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General Certificate of Secondary Education

Geography 3032, 3037 Specification B 2008

Material accompanying this Specification • Specimen and Past Papers and Mark Schemes • Reports on the Examination • Teachers’ Guide

SPECIFICATION

This specification will be published annually on the AQA Website (www.aqa.org.uk). If there are any changes to the specification centres will be notified in print as well as on the Website. The version on the Website is the definitive version of the specification. │Vertical black lines indicate a significant change or addition to the specification published for 2007.

Further copies of this specification booklet are available from: AQA Logistics Centre, Unit 2, Wheel Forge Way, Ashburton Park, Trafford Park, Manchester, M17 1EH. Telephone: 0870 410 1036 Fax: 0161 953 1177 or can be downloaded from the AQA Website: www.aqa.org.uk Copyright © 2006 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT AQA retains the copyright on all its publications. However, registered centres for AQA are permitted to copy material from this booklet for their own internal use, with the following important exception: AQA cannot give permission to centres to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal use within the centre. Set and published by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance. .
The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales 3644723 and a registered charity number 1073334. Registered address AQA, Devas Street, Manchester, M15 6EX. Dr Michael Cresswell Director General.

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2008 examination - Geography B

Contents – Full Course
Background Information
1 2 3 The Revised General Certificate of Secondary Education Specification at a Glance Availability of Assessment Units and Entry Details 7 9 10

Scheme of Assessment
4 5 6 7 Introduction Aims Assessment Objectives Scheme of Assessment 11 13 14 16

Subject Content
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Summary of Subject Content The United Kingdom The European Union The Wider World Global Issues List of Geographical Terms Geographical Skills Checklist 18 20 23 25 27 29 32

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Moral. Ethical. Social. Cultural and Other Issues 34 40 Centre-Assessed Component 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nature of the Centre-Assessed Component Guidance on Setting the Centre-Assessed Component Assessment Criteria Supervision and Authentication Standardisation Administrative Procedures Moderation 45 45 46 47 48 49 50 Awarding and Reporting 24 Grading.General Certificate of Secondary Education.Geography B . Shelf-Life and Re-Sits 51 Appendices A B C Grade Descriptions Record Forms Overlaps with Other Qualifications 52 54 57 4 hij . 2008 examination Key Skills and Other Issues 15 Key Skills – Teaching. Developing and Providing Opportunities for Generating Evidence 16 Spiritual.

General Certificate of Secondary Education.Geography B Contents – Short Course Background Information 1 2 3 The Revised General Certificate of Secondary Education Specification at a Glance Availability of Assessment Units and Entry Details 58 60 61 Scheme of Assessment 4 5 6 7 Introduction Aims Assessment Objectives Scheme of Assessment 62 63 64 66 Subject Content 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Summary of Subject Content The United Kingdom The European Union The Wider World Global Issues List of Geographical Terms Geographical Skills Checklist 68 70 72 73 74 76 78 hij 5 . 2008 examination .

Geography B . Moral. Developing and Providing Opportunities for Generating Evidence 16 Spiritual. Ethical. Social. Cultural and Other Issues 80 86 Centre-Assessed Component 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nature of the Centre-Assessed Component Guidance on Setting the Centre-Assessed Component Assessment Criteria Supervision and Authentication Standardisation Administrative Procedures Moderation 90 90 91 93 94 95 96 Awarding and Reporting 24 Grading.General Certificate of Secondary Education. Shelf-Life and Re-Sits 97 Appendices A B C Grade Descriptions Record Forms Overlaps with Other Qualifications 98 100 103 6 hij . 2008 examination Key Skills and Other Issues 15 Teaching.

targeted at two tiers of grades.1 Changes at GCSE Key Skills All GCSE specifications must identify. 1. In each specification candidates will be required to make effective use of ICT in ways appropriate to the needs of the subject. opportunities for generating evidence on which candidates may be assessed in the “main” Key Skills of communication. as appropriate. 2008 examination . where appropriate. Tiering hij 7 . moral. A* .G.D. In most subjects the scheme of assessment must include question papers. and problem solving. The questions will still be targeted at A* .D and C . and the establishment of the National Qualifications Framework. social.General Certificate of Secondary Education. environmental. i. all the Unitary Awarding Bodies have revised their GCSE syllabuses for examination in 2003 onwards. ethical. All specifications must identify ways in which the study of the subject can contribute to an awareness and understanding of these issues. Also. Spiritual.e. cultural.Geography B Background Information 1 The Revised General Certificate of Secondary Education Following a review of the National Curriculum requirements. application of number and information technology at the appropriate level(s). improving own learning and performance. they must identify opportunities for developing and generating evidence for addressing the “wider” Key Skills of working with others. health and safety. A safety net of an allowed Grade E will be provided for candidates entered for the higher tier who just fail to achieve Grade D. and European issues ICT The National Curriculum requires that students should be given opportunities to apply and develop their ICT capacity through the use of ICT tools to support their learning.

opportunities for developing citizenship knowledge. students in England have been required to study Citizenship as a National Curriculum subject. 8 hij . where appropriate.Geography B .General Certificate of Secondary Education. Each GCSE specification must signpost. skills and understanding. 2008 examination Citizenship Since 2002.

2008 examination .General Certificate of Secondary Education.Geography B 2 Specification at a Glance Geography B GCSE 3032 Foundation Tier Paper 1 30% of total marks 1¼ hours 3032F Short answer questions and two structured questions on the UK. highlighting the importance of this interaction. There are two tiers of assessment: Foundation (G-C) and Higher (D-A*). AQA GCSE in Geography A adopts a people-environment theme throughout the subject content. Higher Tier Paper 2 45% of total marks 2 hours 3032H Short answer questions and a structured question on each of the following. All questions are compulsory. AQA GCSE in Geography C is an issues-based specification. A UK Ordnance Survey map will be provided and may be used in one or more questions. All specifications emphasise the need to address contemporary concerns and issues. • • • The European Union The Wider World Global Issues 25 % of total marks Coursework Coursework of approximately 2500 words based on a fieldwork investigation at a local/small scale. This is one of three specifications in the subject offered by AQA. hij 9 .

6 Language of Examinations All assessment will be through the medium of English. will have only one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and College Performance Tables. Special consideration may be requested for candidates whose work has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances.5 Access Arrangments and Special Consideration Applications for access arrangements and special consideration should be submitted to AQA by the Examinations Officer at the centre. Each specification is assigned to a national classification code.Geography B .org. The classification code for this specification is 3910. Further details can be found in the Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ) document: Access Arrangements for Special Consideration Regulations and Guidance Relating to Candidates who are Eligible for Adjustments in Examination GCE. AEA. An example of an access arrangement is the production of a Braille paper for a candidate with a visual impairment. 10 hij . Normal entry requirements apply. GNVQ.aqa. Arrangements may be made to enable candidates with disabilities or other difficulties to access the assessment.uk) 3. AQA pays due regard to the provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 in its administration of this specification. 2008 examination 3 3. 3. GCSE.4 Private Candidates This specification is available for private candidates. VCE. The Subject Code for entry to the GCSE award is 3032. Entry Level & Key Skills This document can be viewed via the AQA web site (www.1 3.3 Prohibited Combinations Candidates entered for GCSE Geography B may not enter for any other GCSE Geography specification in the same examination series. indicating the subject area to which it belongs.2 Availability of Assessment Units Entry Codes Availability of Assessment Units and Entry Details Examinations based on this specification are available in the June examination series only. 3. Private candidates should write to AQA for a copy of “Supplementary Guidance for Private Candidates”. 3.General Certificate of Secondary Education. but the following information should be noted. Assessment materials will not be provided in Welsh or Gaeilge. Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more that one GCSE qualification with the same classification code.

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2008 examination - Geography B

Scheme of Assessment 4
4.1 National Criteria

Introduction
This GCSE Geography specification complies with the following: • • • • The GCSE Subject Criteria for Geography; The GCSE and GCE A/AS Code of Practice; The GCSE Qualification Specific Criteria; The Arrangements for the Statutory Regulation of External Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: Common Criteria.

4.2

Rationale

This specification is distinctive amongst those provided by AQA in that it is essentially place specific. The specification includes a number of prescribed areas which provide the opportunity to address geographical themes and issues at local, regional, national and global scales. Where place is not specified centres may use their own choice of case studies. In this specification there is not the concentration of skills in a separate section/component of the examination; they are assessed wherever appropriate throughout the three components. Throughout the subject content, centres in Northern Ireland must draw upon sufficient Northern Ireland examples of place to fulfil their statutory requirements. Geography B encourages the development and provides many opportunities for the development of literacy and numeracy skills.

4.3

Prior level of attainment and recommended prior learning

No prior learning or level of attainment is necessary for candidates to undertake a course of study based on this specification. This specification builds on the knowledge, understanding and skills established by the National Curricula of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. This specification builds on the four aspects of geography identified in the English National Curriculum: • • • • geographical enquiry and skills; knowledge and understanding of places; knowledge and understanding of patterns and processes; knowledge and understanding of environmental change and sustainable development;

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Geography B - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2008 examination

and the three strands of geography identified in the Welsh National Curriculum: • • • 4.4 Progression geographical enquiry and skills; places; themes.

This qualification is a recognised part of the National Qualifications framework. As such GCSE provides progression from Key Stage 3 to post-16 studies. It lays an appropriate foundation for further study of geography or related subjects. In addition, it provides a worthwhile course for candidates of various ages and from diverse backgrounds in terms of general education and lifelong learning.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2008 examination - Geography B

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Aims
The aims set out below describe the educational purposes of following a course based on GCSE Geography Specification B. Some of these aims are reflected in the assessment objectives; others are not because they cannot readily be translated into measurable objectives. The aims are not listed in order of priority. The specification offers opportunities for candidates to: a. acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places, environments and geographical patterns at a range of scales from local to global, as well as an understanding of the physical and human processes, including decision making, which affect their development; develop a sense of place and an appreciation of environment, as well as awareness of the ways in which people and environments interact, the importance of sustainable development in those interactions, and the opportunities, challenges and constraints faced by people in different places; develop an understanding of global citizenship and the ways in which people and environments are interdependent; appreciate that the study of geography is dynamic, not only because places, geographical features, patterns and issues change, but also because new ideas and methods lead to new interpretations; understand the significance and efforts of people’s values and attitudes, including their own, in how decisions are made about the use and management of environments and resources, in relation to geographical issues and questions; acquire and apply the skills and techniques – including those of mapwork, fieldwork and information, and communication technology (ICT) – needed to conduct geographical study and enquiry.

