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Chulalongkorn University, THAILAND Mechanical Engineering Department

Outlines:

CHAPTER 7

Introduction

Model reduction

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Model of Flexible Structures

Flexible structures can be modeled as bar, beam, plate, shell, and etc. Suspension heads in hard disk drives

Two ways to model:

1.Analytical model

so called Distributed-Parameter Systems

2103-433 Introduction to Mechanical Vibration
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nodes
d4
d3

Bar Elements

d1 d2

Element

du EA 2 = 0 dx

u(x,t)

d1 d2 M d
n

E, , L

Procedure:

u1(t) u2(t) u3(t)

1
1 2

u4(t)
2
3

3 elements, 4 nodes

Divide (discretize) the structure into a number of small simple elements. The elements are connected to each others by nodes. All node displacement are chosen as DOFs, so called nodal DOF. Displacement function within the element are approximated by a linear combination of low-order polynomials. For vibration application, we construct the matrices K and M w.r.t. all nodal DOF using energy method.
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Step II: a displacement function

1

Consider any element, e.g., the 1st element. Assume a displacement function within the element as

u ( x, t ) = c 1 ( t ) x + c 2 ( t )

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B.C.s:

x = 0 , u ( x, t ) = u 1 ( t ) x = l , u ( x, t ) = u 2 ( t ) u 2 ( t ) u 1 ( t ) and c 2 ( t ) = u 1 ( t ) Hence c 1 ( t ) = ----------------------------l

Rewrite a displacement function in matrix form:

Strain energy:

Strain energy of the bar element V(t) is

u ( x, t ) d x 1 l V ( t ) = - EA x 2 0
or

x, u ( x, t ) = 1 -l
u(x,t) Shape functions 1 l x 1-x/l u2 l x x/l u1

x u 1 ( t ) = Nu ( t ) -l u2 ( t )

l T T 1 V ( t ) = -- EA [ u B Bu ] dx 2 0

T T 1 V ( t ) = 1 u ( t ) EA 1 1 u ( t ) = -- u ( t ) ku ( t ) ------2 2 l 1 1

where k is a local stiffness matrix dened as

1 1 EA k = -----l 1 1

Differentiate u w.r.t. x:

u ( x, t ) dN 1 = = u ( t ) --, x dx l

u1 ( t ) 1 = Bu ( t ) -l u2 ( t )

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Kinetic energy:
Kinetic energy of the bar element T(t) is
2

Lets consider a three-element bar belows. l

u ( x, t ) d x 1 l T ( t ) = - A( x) t 2 0
where ( x ) is the bar density. Since

u1(t)

u2(t)

u3(t)

u4(t)

u ( x, t ) u ( t ) = Nu (t) = N t t Therefore
l T T 1 N Nu ] dx T ( t ) = -- A( x)[u 2 0

1 1 L 3 EA In this case l = -, k = ---------3 L 1 1

or
T 1 T Al 2 1 1 ( t ) mu (t) u u ( t ) ( t ) = T ( t ) = ---u -------2 2 6 12

Strain energy:
1-st element:

where m is a local mass matrix dened as

u1 T V 1 ( t ) = 1 u ku = 3 EA ----------- 2 2 L u2
2-nd element:

1 1 u1 1 1 u2

21 Al m = -------6 12

u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------- 2 L u3
2

1 1 u2 1 1 u3

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3-rd element:

V(t) can be reduced to

T

u3 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------- 2 L u4
3

1 1 u3 1 1 u4

Total strain energy is

u2 3 EA V ( t ) = ---------- u3 2L u4

2 1 0 u2 T 1 1 2 1 u 3 = -- u Ku 2 0 1 1 u4

V = V1 + V2 + V3
or
T

where K is a global stiffness matrix.

u1 u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------2 L u3 u4 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 1
With boundary conditions; u ( 0, t ) = u 1 ( t ) = 0 , then

u1 u2 u3 u4

2 1 0 3 EA K = ---------- 1 2 1 , for the 3-element bar L 0 1 1

0 u2 V ( t ) = 3 EA ---------2 L u3 u4 1 1 0 0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1

0 0 0 u2 1 u3 1 u4

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Again, consider the three-element bar: For any one element,

21 Al 2 1 AL m = -------= ---------18 1 2 6 12

u 1 2 AL u T = ---------3 36 u u 4

2 1 0 0

1 4 1 0

0 1 4 1

0 0 1 2

u 1 u 2 u 3 u 4

Kinetic energy:
1-st element:
T

With boundary conditions; u ( 0, t ) = u 1 ( t ) = 0 , then

u T mu = AL 1 T (t) = 1u ----------2 2 36 u
1

1 21 u 2 12 u

2-nd element:

