 w2 1 V ( t ) = -2 2 w3 3 k k

V(t) can be reduced to

w2 ( 12 + 12 ) ( 3 L + 3 L ) 12 ( 3 L + 3 L ) ( L + L ) 3 L 0.5 L 12 3 L 12 3 L w3 3 = 1 -- d Kd 2

T 2 2 2 T

0 0 w2 2 w3 3

Kinetic energy

1-st element:

T 1 T 1 ( t ) = -1 md 1 = -d 2

2-nd element:

w2 2

w 1 w 1 m 1 w 2 2

1 w 2 2

3L

2

3 L

1 T T 2 ( t ) = -d md 2 2 = 2

2

2 w 2 w m 2 w 3 3

2 w 3 3

24

2

12

3L

for the 2-element beam

T = T1 + T2

189

190

w 1 1 m 2 w 3 3 w T (t) = 1 2 -2 2 w 3 3 m

With xed-free B.C.s,

w 1 1 w 2

( 156 + 156 ) ( 11 L + 11 L ) 54

6.5 L

w 2

( 11 L + 11 L ) 54

(L + L ) 6.5 L

w 3

T Md = -1 -d 2

6.5 L

0.75 L

11 L

312 AL M = ---------840

54

6.5 L

T

0 54

2L 6.5 L

6.5 L 0.75 L 11 L

0 0 w 2 m 2 w 3 3

191

192

Lumped-Mass Matrices

M constructed from kinetic energy are called consistent-mass matrix and they are a full matrix.

It is difcult to calculate M matrix. of the full An alternative method is to construct M as a lumped-mass matrix.

1

Truss Structure

U2

1

U1 l 1 l 2

3

1

2

U6

u1 l

U5

U6

u2

U4

U5

U3 u3

u4

u3

m = AL

U4

, A, L

m/2 m/2 Consider a beam element:

10 AL M = ---------2 01

U3

u 3 ( t ) = U 3 cos + U 4 sin

u 4 ( t ) = U 5 cos + U 6 sin

m = AL

1 0 0 0 L- 0 0 0 ---- AL M = ---------- 12 2 0 0 1 0

2

, A, L

m/2 m/2

2

u3 ( t ) = u4 ( t ) L0 0 0 ----12

2

or

1 m L - --- -I = -- 3 2 2

193

194

u2 ( t ) = U2 ( t )

where:

T

Element 1:

1

u = u3 u4

2

T 1 V ( t ) = -- U1 K(1) U1 2

element 2,

where:

T

U2 = U 3 U 4 U 5 U 6

coordinates of element 2.

is the global

U1 = U 1 U 2 U 5 U 6

is the global

coordinates of element 1,

K

Element 2:

T T T T 1 V ( t ) = 1 u K u = 1 U K U = -e 2 e 2 2 2 --- U2 K(2) U2 2 2 2 2

in global coordinates

Assembly:

V (t ) = V 1(t ) + V 2(t )

K( 2 ) cos 0 1 1 cos sin 0 0 sin 0 = -----EA 0 0 cos sin 0 cos 1 1 l 0 sin

T 1 T 1 1 T V ( t ) = -U U 1 K ( 1 ) U 1 + -2 K ( 2 ) U 2 = -- U KU 2 2 2

where:

U = U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6

is the full

or

( cos ) K( 2 )

2

global coordinates,

sin cos ( sin )

2

( cos )

2 2

2

( cos )

2

195

196

can be determined the same way as K .

in global coordinates

CHAPTER 8

VIBRATION TESTING

197

198

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