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social. d. and in decision-making about the use and management of environments and resources. national. select and use a variety of skills and techniques appropriate to geographical studies and enquiry (AO4).1 Summary of Assessment Objectives Assessment Objectives Candidates are required to demonstrate their ability to: a. and an ability to apply this understanding in a variety of physical and human contexts. e. questions and problems at a variety of scales. including geographical terminology and locational knowledge. and apply this understanding in a variety of contexts. show knowledge of places.Geography B . economic. c. related to the specification content across the range of local. show an understanding of geographical aspects of selected contemporary. b. and the geographical characteristics of particular places. b. f. describe and offer explanations for the interactions between people’s activities and the environment. recall specific facts and demonstrate knowledge. c. show an understanding of the limitations of geographical evidence and the tentative and incomplete nature of some explanations. international and global scales.2 Knowledge and Understanding In terms of knowledge and understanding candidates should be able to: a. 2008 examination 6 6. hij 14 . recall and show an understanding of the physical and human processes which contribute to the development of spatial patterns. environments and themes at a range of scales from local to global (AO1). g. and apply this understanding in a variety of contexts.General Certificate of Secondary Education. regional. political and environmental issues. show an understanding of the meaning and importance of sustainable development and show how this can inform the management of a variety of geographical issues and environments at a range of scales from local to global. show understanding of the specified content (AO2). d. show an understanding of the geographical ideas and concepts specified in the syllabus. show an understanding of the significance and effects of the attitudes and values of groups and individuals involved in geographical issues. h. apply their knowledge and understanding in a variety of physical and human contexts (AO3). 6.

and establish appropriate sequences of investigation.4 Quality of Written Communication Where candidates are required to produce extended written material in English. identify geographical questions and issues. as well as the validity and limitations of evidence and conclusions. so that meaning is clear. and record and present it (including use of maps. make decisions.General Certificate of Secondary Education. select. they will be assessed on the quality of written communication. 2008 examination . describe. evaluate the methods of collecting. secondary sources (including maps at a variety of scales. Candidates will be required to: • • present relevant information in a form that suits its purposes. statistical data) and ICT-based resources. ensure that text is legible and that spelling. 6. analyse and interpret evidence. photographs. The Quality of Written Communication will be assessed in Coursework and the Written Papers.3 Skills In terms of skills. d.Geography B 6. punctuation and grammar are accurate. use and develop a variety of techniques appropriate to geographical study and enquiry. presenting and analysing evidence. hij 15 . draw and justify conclusions and communicate findings in ways appropriate to the task and audience. satellite images. graphs and diagrams). candidates are required to develop a range of skills used in geographical study and enquiry (including the use of ICT). identify and collect evidence from primary sources (including fieldwork). c. namely: a. e. b.

General Certificate of Secondary Education. Paper 2 45% of the total marks 2 hours 120 marks The paper will comprise four sections. cloze exercises.Geography B . Paper 1 30% of the total marks 1¼ hours 75 marks The paper will comprise a series of short answer questions* and two structured questions on the United Kingdom. All questions will be compulsory. All questions will be compulsory. • • • The European Union The Wider World Global Issues Sections B to D will each comprise a structured question on one of these three areas of the specification content. diagrams and graphs). Coursework 25% of the total marks 30 marks Coursework of approximately 2500 words based on a fieldwork investigation at a local/small scale. for example.) Some short answer questions may require candidates to write one or two sentences. definitions. 2008 examination 7 7. The paper will include one or more questions based on a UK Ordnance Survey map extract at a scale of 1: 50 000. Section A will comprise a series of short answer questions* taken from all three of the following areas of the specification content. The topic chosen for investigation must relate to some part of the specification content. (A cloze exercise presents candidates with a passage of text in which key words are missing. The candidate has to complete the passage using geographical words chosen from a given word bank. 16 hij . multiple choice questions.1 Assessment Units Scheme of Assessment The Scheme of Assessment comprises three components. * Short answer questions may include. multiple completion questions and questions based upon stimulus material (such as photographs.

2008 examination . The approximate relationship between the relative percentage weighting of the Assessment Objectives (AOs) and the overall Scheme of Assessment is shown in the following table: Assessment Objectives Component Weightings (%) Paper 1 Paper 2 12 15 9 9 45 Coursework 0 0 10 15 25 Overall Weighting of AOs (%) 20 25 25 30 100 AO 1 Knowledge AO 2 Understanding AO 3 Application of Knowledge and Understanding AO 4 Skills Overall Weighting of Units (%) 8 10 6 6 30 Candidates’ marks for each assessment unit are scaled to achieve the correct percentage. hij 17 . The terminal examination will consist of two written papers which will be set and marked by AQA.2 Weighting of Assessment Objectives The assessment objectives will be assessed in the different components in approximately the following proportions.Geography B 7.General Certificate of Secondary Education.

It is expected that centres will probably study these topics through reference to the other three areas of the specification content identified in 8.1 to 8.General Certificate of Secondary Education. − The Milan/Turin/Genoa industrial triangle.4 Global Issues: • Population growth and urbanisation • Aid. the specification content requires the study of features of physical. investment and international development • Global warming: its causes and consequences 18 hij . 8. inclusive. − The Ruhr conurbation. 8.2 The European Union: 8. Through the medium of these areas. centres in Northern Ireland must draw upon sufficient Northern Ireland examples of place to fulfil their statutory requirements.1 to 8. 2008 examination Subject Content 8 Summary of Subject Content The prescribed areas for study in Geography B are listed for convenience in 8.4.1 The United Kingdom: • The Lake District • East Anglia • The M4 corridor • Southern Italy • Spain • The European urban core with reference to one major conurbation to be chosen from: − Rotterdam/Europoort. human and environmental concepts and processes to provide a balanced overview of geography. 8.3 The Wider World: • Amazonia • The Ganges Delta • Japan Global issues will be considered with reference to the topics listed below. − The Paris region. These features appear in the second column of the detailed specification content in Sections 9 to 12. inclusive. Throughout the subject content.Geography B .3. inclusive.

2008 examination . economic.General Certificate of Secondary Education.5 Other Aspects of Geography The detailed specification content must be studied with reference to the following aspects of geography. political and environmental issues The significance and effects of the values and attitudes of those involved in decision-making hij 19 .Geography B 8. Each of these aspects is identified at the appropriate point in the specification content using the letters indicated below. (I): (G): (S): (C): (D): Interdependence between places and environments Global citizenship Sustainable development Contemporary social.

Regional scales). attrition and abrasion). transportation processes (suspension. ox-bow lakes). waterfalls) and lowland rivers (flood plain.1 River Basins and their Management • The hydrological cycle (Global scale). • Hill sheep farming in the Lake District. deposition (Local. including a farm case study. • The general influence of the natural environment on farming systems in the UK. climate (including the processes leading to the formation of relief rainfall and the pattern of its distribution in the Lake District) and soil (Local scale) (I)(C)(D). Questions will be limited to: − the influence of physical factors: landforms. environments and geographical patterns at local. and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people. solution. meanders. Regional scales) (D). 9. • The provision of water supplies for urban areas exemplified by one example of the use of ground water supplies and one example of the use of an upland reservoir (to be studied as part of a multiple use development) (Regional scale) (I)(S)(D). 9. • The landforms and processes associated with rivers and their valleys. processes and outputs on a commercial farm (Local scale). Landforms must include: upland rivers (V-shaped valleys. 20 hij . Processes must include: erosion processes (hydraulic erosion. Food and the Environment • Inputs. • The definitions of “watershed” and “drainage basin” (Local. • River basin management as exemplified by flood control. students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. regional and national scales.2 Farming. 2008 examination 9 The United Kingdom Through selected studies of the United Kingdom (UK) based. Students should be aware that many aspects of the geography of the country are in a state of change. Regional scales). interlocking spurs. where possible on the study of specified regions.Geography B . saltation. and an appreciation of the need to plan for the sustainable use of the environment. management of water quality and amenity provision (Local.General Certificate of Secondary Education. traction and in solution). They should develop an awareness of interactions between people and their environment.

processes and outputs. labour supply. with reference to the demands of supermarket chains and food processing firms (Local.3 Tourism in a Glacial Environment: The Lake District National Park • The aims of National Parks (Regional scale) (I)(S)(C)(D) • The major glacial landscape features of the Lake District: upland glaciation. • The future energy mix of the United Kingdom. Regional. International. traffic and employment (Local. The advantages and disadvantages of wind and solar power (Local. Question will be limited to: − inputs. International.Geography B − the influence of other factors: Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) subsidies. to include a case study of one honey pot site (Local. arêtes. Regional. coal fired. National. leading to the formation of corries. raw materials. Regional. and ribbon lakes (Local. • Reasons for the development of alternative sources of power. Regional scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). Global scales) (I)(C)(D). transport. nuclear and hydro-electric power stations. and wind farms. • The pressure of tourism. destruction of habitats and attempts to reduce these impacts (Local. Global scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). International. coal fired. International. with reference to their economic and environmental impacts (Local. • Arable farming in East Anglia. with reference to one named example of each (Local scale). − the environmental impact of high input farming: chemical inputs. the need for conservation of the landscape and the conflicts of interest caused. government policy and competition in the global market leading to diversification of the rural economy (Local. including the processes of frost shattering.5 The Changing Location of Manufacturing Industry • Manufacturing industry as a system.4 Electricity Generation for the Future • Describe and explain the locations of gas fired. − the influence of site. 9. markets and government policy on industrial location (Local. • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of gas fired. the demands of the market on farming. Regional. − the influence of other factors: CAP subsidies. Regional scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). National. National. glacial troughs. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). 9. Questions will be limited to: − the influence of landform. 2008 examination . with reference to footpath erosion and the development of “honey pot” sites. Regional. hij 21 . house prices. National scales) (I)(C)(D). Regional scales). 9. Global scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). plucking and abrasion. nuclear and hydro-electric power stations. including a farm case study (Local scale). National. climate and soil (Local scale). Global scales) (I)(C)(D). fuel supplies.General Certificate of Secondary Education. • The impact of tourism in the Lake District on farming. government policy and competition in the global market.

Regional. • The changing location of the retail trade: out-of-town shopping centres and retail parks and their effect on the High Street (Local. counterurbanisation. Regional scales). • The impact of the increased use of road transport on urban structure and environment. • Modern. characteristics and morphology of one large urban area in the United Kingdom (Local. 22 hij . Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). the growth of commuting and commuter villages (Local.Geography B . National scales) (I)(S)(C)(D).6 Understanding the Modern Urban Environment • The growth. Regional scales). footloose industry (information and communication technology (ICT) and micro-electronics) along the M4 corridor to illustrate the influence of transport. research centres and greenfield sites on location (Local. • The processes leading to the development of a conurbation (Local. • The causes and effects of inner city decline (Local scale) (I)(C)(D). • The process of urban renewal (Local scale) (I)(C)(D). Possible solutions to the problems of traffic in towns (Local. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D).General Certificate of Secondary Education. • Development on the rural-urban fringe: suburbanisation. skilled labour. 2008 examination • A case study of a chemical industry on a river estuary to illustrate the nature and location of a heavy industry (Local. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). Regional scales). 9.