0 2 AL u T = ---------3 36 u u 4

2 1 0 0

1 4 1 0

0 1 4 1

0 0 2 0 u 3 1 u 2 u 4

u T ( t ) = AL 2 ---------3 36 u
2

2 21 u 12 u 3

V(t) can be reduced to

3-rd element:

u T ( t ) = AL 3 ---------4 36 u
3

3 21 u 4 12 u

u 2 AL T = ---------3 - u 36 u 4

Total kinetic energy is

T (t) = T 1 + T 2 + T 3
or

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Notes:

To analyze vibration of the structure, we use the global mass matrix M and global stiffness matrix K to construct the matrix equation

Comparison of Natural Frequencies

( t ) + Ku ( t ) = 0 Mu
Questions:

For L = 1m, = 2700 kg/m3, and E = 7 10 N/m2. n from FEM %difference Exact n

1-element model:

10.3%

How accurate is the FEM result?

3-element model:

1.18%

10.3%

20.3%

Rule of thumb: At least twice as many elements must be used than number of accurate frequencies required.

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Beam Elements
From solid mechanics, static displacement of the beam is governed by
2 d w d EI = 0 2 2 dx dx 2

B.C.s:

x = 0 , w ( 0, t ) = w 1 ( t ) and w ( 0, t ) = 1 ( t ) x

w(x,t) x EA, , I, L

x = l , w ( l, t ) = w 2 ( t ) and w ( l, t ) = 2 ( t ) x
Hence

Step I: divide the beam into elements.

w1(t) l w2(t) 1 element, 2 nodes

1 c 1 ( t ) = -- [ 2 ( w1 w2 ) + l ( 1 + 2 ) ] l3

1 c 2 ( t ) = -- [ 3 ( w2 w1 ) l ( 2 1 + 2 ) ] l2 c 3 ( t ) = 1 ( t ) and c 4 ( t ) = w 1 ( t )

1(t)

2(t)

w 1 ( t ) and w 2 ( t ) are nodal linear displacement. 1 ( t ) and 2 ( t ) are nodal angular displacement.

Step II: a displacement function

Assume a displacement function within the element as

w ( x, t ) = N 1 N 2 N 3 N 4

w1 ( t ) 1 ( t ) = Nd ( t ) w2 ( t ) 2 ( t )

Shape functions

w ( x, t ) = c 1 ( t ) x 3 + c 2 ( t ) x 2 + c 3 ( t ) x + c 4 ( t )

where

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Step III: Construct local K and M

Strain energy

x x + ---N 4 ( x ) = ---l l2

Strain energy of the beam element V(t) is

w ( x, t ) d x 1 1 l V ( t ) = - = - EI 2 2 2 0 x

1 0.8

N1(x) N3(x)

where EI is the exural rigidity of the beam.

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Plug w ( x, t ) = N ( x ) d ( t ) into V ( t ) and integrate V ( t ) , we get

0.8

0.9

x/l

T 1 V ( t ) = -- d ( t ) kd ( t ) 2

where k is a local stiffness matrix dened as N2(x)

1 1

0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

12 6 l 12 6 l
N4(x)
x/l

6 l 4 l 6 l 2 l EI k = ----3 l 12 6 l 12 6 l

6 l 2 l 6 l 4 l

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Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy of the beam element T(t) is
l w ( x, t ) 1 T ( t ) = -dx - A( x) t 2 0 2

w2(t)

w3(t)

1(t) For one element,

2(t)

3(t)

w ( x, t ) d ( t ) = Nd ( t ) = N t t Therefore
l 1 T N T Nd ] dx T ( t ) = -- A( x)[d 2 0

12 6 l 12 6 l

or

6 l 4 l 6 l 2 l EI k = ----3 l 12 6 l 12 6 l 2 2 6 l 2 l 6 l 4 l

( t ) T ( t ) md 1 T ( t ) = --d 2
where m is a local mass matrix dened as

156 22 l

54 13 l

22 l 4 l 13 l 3 l Al m = -------420 54 13 l 156 22 l

13 l 3 l 22 l 4 l

156 22 l
2

54 13 l
2

22 l 4 l 13 l 3 l m = Al -------420 54 13 l 156 22 l 13 l 3 l 22 l 4 l
2 2

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2 2 2 2 2 2

3L

12

3L

2-nd element:

156 11 L AL m = ---------840 54 6.5 L 0.75 L 11 L L

2

11 L L 6.5 L
2

6.5 L

T 1 1 V 2 ( t ) = -- - d 2 kd 2 = -2 2

w2 2 w3 3

w2 k 2 w3 3

V = V1 + V2 Extended matrix form of V(t) is w1 1 w2 1 V ( t ) = -2 2 w3 3

T

Strain energy
1-st element:
T

1 T V 1 ( t ) = -d 1 kd 1 = 2 w1 1 w2 2

w1 k 1 w2 2

w1 1 w2 2 w3 3

With xed-free B.C.s,

w ( 0, t ) = w 1 ( t ) = 0 and

w ( 0, t ) = ( t ) = 0 , 1 x V(t) is then

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0 0 w2 1 V ( t ) = -2 2 w3 3 k k
V(t) can be reduced to
w2 ( 12 + 12 ) ( 3 L + 3 L ) 12 ( 3 L + 3 L ) ( L + L ) 3 L 0.5 L 12 3 L 12 3 L w3 3 = 1 -- d Kd 2
T 2 2 2 T

0 0 w2 2 w3 3

Kinetic energy
1-st element:

T 1 T 1 ( t ) = -1 md 1 = -d 2
2-nd element:
w2 2

w 1 w 1 m 1 w 2 2

1 w 2 2

3L

2

3 L

where K is a global stiffness matrix.

1 T T 2 ( t ) = -d md 2 2 = 2
2

2 w 2 w m 2 w 3 3

2 w 3 3

24
2

12

3L

0 2 L 3 L 0.5 L EI K = 8 -------3 L 12 3 L 12 3 L 2 2 3 L 0.5 L 3 L L

for the 2-element beam

T = T1 + T2

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T(t) can be reduced to

w 1 1 m 2 w 3 3 w T (t) = 1 2 -2 2 w 3 3 m
With xed-free B.C.s,

w 1 1 w 2

w 2 2 T ( t ) = -AL 1 ---------- 3 2 840 w 3

( 156 + 156 ) ( 11 L + 11 L ) 54

6.5 L

w 2

( 11 L + 11 L ) 54

(L + L ) 6.5 L

w 3

T Md = -1 -d 2

6.5 L

0.75 L

11 L

where M is a global mass matrix.

312 AL M = ---------840

54

6.5 L

T

0 54

2L 6.5 L

6.5 L 0.75 L , 156 11 L

6.5 L 0.75 L 11 L

for the 2-element beam

0 0 w 2 m 2 w 3 3

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Lumped-Mass Matrices

M constructed from kinetic energy are called consistent-mass matrix and they are a full matrix.
It is difcult to calculate M matrix. of the full An alternative method is to construct M as a lumped-mass matrix.
1

Truss Structure
U2
1

U1 l 1 l 2
3

1
2

U6

u1 l

U5

U6

u2

U4

U5

U3 u3

u4

u3

m = AL

U4

Lets consider element 2:

, A, L
m/2 m/2 Consider a beam element:

10 AL M = ---------2 01

U3

u 3 ( t ) = U 3 cos + U 4 sin

u 4 ( t ) = U 5 cos + U 6 sin

Rewrite in a matrix form

m = AL

1 0 0 0 L- 0 0 0 ---- AL M = ---------- 12 2 0 0 1 0
2

, A, L
m/2 m/2
2

u3 ( t ) = u4 ( t ) L0 0 0 ----12
2

U3 U4 cos sin 0 0 0 0 cos sin U 5 U6

or

1 m L - --- -I = -- 3 2 2

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u2 ( t ) = U2 ( t )
where:
T

Element 1:
1

u = u3 u4
2

is the local coordinates of

T 1 V ( t ) = -- U1 K(1) U1 2

element 2,

where:
T

U2 = U 3 U 4 U 5 U 6
coordinates of element 2.

is the global

U1 = U 1 U 2 U 5 U 6

is the global

coordinates of element 1,

K
Element 2:
T T T T 1 V ( t ) = 1 u K u = 1 U K U = -e 2 e 2 2 2 --- U2 K(2) U2 2 2 2 2

in global coordinates

K ( 1 ) = K ( 2 ) for this example.

Assembly:

V (t ) = V 1(t ) + V 2(t )

where K ( 2 ) is the global stiffness matrix of element 2.

K( 2 ) cos 0 1 1 cos sin 0 0 sin 0 = -----EA 0 0 cos sin 0 cos 1 1 l 0 sin

T 1 T 1 1 T V ( t ) = -U U 1 K ( 1 ) U 1 + -2 K ( 2 ) U 2 = -- U KU 2 2 2

where:

U = U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6

is the full

or
( cos ) K( 2 )
2

global coordinates,
sin cos ( sin )
2

( cos )

2 2

2

( cos )

2

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M The full mass matrix M associated with U

can be determined the same way as K .

in global coordinates

CHAPTER 8

VIBRATION TESTING

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