2 to 10. Land reform and changes in farming practices (Local. national and international scales. The push and pull factors causing migration to and from the region. environments and geographical patterns at regional. The process of migration and its effect on the region.1 should be considered as an introduction to the regional studies given in 10. • Be aware of attempts by the European Union to reduce the differences between levels of development in regions of the European Union (Local. • 10. 10. hij 23 . they should develop some understanding of the ties between the UK and the rest of the EU. Rich and Poor Regions in the European Union • Be aware of the general pattern of areas of more than average and less than average levels of economic development within the European Union (the core and the periphery) (International scale). climate and soil on farming in the region (Regional scale ).1. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). in particular. and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people. 10.4. Regional scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). They should also be aware that many aspects of the geography of Europe are in a state of change. International scales) (I)(C)(D). National. and an appreciation of the need to plan for the sustainable use of the environment. National scales) (I)(C)(D). The influence of the "Cassa per il Mezzogiorno" and the EU’s “Integrated Mediterranean Programme” on farming practices (Regional. Students should develop an awareness of interrelationships between people and their environment. 2008 examination .General Certificate of Secondary Education.2 Farming in Southern Italy: Problems and Development on the Periphery • The characteristics of traditional farming in the Mezzogiorno • • • • (Regional scale).Geography B 10 The European Union Through selected studies of the European Union (EU). based on the study of specified regions. Regional. inclusive. students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. (Regional. • Suggest why the core area has highly developed economies. They should realise that places within the EU are interdependent and. and why many areas in the periphery have less developed economies (International scales) (I)(C)(D). The influence of relief. International.

• The origins of tourists visiting Mediterranean Spain (International scale) (I). 2008 examination 10.Geography B . 10. situation. Regional scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). − the Channel Tunnel and its road and rail links with continental Europe (International scale) (I)(C)(D).4 Development of the European Urban Core • A study of the location. (d) the Milan/Turin/Genoa industrial triangle (Local. the growth of one major conurbation within the core region of the European Union to be chosen from: • A planning issue in the chosen conurbation (Local. International scales). Regional.3 Tourism in Mediterranean Spain: Development on the Periphery and the Results of this Development • Location of major tourist areas and the resorts (National scale). National. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). (Local. functions and reasons for (a) Rotterdam/Europoort. its port infrastructure and its sea links to Europe. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). (c) the Paris region. Questions will be limited to: − one major port (excluding London). • The effects of tourism on the economy and the environment of the region (Local. 24 hij . • The physical factors (including landscape and climate) and the economic factors which led to the growth of the tourist industry in Spain and the source regions from where the tourists originate.General Certificate of Secondary Education. • The links between England and the rest of the European Union. (b) the Ruhr conurbation. its road links within its hinterland.

11. They should be aware that many aspects of the geography of the world are in a state of change. The location of the Ganges Delta (Regional. Traditional shifting cultivation. This should help students to develop further their understanding of global citizenship. • 11.1 Amazonia: Development in the Rainforest Environment • • • • The location of Amazonia (Regional. 2008 examination . Global scales). Regional scales). The relationship between climate. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). National. soil and vegetation in the rainforest ecosystem (Local. The development of eco-tourism. International scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). International scales). and an appreciation of the need to plan for the sustainable use of the environment. International scales) The formation and physical features of the Ganges Delta (Regional. timber exploitation and mining. candidates are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. A consideration of the possibility of sustainable development in the context of these case studies. national and international scales. Description and explanation of the processes leading to the development of the monsoon (Local. modern farming. International. Students should realise that places throughout the world are interdependent. National scales). (Local. Regional. Description and simple explanation of the climate. Global scales). The role of international aid donors in encouraging sustainable development. In particular. and attempts to reduce the damage they cause (International. based on the study of specified regions. including the formation of convection rainfall (Regional. Description of the tropical monsoon climate. environments and geographical patterns at regional.General Certificate of Secondary Education. Students should also develop an awareness of interactions between people and their environment. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). A consideration of the contribution eco-tourism could make to sustainable development (Local. Regional.Geography B 11 The Wider World Through selected studies of the wider world. Regional. showing the impact of each of these on the environment. The causes and consequences of tropical storms and floods. students should develop some understanding of the ties between more economically developed and less economically developed countries (MEDCs and LEDCs).2 The Ganges Delta: Dense Population in a High Risk Environment • • • • hij 25 . and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people.

the need for imports and the influence of these on the distribution of population (National. Regional scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). The organisation of the Japanese manufacturing industry. National scales). A consideration of whether these changes can lead to sustainable development (Local. The location of the four main islands and the major settlements on Honshu (National scale).Geography B . Japan’s shortage of raw materials. Industrial pollution in Japan: its causes and attempted solutions (Regional.3 Japan: Urbanisation and Industrialisation in a Resource-Poor Environment • • • • • 26 hij . National scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). National scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). • 11.General Certificate of Secondary Education. 2008 examination • Traditional subsistence rice farming and the changes to the people/environment brought about by technological changes linked with the Green Revolution. Factors affecting birth rates and death rates in either India or Bangladesh (Regional. Factors affecting the distribution of the motor vehicle and electronics industries within Japan (Regional. National scales). The main physical features of Japan and their influence on population distribution and industrial zones (Regional. International scales) (I)(S)(C)(D).

developed from topics studied in the previous sections of the specification content. including self-help schemes and schemes managed by the authorities (Local.Geography B 12 Global Issues Students will study selected global issues. They should be aware that many aspects of the geography of the world are in a state of change. bilateral and multilateral.General Certificate of Secondary Education. • • • • • 12. Japan or the United Kingdom) (National. The consequences of rapid population growth in less economically developed countries (Local. National scales) (I)(S)(C)(D).official aid. . National. Questions will be limited to: . International scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). 2008 examination . They should develop an awareness of interactions between people and their environment and an appreciation of the need to plan globally for the sustainable use of the environment. Attempts to improve conditions in squatter settlements. The world pattern of urbanisation (Global scale). The push/pull model of urbanisation as seen in either Brazil or India or Bangladesh (Local. students should develop some understanding of the ties between more economically developed and less economically developed countries (MEDCs and LEDCs). . inclusive. and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people. The types of international aid. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). . Investment and International Development • hij 27 . Regional. Regional.debt relief (International. In particular. They should realise that places throughout the world are interdependent. Bangladesh or Brazil) with that in one more economically developed country (e. Through these studies students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. 9 to 11. Regional.1 Population Growth and Urbanisation • A comparison of population structure in one less economically developed country (India. The development of squatter settlements and the informal sector of the economy as a consequence of rapid urbanisation in one large urban area in either Brazil or India or Bangladesh (Local. Regional scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). 12.2 Aid. This should help students to develop further their understanding of global citizenship. International scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).g. National scales) (I)(S)(C)(D).voluntary aid. environments and geographical patterns at international and global scales.short-term and long-term aid.

Regional.burning of fossil fuels. A study of one development project in a less economically developed country (Local scale) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).the rise in sea level and how this might affect low lying areas such as the Ganges Delta and eastern England. . The role of trans-national corporations in international development. • Attempts to reduce global warming and to manage its consequences thus allowing more sustainable development. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). International. Japanese investment in the EU and the Pacific Rim countries (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).reduction of fossil fuel use and development of renewable energy.construction of sea defences (Local. The role of international aid donors in encouraging sustainable development (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). 2008 examination • The scale of international aid compared to the needs of less economically developed countries (International.Geography B . • • • 12. International. 28 hij . Questions will be limited to: .3 Global Warming: Its Causes and Consequences • • The consequences of global warming to the people/environment relationship.General Certificate of Secondary Education. . Global scales). Questions will be limited to: . Regional. International. Factors affecting the Greenhouse Effect. . Questions will be limited to: . (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).the increase in extreme weather events and climatic unpredictability (Local. National. National.destruction of the rainforest (National. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).

food and the environment (9. The abbreviations referred to below and in Sections 9 to 12.Geography B 13 List of Geographical Terms The following words and phrases must be known and understood by candidates.3) Accessibility Arête Conservation Corrie Frost shattering (Glacial) abrasion (Glacial) trough Glaciation Glacier Honey pot site Ice Age National Park Plucking Ribbon lake hij 29 . inclusive. 2008 examination .2) Agri-business Arable farming Diversification Eutrophication Extensive farming Habitat Hill sheep farming Input Intensive farming Mechanisation Output Pastoral farming Process Rain shadow Relief rainfall Subsidy Tourism in a glacial environment: the Lake District National Park (9.General Certificate of Secondary Education. of the specification content must also be known to candidates. River basins and their management (9.1) Abrasion Attrition Bed-load Bouncing Condensation Confluence Deposition Discharge Dragging Drainage basin Erosion Estuary Evaporation Flood plain Ground water Ground-water flow Hydraulic erosion Impermeable rock Infiltration Interception Interlocking spurs Lateral erosion Levée Load Meander Mouth Ox-bow lake Percolation Permeable rock Precipitation Reservoir River cliff Run-off Saltation Slip-off slope Solution Source Suspension Temperature range Through flow Traction Transportation Tributary Velocity Vertical erosion V-shaped valley Waterfall and gorge Watershed Water table Weathering Farming.

1) Core Gross national product (GNP) Gross national product (GNP) per capita Level of development Periphery Farming in Southern Italy: problems and development on the periphery (10.General Certificate of Secondary Education.2) Land reform “Push” and “pull” factors Tourism in Mediterranean Spain: development on the periphery (10.4) Electricity generation Fossil fuel Hydro-electric power (HEP) Non-renewable energy Renewable energy Thermal power station Heavy industry Location Raw material Secondary industry Site Gentrification Green belt Housing renovation Inner city Migration Out-of-town shopping centre Retail park Rural-urban fringe Shopping centre Slum clearance Suburb Suburbanisation Twilight zone Urbanisation Urban morphology The changing location of manufacturing industry (9.6) Rich and poor regions in the European Union (10.5) Break-of-bulk Brownfield site Capital Footloose industry Greenfield site Central Business District (CBD) Commuter Commuter village Comprehensive re-development Counter-urbanisation Understanding the modern urban environment (9.Geography B . 2008 examination Electricity generation for the future (9.4) Core Periphery Amazonia: development in the rainforest environment (11.1) Buttress root Canopy Convection rainfall Deforestation Drip tip Eco-tourism Emergent Leaching Rain forest Shifting cultivation Sustainable development 30 hij .3) Functions Situation Development of the European Urban Core (10.

2008 examination .General Certificate of Secondary Education.2) Delta Distributary Eye High pressure air High yielding variety (HYV) Hybrid seed Low pressure air Storm surge Tropical cyclone Japan: urbanisation and industrialisation in a resource-poor environment (11.3) Assembly plant Capital investment Component Export Formal sector of the economy Informal sector of the economy Squatter settlement Aid.Geography B The Ganges Delta: dense population in a high risk environment (11.3) hij 31 . investment and international development (12.2) Bilateral aid Debt relief Long-term aid Manufactured products Multi-lateral aid Official aid Greenhouse Effect Primary product Short-term aid Trade Transnational corporation (TNC) Voluntary aid Import Pollution USA Population growth and urbanisation (12.1) Global warming: its causes and consequences (12.

processing and presenting the data collected. Drawing sketches from photographs and in the field. direction.3 Graphical Skills Construct line. Interpret a variety of graphs. the results and the conclusions. understanding and applying the geographical principles underlying the enquiry. 14. including those located on maps and topological diagrams.2 Cartographic Skills Atlas maps: recognising and describing distributions and patterns of both human and physical features. describing.General Certificate of Secondary Education. 14. bar. sketches etc. patterns of vegetation and land use. different land use zones of settlements. 14. 32 hij . patterns of communications. hypotheses. Complete a variety of graphs and maps including choropleth. location. issues. evaluating the methods of data collection. 2008 examination 14 Geographical Skills Checklist Candidates are required to develop a range of geographical skills including cartographic. height and degree of slope. understand and interpret sketch maps. graphs. enquiry and ICT skills.1 Basic Skills Labelling and annotation of diagrams. Establish and follow appropriate enquiry approaches to include: • • • • • • identifying and collecting a range of appropriate evidence from primary (including fieldwork) and secondary sources. draw and annotate cross-sections. drawing conclusions. infer human activity from map evidence. simple contour patterns. use maps in association with photographs.Geography B . four and six figure grid references. Photographs: candidates should be able to use and interpret aerial/oblique and satellite photographs of rural and/or urban landscapes.4 Geographical Enquiry Skills Identification of geographical questions. Sketch maps: draw. recognise symbols. recording. graphical. isoline and proportional symbols. Ordnance survey maps: 1:50 000 scale. straight line and winding distances. 14. Literacy: most communication is through the written word raising the importance of good literacy skills. shape and pattern of settlement. label. explaining and analysing the data. scattergraphs and pie diagrams. maps.

2. Use of the Internet and GIS to access news information on 12. 2008 examination . Use of spreadsheets and data handling to investigate 12.1. hij 33 . • • • • • • • • • Using the Internet to access web sites which can help with an enquiry based upon 9. Extraction of information from video and TV programmes about 10. The Ganges Delta. Photographs and satellite images concerning 11. Farming.1.5 ICT Skills Candidates are required to develop skills in the use of ICT. The changing location of manufacturing industry.2. CD ROMs loaded with map extracts and images of different cultures as background for 11. Japan: urbanisation and industrialisation in a resource-poor environment. Word processing.2. investment and international development. Global warming. Use of databases made available by the EU to provide information for 10. In the following examples the figures refer to the specification content.3.Geography B 14.4. Aid. There is a wide range of opportunities in the specification for students to develop and use ICT skills. data presentation and analysis techniques to assist in the preparation of a coursework investigation on 9. Research and presentation of coursework.General Certificate of Secondary Education. food and the environment.1. Tourism in Mediterranean Spain. Development of the European urban core.

1 34 hij . A course based on this specification will normally require a student to become practised in different media. The units for each Key Skill comprise three sections: A B C What you need to know What you must do Guidance Candidates following a course of study based on this specification for geography can be offered opportunities to develop and generate evidence of attainment in aspects of the Key Skills of Communication. 2008 examination Key Skills and Other Issues 15 Key Skills – Teaching.qca.2 Key Skills Opportunities in Geography The study of a course based on Geography B provides ample opportunities for the development of evidence of achievement in Key Skills in the context of both classroom work and fieldwork .General Certificate of Secondary Education. are signposted below. 15.Geography B . Information Technology. Working with Others and Problem-Solving. Areas of study and learning that can be used to encourage the acquisition and use of Key Skills. Communication and Information Technology. The acquisition and demonstration of ability in these “wider” Key Skills is deemed highly desirable for all candidates. Application of Number.uk/keyskills). 15. Developing and Providing Opportunities for Generating Evidence Introduction The Key Skills Qualification requires candidates to demonstrate levels of achievement in the Key Skills of Application of Number. Copies of the Key Skills Units may be down loaded from the QCA web site (www. but class based work will similarly produce similar opportunities. The coursework component provides an opportunity for students to problem solve and work with others.org. The units for the “wider” Key Skills of Improving own Learning and Performance. and to provide opportunities to generate evidence for Part B of the units. Working with Others and Problem-Solving are also available. Improving own Learning and Performance. but they do not form part of the Key Skills Qualification.

explore and develop information IT1. including text.2 Present information.3 Interpret results and present findings Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Information Technology Level 1 What you must do … The UK IT1.1 Find.General Certificate of Secondary Education.3 Write different types of documents Application of Number Level 1 What you must do … The UK N1.2 Carry out calculations N1. 2008 examination .2 Read and obtain information C1.1 Interpret information from different sources N1.Geography B Communication Level 1 What you must do … The UK Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills C1.1 Take part in discussions C1. numbers and images Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills hij 35 .

1 Confirm what needs to be done and who is to do it WO1.General Certificate of Secondary Education.2 Plan and try out ways of solving problems PS1.Geography B . 2008 examination Working with Others Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK WO1.2 Work towards agreed objectives WO1.3 Identify progress and suggest improvements The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Improving own Learning and Performance Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK LP1.1 Confirm understanding of given problems PS1.1 Confirm short-term targets and plan how these will be met LP1.3 Review progress and achievements The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Problem Solving Level 1 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK PS1.2 Follow plan to meet targets and improve performance LP1.3 Check if problems have been solved and describe the results The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills 36 hij .

1a Contribute to discussions C2. including text. 2008 examination .3 Write different types of documents The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Application of Number Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK N2.2 Explore and develop information and derive new information IT2. numbers and images Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills hij 37 .3 Interpret results and present findings The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Information Technology Level 2 What you must do … The UK IT2.1 Interpret information from different sources N2.General Certificate of Secondary Education.1b Give a short talk C2.3 Present combined information.2 Read and summarise information C2.Geography B Communication Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK C2.1 Search for and select information IT2.2 Carry out calculations N2.

3 Apply given methods to check if problems have been solved and describe the results The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills 38 hij .2 Work towards agreed objectives WO1.3 Review progress and identify evidence of achievements Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Problem Solving Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK PS2.1 Help set short-term targets and plan how these will be met LP2.1 Confirm what needs to be done and who is to do it WO1.1 Identify problems and come up with ways of solving them PS2. to meet targets LP2. 2008 examination Working with Others Level 2 What you must do … The UK WO1.2 Use plan and support from others.Geography B .General Certificate of Secondary Education.2 Plan and try out options PS2.3 Identify progress and suggest improvements Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Improving Own Learning and Performance Level 2 What you must do … The UK LP2.

hij 39 . 2008 examination .Geography B 15. particularly the Teachers’ Guide.General Certificate of Secondary Education. or composite tasks that can provide evidence of more than one Key Skill are given in the AQA specification support material.3 Further Guidance More specific guidance and examples of tasks that can provide evidence of single Key Skills.

Hill steep farming as a traditional culture in the UK in conflict with modern tourist and intensive economic forces. Areas of Geography B that can offer opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. Moral. Ethical. Responsibility of farmers as “custodians of the countryside”. Moral. Candidates should be aware that the peoples of the world embrace a variety of cultures and that these change over time and space and may be shaped and influenced by their physical environment. consider and discuss moral and ethical issues such as the treatment of individuals. Social. Candidates will have the opportunity to gain a greater awareness of aspects of human life other than the physical and material.General Certificate of Secondary Education. The concept of quality of life should be considered. literature and music. Moral. ethical. Social The needs of all people for access to clean. Compassion in farming. 9.1 Spiritual.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. Ethical. communities or groups by others. Moral.Geography B . The fragility of natural systems and the concept of sustainable development should be familiar. Candidates should show knowledge and an awareness that society is made up of individuals with a variety of opinions that may lead to conflicts of interest. Ethical. The United Kingdom 9. 40 hij . social and cultural issues to help clarify and develop a candidate’s own values and attitudes in relation to geographical issues. Cultural and Other Issues Spiritual. Social. fresh water. Candidates should be encouraged to discern. Cultural and Other Issues The study of a course based on Geography B can contribute to a candidate’s understanding of a range of moral. Ethical. The nature of traditional rural society and the pressures to change this Cultural Rivers in poetry. Social and Cultural issues. Social and Cultural issues are signposted below.2 The spiritual values of forests and their relationship with their land and animals. 2008 examination 16 16. Spiritual The spiritual values of landscape Moral/Ethical Responsibilities of all citizens to manage and conserve water resources and river basins. together with the social and cultural wealth of nations.

Short term exploitation of resources and the environment v.3 The spiritual renewal aspects of holiday making in a beautiful environment. Community needs v. Varying social attitudes in different urban areas. The contrast between traditions in the family society based on community and church. Cultural The multicultured nature of the EU and the development of “European” culture. affect of wind farm development on “unspoilt” scenery). The threat to the planet posed by the development of industry. The needs of urban dwellers for open space for a variety of leisure activities. 2008 examination .6 The spiritual values of architecture – old and new. 10. and the possible extension of this role into Eastern Europe. The role of the MP and Authorities in balancing the needs of local people. 9. Development of multicultural societies in urban areas. 9. remote and unspoilt landscape.3 Values of wild. brownfield development of industry. The European Union 10. 10. 10. and modern social organisation strongly influenced by national and regional government. music and vernacular architecture.5 9. Moral. The contribution local culture can make to the “sense of place” of the chosen urban area.4 hij 41 . including the EU’s support for freedom and democracy in Eastern Europe.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. Concepts of justice linked to wealth distribution and type of housing in urban areas. Ethical. The role of urban planners in resolving conflicts between competing interests. The artist’s view of the Lake District from the 18th Century onwards. Social and Cultural issues. including class. gender.g. The need for open spaces in cities to allow for spiritual renewal and relaxation from stress. Moral/Ethical Concepts of justice linked to wealth distribution on national and international scales. heavy industry and modern footloose industry on the development of local communities and culture. The special nature of mining communities in past periods and the effect on those communities of pit closing. profits in the location of industry. Aspects of Southern Italian culture.4 Aesthetic aspects of energy development (e. long term sustainable development. A comparison of the affects of old. The responsibilities of tourists towards the environment. The attractions of Spanish architecture including both Moorish and local building styles.Geography B 9. The changing position of the Roman Catholic church in Southern Italian society. mining communities/remote rural communities).2 Discussion of the responsibilities of the richer areas of the EU towards the poorer areas. age and ability groups which must be addressed by the urban planners.General Certificate of Secondary Education.g. Social The social advantages and disadvantages of the European Union. A discussion of the ethical implication of greenfield v. such as food. The various effects of energy policy on local communities (e. Spiritual The role of European integration in bringing peace and democracy to Western Europe since 1945. tourists and the environment. The effects of the development of the tourist industry on local society. The differing needs of different groups.

The inter-connection between the North and South.Geography B . The section on the European Union gives candidates ample opportunities to study the European dimension of 21st century society. The responsibility of each individual towards the future of the human race and the environment.2 European Dimension AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community in preparing this specification and associated specimen papers.3 Contrasts between factory organisation in Japan and in the UK. Issues involved in controlling and reversing damage to the environment both in Japan and overseas. Moral. The contribution of aspects of Japanese culture to the “sense of place” of Japan. Moral. Global Issues Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. The dilemmas of developing policies influencing birth and death rates. 12. the local community and the city authorities in urban development and renewal.2 The need for aid to work within existing cultural norms but to tackle issues such as the role of women in traditional cultures. Social The varying roles of the individual. 11. 2008 examination The Wider World 11. The cultural links between India/Bangladesh during the period of the British Empire and in the present. The “oneness” of humanity and the worth of each individual. Cultural The contrast between “global” culture and indigenous culture and the effects of tourism on both.General Certificate of Secondary Education. The contrast between traditional Japanese beliefs about the environment and modern development of the environment. Ethical.2 Contrasts between western and eastern attitudes to development and population issues in the Indian sub-continent. Cultural values to the planet and its future. Social Who “owns” the rainforest and the plants within it that could be exploited in future. Spiritual The attitudes of indigenous people to the environment. or of Mother Theresa and her order in Indian cities. The legacy of colonialism and the debt owed by the developed world to the developing world. 42 hij .3 The temporary nature of each individual compared with the permanence of the planet. Cultural Contrasting cultural attitudes in “slums of hope” and “slums of despair”. 16.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. Moral/Ethical Issues of exploitation versus conservation and stewardship. The nature of different aid-giving organisations and the nature of the organisation delivering aid. People’s attitudes to and perception of natural hazards. Social and Cultural issues.1 The role of liberation theology and worker priests in South American cities. The changes in society that might arise if climate change continues. Ethical. 11. 12. Social and Cultural issues. 12. Spiritual Moral/Ethical Land rights and ownership as a “push” factor in urbanisation and as an issue in the development of squatters’ settlements.

“The influence of physical factors on hill sheep farming in the Lake District” requires a study of environmental relationships.Geography B 16. Examples of where the specification content contributes to this greater awareness are indicated throughout the text.6 hij 43 . “Modern footloose industry … to illustrate the influence of … greenfield sites on location” provides the opportunity for consideration of the need to preserve greenfield sites.5 9.3 9. nuclear power stations with reference to their … environmental impact” requires a study of people’s impact on the environment and of the need to manage and reduce their impact.4 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues.General Certificate of Secondary Education.2 9. “The pressure on tourism. and to education for sustainable development. “The provision of water supplies for urban areas” requires the study of the conservation of water supplies and of the environmental inter-dependence between urban and rural areas. the pressures on that environment and ways to manage that pressure. 2008 examination .1 9. The United Kingdom 9. the need for conservation of the landscape and the conflicts of interest caused” requires an understanding of pressures on the environment and of the need for conservation of the landscape. “Compare the advantages and disadvantages of gas fired. 9. The content of this specification promotes an understanding of geography’s contribution to environmental education.3 Environmental Issues AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community and the Report “Environmental Responsibility: An Agenda for Further and Higher Education” 1993 in preparing this specification and associated specimen papers. “The impact of the increased use of road transport on urban structure and environment. Possible solutions to the problems of traffic in towns” requires a study of the urban environment.

“Attempts to improve conditions in squatter settlements. and the way this issue is being managed. their causes and consequences. responsibilities. “The causes and consequences of tropical storms and floods.Geography B . “The effects of tourism on the environment of the region” requires the study of the environment of Mediterranean Spain and of the way the development of the tourist industry has affected and is affecting the environment. modern farming.2 12. Candidates should develop a knowledge and understanding of rights. 2008 examination The European Union 10.2 10. economic development and environmental issues. “Industrial pollution in Japan: its causes and attempted solutions” requires students to study the impact of modern industry on the environment. 11. and attempts by people to manage their environment and the hazards it presents.5 16. showing the impact of each of these on the environment” requires students to study different ways of using the resources of the rainforest and the varying environmental consequences of these economic systems. AQA has taken great care in the preparation of this specification and associated specimen papers to avoid bias of any kind. “A planning issue in the chosen conurbation” requires students to consider an issue in the urban environment. “Attempts to reduce global warming and to manage its consequences” requires students to consider both attempts to reduce damage. 16. especially through international co-operation. to develop stewardship of the environment. and to manage the consequences of present and future damage i. and attempts to reduce the damage they cause” requires students to study environmental hazards.e.3 Global Issues 12. Examples of where the specification content contributes to this greater awareness are indicated throughout the text.General Certificate of Secondary Education.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues.4 Citizenship Geography B offers ample scope to include citizenship as part of a scheme of work and these are indicated throughout the specification content. timber exploitation and mining. 10.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues. even if rather belatedly. including self-help schemes” requires students to study some of the most extreme problems in the urban environment and to consider ways that people can manage and improve the conditions of their environment through individual and/or community effort. issues of diversity. “Case studies to exemplify traditional shifting cultivation.3 16.4 The Wider World 11. and attempts to reduce the damage done to the environment by improving management.2 11. 12.6 Avoidance of Bias Health and Safety 44 hij . and ways in which it can be achieved. Candidates should be made aware of health and safety issues particularly in developing the skills and techniques required in fieldwork investigation. “The role of international aid donors in encouraging sustainable development”. legal and democratic institutions and processes. “The push and pull factors causing migration to and from the region” requires the study of environmental pressures on people and of the inter-relationships between the environments of Northern and Southern Italy.3 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues.

Details will be provided when AQA knows which centres are following the specification. will be assessed. Where work is undertaken within a group. 18. Investigations may be hand-written or prepared using information technology (ICT). 18 18.1 Presentation Guidance on Setting the CentreAssessed Component Coursework must be completed and compiled into one folder. techniques to be used in the field and the production of their reports). and must be identified with the centre and candidate number.Geography B Centre-Assessed Component 17 Nature of the Centre-Assessed Component This component requires one geographical fieldwork investigation at a local/small scale to be produced which allows each candidate to investigate an argument. Candidates may be advised on the focus of the investigation and the selection of source materials (such as statistics. 2008 examination . Candidates are to be advised that the total coursework should be approximately 2500 words. This should be presented on A4 paper (any larger material must be folded to this size). although candidates will not gain any extra credit simply for its use. people to interview. stream survey or pedestrian count). recording and use must take place within the investigation.General Certificate of Secondary Education.g. The quality of presentation and range of skills used. The design of the tasks should give all candidates the opportunity to achieve the level of marks commensurate with their ability. it is important that candidates are able to show their own initiative and that their own work is readily identifiable.2 Planning Teachers should advise candidates on their choice of topic to ensure that each candidate is able to show “what he or she understand and can do”. a questionnaire. First-hand data collection (e. The use of ICT is encouraged. 45 hij . 18. The sheets of each candidate’s work must be paginated and secured together. The investigation which candidates undertake should be appropriate to their abilities and allow them to show their initiative. visits. problem or issue.3 Coursework Advisers Coursework Advisers will be available to assist centres with any matters relating to coursework. The topics chosen for investigation must relate to some part of the specification content. Centres should select tasks appropriate to the abilities of their candidates. regardless of the methods employed. or is teacher initiated.

and express ideas with considerable accuracy in the use of English. 2008 examination 19 19. Selection. to present and develop the information appropriate to their investigation. Attempts are made to analyse the results. The candidate identifies a question or issue. observation. some of which are ICT based. fluent and logical form using precise and accurate English. collection and recording uses a range of appropriate techniques. Selection. observation.General Certificate of Secondary Education. demonstrates an understanding of the ideas and concepts involved. Conclusions are drawn that relate to the original purpose of the enquiry. demonstrates a thorough understanding of the ideas. using a range of geographical terms. The work is well organised. through description and explanation. Data Presentation The candidate uses a limited range of basic techniques. some of which are ICT based. concepts and processes involved. the sequence of investigation and describes the methods used in obtaining the information. The candidate describes how the enquiry process can be improved by questioning how the reliability of the methods used to collect the data have affected the accuracy of results and the validity of conclusions. The candidate identifies a question or issue.Geography B . collection and recording uses a comprehensive range of appropriate techniques. some of which are ICT based. and express ideas in a clear. using a wide range of geographical terms. Uses a limited range of geographical terminology. Methodology The candidate identifies a question or issue and lists the methods used in obtaining the information. In referring specifically to the data. The candidate describes the sequence of investigation. The candidate makes valid statements about the results. The candidate describes how the enquiry process can be improved by questioning the reliability of the methods used to collect the data and/or the accuracy of the results.1 Criteria Strand Applied Understanding Level 1 Marks 1-2 Assessment Criteria Criteria for assessing coursework component. valid conclusions are drawn that relate to the original purpose of the enquiry. The candidate uses accurately a range of techniques. The candidate demonstrates links through a detailed analysis of the material. Evaluation The candidate briefly describes how the enquiry process can be improved by questioning the reliability of the methods used to collect the data. Uses a range of geographical terminology. to present the information and express simple ideas with some degree of accuracy. Level 3 Marks 5-6 The candidate locates the study area in detail and. Selection. The work is organised and planned and shows some evidence of the development of tasks. Data Interpretation The candidate gives a brief description of the results and/or suggests basic reasons for the results. explains why that particular question or issue was chosen. The candidate uses accurately a range of more complex techniques. the methods used in obtaining the information and explains why the methods selected are relevant to their investigation. to present and develop the information. collection and recording uses a limited range of basic techniques. demonstrates some understanding of the ideas and concepts involved and can apply them in a simple manner to the geographical topic. planned and shows evidence of originality and initiative by the candidate. 46 hij . through description and explanation. Uses a wide range of geographical terminology. observation. and can apply them constructively to the geographical topic. The candidate locates the study area in a basic manner and through brief description. Level 2 Marks 3-4 The candidate locates the study area and. and can apply them to the geographical topic.

1 Supervision of Candidates’ Work Supervision and Authentication Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to be authenticated. The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned. When the assessments are complete.2 Guidance by the Teacher hij 47 .2 Coursework Mark Table Assessment Objective Coverage AO3 AO4 AO4 AO3 AO4 Strand Applied Understanding Methodology Data Presentation Data Interpretation Evaluation Total Maximum Mark Available 6 6 6 6 6 30 19.General Certificate of Secondary Education. 2008 examination .Geography B 19. the exact design may be modified before the operational version is issued and the correct year’s Candidate Record Forms should always be used. with supporting information given in the spaces provided. 20 20. Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record Form. A specimen Candidate Record Form appears in Appendix B. If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done outside the centre. the marks awarded under each of the assessment criteria must be entered on the Candidate Record Form. 20. sufficient work must take place under direct supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole work with confidence.3 Evidence to Support the Award of Marks Teachers should keep records of their assessments during the course in a form which facilities the complete and accurate submission of the final assessments at the end of the course.

where a significant adjustment has been made to a centre’s marks in the previous year’s examination. and records details of any additional assistance. 20. Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. the supervising teacher is responsible for informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice. The penalties for malpractice are set out in the AQA Regulations. If only one teacher has undertaken the marking.Geography B . 21. If two or more teachers are involved in marking a component. After the first year. The centre is required to send to the moderator the Centre Declaration Sheet. Common pieces of work must be marked on a trial basis and differences between assessments discussed at a training session in which all teachers involved must participate. Attendance is also mandatory in the following cases: • • • where there has been a serious misinterpretation of the specification requirements. Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's own. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the specified conditions. attendance is at the discretion of centres. that person must sign this form. A specimen Centre Declaration Sheet appears in Appendix B. 2008 examination 20.1 Standardising Meetings Standardisation Annual standardising meetings will usually be held in the autumn term.2 Internal Standardisation of Marking The centre is required to standardise the assessments across different teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates at the centre have been judged against the same standards. Centres entering candidates for the first time must send a representative to the meetings. one teacher must be designated as responsible for internal standardisation. 48 hij .General Certificate of Secondary Education. The teacher responsible for standardising the marking must ensure that the training includes the use of reference and archive materials such as work from a previous year or examples provided by AQA. to confirm that the marking of centreassessed work at the centre has been standardised. and must understand that to present material copied directly from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation of coursework to be submitted for assessment. At these meetings support will be provided for centres in the development of appropriate coursework tasks and assessment procedures.3 Unfair Practice At the start of the course.4 Authentication of Candidates’ Work 21 21. where the nature of coursework tasks set by a centre has been inappropriate. duly signed.

Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. from the time it is assessed. Factors Affecting Individual Candidates Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make up missed assessments. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre should take responsibility for assessment. to allow for the possibility of an enquiry upon results. Where special help which goes beyond normal learning support is given. 22. hij 49 .2 Submitting Marks and Sample The total component mark for each candidate must be submitted to AQA on the mark sheets provided or by Electronic Data Interchange Work for Moderation (EDI) by the specified date.General Certificate of Secondary Education. the work must remain under secure conditions until requested by AQA. If an enquiry upon result is to be made. AQA must be informed so that such help can be taken into account when assessment and moderation take place. how it occurred. with Candidate Record Form attached.Geography B 22 22. If work is lost. Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move takes place. The completed Candidate Record Form for each candidate must be attached to the work and made available to AQA on request. Centres will be informed which candidates’ work is required in the samples to be submitted to the moderator. 22. These marks have a shelf-life which is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases. AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the loss.3 22.4 Retaining Evidence and Re-Using Marks The centre must retain the work of all candidates. Candidates re-taking the examination may carry forward their moderated coursework marks. under secure conditions. The marks and supporting information must be recorded in accordance with the instructions in Section 19. and they may be carried forward an unlimited number of times within this shelf-life. If it occurs late in the course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the previous centre.1 Recording Assessments Administrative Procedures The candidates’ work must be marked according to the assessment criteria set out in Section 19. AQA will advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. and who was responsible for the loss. Information about the procedure is issued separately. 2008 examination . The work may be returned to candidates after the issue of results provided that no enquiry upon result is to be made which will include re-moderation of the coursework component.

The candidates' work is returned to the centre after the examination with a report form from the moderator giving feedback to the centre on the appropriateness of the tasks set. In order to meet this possible request. the moderator’s marks are compared with the centre marks to determine whether any adjustment is needed in order to bring the centre’s assessments into line with standards generally. Mark adjustments will normally preserve the centre’s order of merit.Geography B .1 Moderation Procedures Moderation Moderation of the coursework is by inspection of a sample of candidates' work. the centre is supplied with details of the final marks for the coursework component. 23. sent by post from the centre to a moderator appointed by AQA.General Certificate of Secondary Education. but where major discrepancies are found.2 Post-Moderation Procedures On publication of the GCSE results. In some cases it may be necessary for the moderator to call for the work of other candidates. and the reasons for any adjustments to the marks. 50 hij . centres must have available the coursework and Candidate Record Form of every candidate entered for the examination and be prepared to submit it on demand. the accuracy of the assessments made. The centre marks must be submitted to AQA and the sample of work must reach the moderator by the specified date in the year in which the qualification is awarded. Following the re-marking of the sample work. AQA reserves the right to alter the order or merit. 2008 examination 23 23. Some candidates' work may be retained by AQA for archive purposes.

2008 examination .2 Qualification Titles Grading System Grading. Shelf-Life and Re-Sits The qualification based on this specification has the following title: AQA GCSE in Geography B. 24.1 24. The qualification will be graded on an 8 point grade scale A*. These marks have a shelf-life which is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. GCE. For candidates entered for the Higher Tier A*-D are available. Candidates must be entered for either the Foundation Tier or Higher Tier.Geography B Awarding and Reporting 24 24. Candidates who fail to achieve a Grade E on the Higher Tier or Grade G on the Foundation Tier will be reported as unclassified. E.4 24. Candidates who fail to reach the minimum standard for grade G will be recorded as U (unclassified) and will not receive a qualification certificate.6 Awarding and Reporting hij 51 . A. and they may be carried forward an unlimited number of times within this shelf-life.5 Minimum Requirements Carrying Forward of CentreAssessed Marks Candidates will be graded on the basis of work submitted for assessment. There is a safety net for candidates entered for the Higher Tier where an allowed Grade E will be awarded where candidates just fail to achieve Grade D. VCE and GNVQ Code of Practice 2006/07 and will be revised in the light of any subsequent changes for future years. B. The specification complies with the grading. F. For candidates entered for the Foundation Tier. This does not preclude such candidates from resubmitting coursework in a modified form or from submitting completely new coursework. 24. G. Candidates re-taking the examination may carry forward their moderated coursework marks. 24.3 Re-Sits Candidates re-taking the examination may carry forward their moderated coursework marks. and they may be carried forward an unlimited number of times within this shelf-life. D.General Certificate of Secondary Education. These marks have a shelf-life which is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. C. grades C–G are available. awarding and certification requirements of the GCSE.

They give a general indication of the required learning outcomes at each specific grade. Grade A Candidates recall accurately detailed information about places. implementing effective sequences of investigation. They understand thoroughly the way in which a wide range of physical and human processes interact to influence the development of geographical patterns. and their interdependence. Candidates undertake geographical investigation. drawing selectively on geographical ideas to interpret evidence. Shortcomings in some aspects of the examination may be balanced by better performances in others. and how considerations of sustainable development affect the planning and management of environments and resources. They understand complex interrelationships between people and the environment. The descriptors should be interpreted in relation to the content outlined in the specification. They evaluate the significance and effects of values and attitudes of those involved in geographical issues and in decision-making about the use and management of environments. the geographical characteristics of particular places and environments. as required by the specification. and critically evaluating the validity and limitations of evidence and conclusions. collecting a range of appropriate evidence from a variety of primary and secondary sources. 2008 examination Appendices A Grade Descriptions The following grade descriptors indicate the level of attainment characteristic of the given grade at GCSE.General Certificate of Secondary Education. reaching substantiated conclusions. and apply their understanding to analyses of unfamiliar contexts. and show detailed knowledge of location and geographical terminology. Candidates understand thoroughly geographical ideas from the specification content. they are not designed to define that content. across all scales. identifying relevant questions. using effectively relevant skills and techniques. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon the extent to which the candidate has met the assessment objectives (as in section 6) overall. 52 hij . communicating clearly and effectively outcomes.Geography B . environments and themes.

hij 53 . and the idea of sustainable development. and show an elementary level of knowledge of location and geographical terminology. They understand interrelationships between people and the environment and appreciate that considerations of sustainable development affect the planning and management of environments and resources. communicating outcomes. as required by the specification. drawing simple maps and diagrams. at a range of scales. Grade F Candidates recall basic information about places. as required by the specification. 2008 examination . They understand the effects of values and attitudes of those involved in geographical issues and in decision-making about the use and management of environments. communicating information and outcomes by brief statements. and show a broad knowledge of location and geographical terminology. the geographical characteristics of particular places and environments. Candidates undertake geographical investigation collecting and recording geographical evidence from primary and secondary sources.General Certificate of Secondary Education. and their interdependence. and appreciating some of the limitations of evidence and conclusions. reaching plausible conclusions. environments and themes. and recognising some of the limitations of evidence. Candidates understand geographical ideas from the specification content in a variety of physical and human contexts. They understand a range of physical and human processes and their contribution to the development of geographical patterns. They understand some simple interrelationships between people and the environment. They show some awareness of the values and attitudes of people involved in geographical issues and in decision-making about the use and management of environments. using a range of relevant skills and techniques. Candidates understand some simple geographical ideas from the specification content in a particular context. Candidates undertake geographical investigation. suggesting appropriate sequences of investigation.Geography B Grade C Candidates recall accurately information about places. environments and themes. identifying questions or issues. at more than one scale. They understand some simple physical and human processes and recognise that they contribute to the development of geographical patterns and the geographical characteristics of places and environments. collecting appropriate evidence from a variety of primary and secondary sources.

General Certificate of Secondary Education.…………………… This is to certify that marks have been awarded in accordance with the requirements of the specification and that every reasonable step has been taken to ensure that the work presented is that of the candidates named. one of them must be designated as responsible for standardising the marking of all teachers at the centre who mark the unit. 2008 examination B Record Forms Centre-assessed work abc Specification Title: Centre Name: Authentication …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………… Signature(s) of teacher(s) responsible for assessment Teacher 1 Teacher 3 Teacher 5 ………………………………………..………… ……………………………………….……………………………… Date: Date: ……………………… …………………… This form should be completed and sent to the moderator with the sample of centre-assessed work.Geography B .………… ……………………………………….………… (Continue overleaf if necessary) Internal Standardisation of Marking Each centre must standardise the assessments for this unit across different teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates in the centre have been judged against the same standards.…………………………………… ……………….………………………………… ……………………………………….. I confirm that: (a) *I have marked the work of all candidates for this component. that person should sign below.………… Centre Declaration Sheet Series/Year Unit Code: Centre No: ……….….. Any assistance given to candidates beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification has been recorded on the Candidate Record Form(s) and has been taken into account. Teacher 2 Teacher 4 Teacher 6 ……………. The marks given reflect accurately the unaided achievement of the candidates. The following declaration must be signed by the teacher responsible for ensuring standardisation... If all the work has been marked by the same person. hij 54 . (b) *the procedure described in the specification has been followed at this centre to ensure that the marking is of the same standard for all candidates. If two or more teachers are involved in marking a unit. Signed: ……………………………………………………………………………………… Signature of Head of Centre ………………………....

.…………………………….General Certificate of Secondary Education. Declaration by Candidate I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). 2008 examination . you must list these below. or if you cheat in any other way. information leaflets or other materials (e. give details below. If you have answered YES.Geography B abc Centre Name: Candidate Name: …………………………………………………………. Sources of advice and information Centre-assessed work Candidate Record Form Series/Year Geography B (3032) Centre No: Candidate No: 1. This side is to be completed by the candidate. If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you.. hij 55 . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. If you have used any books. software packages or information from the Internet) to help you complete this work. ………………………………………………………. you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned.……………. This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre or sent to the moderator as required. Candidate’s Signature: ……………………………………………. unless they are clearly acknowledged in the work itself. Date: …………. (Write YES or NO) 2. I have produced the attached work without any help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the production of this work? …………………………….g videos. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… NOTICE TO CANDIDATE The work you submit for assessment must be your own.….. To present material copied from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

Coursework Mark Table Strand Applied Understanding Methodology Data Presentation Data Interpretation Evaluation Total Maximum Mark Available 6 6 6 6 6 30 Centre Mark Details of additional assistance given (if any) Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification.Geography B . 2008 examination This side is to be completed by the teacher. Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in Section 19 of the specification. Teacher’s Signature: ……………………………………………….General Certificate of Secondary Education. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.……………………… Date: …………………… 56 hij . Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations on the candidate’s work and in the spaces below.

• • • • • Air. There is also peripheral overlap with GCSE Religious Studies B. Environment and Tourism. There is some degree of overlap with the following AQA GCSE specifications. Again the focus and scientific approach to study is significantly different to that for geography.Geography B C Overlaps with Other Qualifications There are overlaps in content between AQA GCSE in Geography B and other GCSE Geography specifications. and Module 2: The Relationships between Society. The focus and approach to study are. however. Reference to a restriction on multiple entry for AQA GCSE in Geography B with other GCSE Geography specifications is made in Section 3. although the perspective relates to beliefs and morality. 2008 examination .3. Water and Energy Rock and Soils Organisms and the Environment Farming Fisheries and Forestry Waste and Pollution GCSE Science: Single and Double Awards. along with GCSE Human Physiology and Health.General Certificate of Secondary Education. hij 57 . also have some peripheral overlap with AQA GCSE in Geography B. invariably different. All modules in this specification look at issues concerning poverty and/or environmental conservation. Overlap also occurs in GCSE Environmental Science in which the following themes touch upon the content that can be found within AQA GCSE in Geography B. and some overlap with the Option Modules 5: Global Inequality and 6: People and Work. In GCSE Humanities there is overlap with the key ideas of Core Module 1: Environmental Issues. There are some overlaps in content with GCSE Travel and Tourism Module 1: Tourism Destinations.

Also. and the establishment of the National Qualifications Framework.1 Changes at GCSE Key Skills All GCSE specifications must identify. opportunities for generating evidence on which candidates may be assessed in the “main” Key Skills of communication. where appropriate. moral. cultural. application of number and information technology at the appropriate level(s). 1. improving own learning and performance. all the Unitary Awarding Bodies have revised their GCSE syllabuses for examination in 2003 onwards. and problem solving. 58 hij .Geography B (Short Course) . All specifications must identify ways in which the study of the subject can contribute to an awareness and understanding of these issues. environmental.General Certificate of Secondary Education. In each specification candidates will be required to make effective use of ICT in ways appropriate to the needs of the subject. 2008 examination Background Information 1 The Revised General Certificate of Secondary Education Following a review of the National Curriculum requirements. they must identify opportunities for developing and generating evidence for addressing the “wider” Key Skills of working with others. social. as appropriate. ethical. Spiritual. health and safety. and European issues ICT The National Curriculum requires that students should be given opportunities to apply and develop their ICT capacity through the use of ICT tools to support their learning.

General Certificate of Secondary Education. i. hij 59 .Geography B (Short Course) Tiering In most subjects the scheme of assessment must include question papers. skills and understanding.D. students in England will be required to study Citizenship as a National Curriculum subject. A* . The questions will still be targeted at A* . 2008 examination .D and C . opportunities for developing citizenship knowledge. targeted at two tiers of grades. Each GCSE specification must signpost.e.G. A safety net of an allowed Grade E will be provided for candidates entered for the higher tier who just fail to achieve Grade D. Citizenship In 2002. where appropriate.

General Certificate of Secondary Education. AQA GCSE (Short Course) in Geography C is an issues-based specification. A question based upon a UK Ordnance Survey map extract at a scale of 1:50 000 will be included. There are two tiers of assessment: Foundation (G-C) and Higher (D-A*). All short course specifications emphasise the need to address contemporary concerns and issues. AQA GCSE (Short Course) in Geography A adopts a peopleenvironment theme throughout the subject content. All questions are compulsory. 60 hij . The Wider World. This is one of three specifications in the subject offered by AQA. Each section will include some short answer questions followed by a structured question. The European Union. 2008 examination 2 Specification at a Glance Geography B (Short Course) GCSE 3037 Written Paper 1 75% of total marks 1¼ hours Foundation Tier 3037F Higher Tier 3037H Each question paper/answer booklet will comprise a section on each of the following four areas: • • • • The United Kingdom. Coursework 25 % of total marks Coursework of approximately 1250 words based on a fieldwork investigation at a local/small scale. highlighting the importance of this interaction.Geography B (Short Course) . Global Issues.

GCSE. Arrangements may be made to enable candidates with disabilities or other difficulties to access the assessment.2 Availability of Assessment Units Entry Codes Availability of Assessment Units and Entry Details Examinations based on this specification are available in the June examination series only. but the following information should be noted.3 Prohibited Combinations Candidates entered for Geography B (Short Course) may not enter for any other GCSE full or short course geography specification in the same examination series. 3. indicating the subject area to which it belongs. Assessment materials will not be provided in Welsh or Gaeilge.aqa. Special consideration may be requested for candidates whose work has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. Further details can be found in the Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ) document: Access Arrangements for Special Consideration Regulations and Guidance Relating to Candidates who are Eligible for Adjustments in Examination GCE.Geography B (Short Course) 3 3. The Subject Code for entry to the GCSE award is Code 3037. Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more that one GCSE qualification with the same classification code. The classification code for this specification is code 3910. 3.6 Language of Examinations All assessment will be through the medium of English. Entry Level & Key Skills This document can be viewed via the AQA web site (www.4 Private Candidates This specification is available for private candidates.uk) 3.org. GNVQ. VCE. 2008 examination . hij 61 .5 Access Arrangements and Special Consideration Applications for access arrangements and special consideration should be submitted to AQA by the Examinations Officer at the centre. Normal entry requirements apply.1 3. Each specification is assigned to a national classification code. will have only one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and College Performance Tables. 3. Private candidates should write to AQA for a copy of “Supplementary Guidance for Private Candidates”. AQA pays due regard to the provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 in its administration of this specification. An example of an access arrangement is the production of a Braille paper for a candidate with a visual impairment.General Certificate of Secondary Education.

3 Prior Level of Attainment and Recommended Prior Learning No prior learning or level of attainment is necessary for candidates to undertake a course of study based on this specification. understanding and skills established by the National Curricula of England. Wales and Northern Ireland: Common Criteria. centres in Northern Ireland must draw upon sufficient Northern Ireland examples of place to fulfil their statutory requirements. The Arrangements for the Statutory Regulation of External Qualifications in England. Wales and Northern Ireland. knowledge and understanding of patterns and processes. Geography B (Short Course) encourages the development and provides many opportunities for the development of literacy and numeracy skills. The GCSE and GCE A/AS Code of Practice. This specification builds on the knowledge.2 Rationale This specification is distinctive amongst those provided by AQA in that it is essentially place specific. In this specification there is not the concentration of skills in a separate section/component of the examination. 62 hij . national and global scales. The GCSE Qualification Specific Criteria. knowledge and understanding of places. The specification includes a number of prescribed areas that provide the opportunity to address geographical themes and issues at local. they are assessed wherever appropriate throughout the two components.Geography B (Short Course) . Where place is not specified centres may use their own choice of case studies. Throughout the subject content.1 National Criteria Introduction This GCSE (Short Course) in Geography specification complies with the following: • • • • The GCSE Subject Criteria for Geography. 2008 examination Scheme of Assessment 4 4. 4.General Certificate of Secondary Education. This specification builds on the four aspects of geography identified in the English National Curriculum: • • • geographical enquiry and skills. 4. regional.

environments and geographical patterns at a range of scales from local to global. In addition. fieldwork and information. c. acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. e. 5 Aims The aims set out below describe the educational purposes of following a course based on Geography B (Short Course). hij 63 . including decision making. as well as awareness of the ways in which people and environments interact. d. f. It lays an appropriate foundation for further study of geography or related subjects. in relation to geographical issues and questions. as well as an understanding of the physical and human processes. 2008 examination . challenges and constraints faced by people in different places. b. 4. not only because places. including their own.4 Progression This qualification is a recognised part of the National Qualifications framework. develop a sense of place and an appreciation of environment. which affect their development. geographical features. themes knowledge and understanding of environmental change and sustainable development. and the opportunities. Some of these aims are reflected in the assessment objectives. The specification offers opportunities for candidates to: a. acquire and apply the skills and techniques – including those of mapwork. develop an understanding of global citizenship and the ways in which people and environments are interdependent. it provides a worthwhile course for candidates of various ages and from diverse backgrounds in terms of general education and lifelong learning. the importance of sustainable development in those interactions. but also because new ideas and methods lead to new interpretations. appreciate that the study of geography is dynamic. understand the significance and efforts of people’s values and attitudes. As such GCSE provides progression from Key Stage 3 to post-16 studies. The aims are not listed in order of priority. in how decisions are made about the use and management of environments and resources. places.Geography B (Short Course) • • • • geographical enquiry and skills. and communication technology (ICT) – needed to conduct geographical study and enquiry. others are not because they cannot readily be translated into measurable objectives. and the three strands of geography identified in the Welsh National Curriculum. patterns and issues change.General Certificate of Secondary Education.

national. show understanding of the specified content (AO2). f. questions and problems at a variety of scales. and in decision-making about the use and management of environments and resources. recall specific facts and demonstrate knowledge. show an understanding of the significance and effects of the attitudes and values of groups and individuals involved in geographical issues.Geography B (Short Course) . show an understanding of geographical aspects of selected contemporary. apply their knowledge and understanding in a variety of physical and human contexts (AO3). 64 hij .1 Summary of Assessment Objectives Assessment Objectives Candidates are required to demonstrate their ability to: a. social. related to the specification content across the range of local. political and environmental issues. c.2 Knowledge and Understanding In terms of knowledge and understanding candidates should be able to: a. select and use a variety of skills and techniques appropriate to geographical studies and enquiry (AO4). g. b. environments and themes at a range of scales from local to global (AO1). show knowledge of places. and apply this understanding in a variety of contexts. recall and show an understanding of the physical and human processes which contribute to the development of spatial patterns. show an understanding of the meaning and importance of sustainable development and show how this can inform the management of a variety of geographical issues and environments at a range of scales from local to global. and apply this understanding in a variety of contexts. show an understanding of the geographical ideas and concepts specified in the syllabus. including geographical terminology and locational knowledge. and an ability to apply this understanding in a variety of physical and human contexts. c. and the geographical characteristics of particular places.General Certificate of Secondary Education. regional. b. h. e. d. international and global scales. d. describe and offer explanations for the interactions between people’s activities and the environment. 6. economic. show an understanding of the limitations of geographical evidence and the tentative and incomplete nature of some explanations. 2008 examination 6 6.

General Certificate of Secondary Education. hij 65 . graphs and diagrams). as well as the validity and limitations of evidence and conclusions. namely: a. use and develop a variety of techniques appropriate to geographical study and enquiry. draw and justify conclusions and communicate findings in ways appropriate to the task and audience. identify and collect evidence from primary sources (including fieldwork). make decisions. select. presenting and analysing evidence. ensure that text is legible and that spelling. e. satellite images. The Quality of Written Communication will be assessed in Coursework and the Written Paper. describe. secondary sources (including maps at a variety of scales. 6. punctuation and grammar are accurate. photographs.Geography B (Short Course) 6. they will be assessed on the quality of written communication. and record and present it (including use of maps. analyse and interpret evidence. identify geographical questions and issues. evaluate the methods of collecting. candidates are required to develop a range of skills used in geographical study and enquiry (including the use of ICT). and establish appropriate sequences of investigation. 2008 examination . b. Candidates will be required to: • • present relevant information in a form that suits its purposes. d.4 Quality of Written Communication Where candidates are required to produce extended written material in English. so that meaning is clear. c.3 Skills In terms of skills. statistical data) and ICT-based resources.

General Certificate of Secondary Education. C and D. The topic chosen for investigation must relate to some part of the specification content. 66 hij . All questions will be compulsory.1 Assessment Units Scheme of Assessment The Scheme of Assessment comprises two components. definitions. (A cloze exercise presents candidates with a passage of text in which key words are missing. multiple choice questions. B. i * Short answer questions may include. Sections A. The paper will include one or more questions on a UK Ordnance Survey map extract at a scale of 1: 50 000. diagrams and graphs). Section A: The United Kingdom Section B: The European Union Section C: The Wider World Section D: Global Issues Each section will include some short answer questions* followed by a structured question. The candidate has to complete the passage using geographical words chosen from a given word bank). for example.Geography B (Short Course) . Written Paper 75% of the total marks 1¼ hours 70 marks The Foundation and Higher Tier question paper/answer booklets will each comprise four sections. based on each of the following four areas of specification content. Coursework 25 % of the total marks 30 marks Coursework of approximately 1250 words based on a fieldwork investigation at a local/small scale. Some short course questions may require candidates to write one or two sentences. 2008 examination 7 7. cloze exercises. multiple completion questions and questions based upon stimulus material (such as photographs.

2 Weighting of Assessment Objectives The assessment objectives will be assessed in the different components in approximately the following proportions. The approximate relationship between the relative percentage weighting of the Assessment Objectives (AOs) and the overall Scheme of Assessment is shown in the following table.General Certificate of Secondary Education. 2008 examination . hij 67 . The terminal examination will consist of one written paper which will be set and marked by AQA. Assessment Objectives Component Weightings (%) Written Paper Coursework 0 0 10 15 25 Overall Weighting of AOs (%) AO1 Knowledge AO2 Understanding AO3 Application of Knowledge and Understanding AO4 Skills Overall Weighting of Units (%) 20 25 15 15 75 20 25 25 30 100 Candidates’ marks for each assessment unit are scaled to achieve the correct percentage.Geography B (Short Course) 7.

8. It is expected that centres will probably study these topics through reference to the other three areas of the specification content identified in 8.4 Global Issues: • Global issues will be considered with reference to the topics listed below.4. 2008 examination Subject Content 8 Summary of Subject Content The prescribed areas for study in Geography B (Short Course) are listed for convenience in 8. inclusive.3. Throughout the subject content.2 The European Union: • Spain • The European urban core with reference to one major conurbation to be chosen from: − Rotterdam/Europoort.3 The Wider World: • The Ganges Delta • Japan 8. the specification content requires the study of features of physical. For the convenience of centres also teaching the Full Course. − The Milan/Turin/Genoa industrial triangle. − The Paris region. 8.General Certificate of Secondary Education. the relationship with the content of the latter is indicated by a numbered reference printed in italicised script. The specifiction content in Geography B (Short Course) is a sub-set of Geography B (Full Course).1 to 8.1 The United Kingdom: • The Lake District • The M4 corridor 8.1 to 8. Through the medium of these areas. − The Ruhr conurbation. centres in Northern Ireland must draw upon sufficient Northern Ireland examples of place to fulfil their statutory requirements. • Aid. inclusive. These features appear in the second column of the detailed specification content in Sections 9 to 12. investment and international development • Global warming: its causes and consequences 68 hij .Geography B (Short Course) . human and environmental concepts and processes to provide a balanced overview of geography.

(I): (G): (S): (C): (D): Interdependence between places and environments Global citizenship Sustainable development Contemporary social.5 Other Aspects of Geography The detailed specification content must be studied with reference to the following aspects of geography. Each of these aspects is identified at the appropriate point in the specification content using the letters indicated below. economic. 2008 examination .Geography B (Short Course) 8.General Certificate of Secondary Education. political and environmental issues The significance and effects of the values and attitudes of those involved in decision-making hij 69 .

The pressure of tourism. International. climate (including the processes leading to the formation of relief rainfall and the pattern of its distribution in the Lake District) and soil (Local scale) (I)(C)(D). Students should develop an awareness of interactions between people and their environment. Food and the Environment [9.1 Farming. The impact of tourism in the Lake District on farming. regional and national scales.Geography B (Short Course) . 9. 2008 examination 9 The United Kingdom Through selected studies of the United Kingdom (UK). plucking and abrasion.3 in Full Course Specification] • • The aims of National Parks (Regional scale) (I)(S)(C)(D).General Certificate of Secondary Education. Hill sheep farming in the Lake District. Students should be aware that many aspects of the geography of the country are in a state of change. based where possible on the study of specified regions. glacial troughs and ribbon lakes (Local. students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. leading to the formation of corries. and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). 9. The major glacial landscape features of the Lake District: upland glaciation. Regional scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). including a farm case study.2 in Full Course Specification ] • • • Inputs. with reference to the development of “honey pot” sites. Questions will be limited to: − the influence of physical factors: landforms. processes and outputs on a commercial farm (Local scale). − diversification of the rural economy (Local. including the processes of frost-shattering. Regional Scales). and an appreciation of the need to plan for the sustainable use of the environment. • • 70 hij . The general influence of the natural environment on farming systems in the UK. arêtes. the need for conservation of the landscape and the conflicts of interest caused. Regional. traffic and employment (Local. environments and geographical patterns at local. Global scales) (I)(C)(D).2 Tourism in a Glacial Environment: The Lake District National Park [9. to include a case study of one honey pot site (Local. National.

Regional scales). with reference to one named example of each (Local scale). and greenfield sites on location (Local. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of coal fired power stations and wind farms. National. Manufacturing industry as a system. Global scales) (I)(S)(C)(D).5 in Full Course Specification] • − inputs. skilled labour. fuel supplies. The causes and effects of inner city decline (Local scale) (I)(C)(D).6 in Full Course Specification] • • • • • hij 71 . 2008 examination . markets and government policy on industrial location (Local. − the influence of site.5 Understanding the Modern Urban environment [9. transport. Development on the rural-urban fringe: suburbanisation. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). The changing location of the retail trade: out-of-town shopping centres and retail parks and their effect on the High Street (Local. Regional.General Certificate of Secondary Education. International. The growth. processes and outputs. footloose industry (information and communication technology (ICT) and micro-electronics) along the M4 corridor to illustrate the influence of transport. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). • Modern. 9. the growth of commuting and commuter villages (Local.Geography B (Short Course) 9. labour supply. raw materials. National scales) (I)(C)(D). The future energy mix of the United Kingdom. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). Regional. with reference to their economic and environmental impacts (Local. characteristics and morphology of one large urban area in the United Kingdom (Local.3 Electricity Generation for the Future [9. Questions will be limited to: • • 9.4 in Full Course Specification] • Describe and explain the locations of coal fired power stations and wind farms. The process of urban renewal (Local scale) (I)(C)(D). counterurbanisation.4 The Changing Location of Manufacturing Industry [9.

Regional. they should develop some understanding of the ties between the UK and the rest of the EU. 10. (d) the Milan/Turin/Genoa industrial triangle (Local. International scales). 72 hij .1 should be considered as an introduction to the regional studies given in 10.4 in Full Course Specification] • • A planning issue in the chosen conurbation (Local. (c) the Paris region.Geography B (Short Course) . Rich and Poor Regions in the European Union [10.3 Development of the European Urban Core [10. environments and geographical patterns at regional. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D). based on the study of specified regions. in particular. national and international scales. situation and reasons for the growth of one major conurbation within the core region of the European Union to be chosen from (a) Rotterdam/Europort. (b) the Ruhr conurbation.3. 10. and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people. They should also be aware that many aspects of the geography of Europe are in a state of change. The physical factors (limited to climate) and the economic factors which led to the growth of the tourist industry.General Certificate of Secondary Education. A study of the location. Regional scales) (I)(C)(D).1. and an appreciation of the need to plan for the sustainable use of the environment. The effects of tourism on the economy and the environment of the region (Local.2 and 10. Students should develop an awareness of interactions between people and their environment. • 10. Regional scales) (I)(S)(C)(D).3 in Full Course Specification] • • • 10.1 in Full Course Specification] • Be aware of the general pattern of areas of more than average and less than average levels of economic development within the European Union (the core and the periphery) (International scale). Location of major tourist areas and the resorts (National scale). Spain and the source regions from where the tourists originate (Local. National. They should realise that places within the EU are interdependent and.2 Tourism in Mediterranean Spain: Development on the Periphery and the Results of this Development [10. inclusive. students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. 2008 examination 10 The European Union Through selected studies of the European Union (EU).

Global scales). Regional scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). Japan’s shortage of raw materials. the need for imports and the influence of these on the distribution of population (National. environments and geographical patterns at regional. The location of the four main islands and the major settlements on Honshu (National scale). International scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people. They should realise that places throughout the world are interdependent and. • 11. (Regional. International. The main physical features of Japan and their influence on population distribution and industrial zones (Regional. National scales).2 Japan: Urbanisation and Industrialisation in a Resource-Poor Environment [11.General Certificate of Secondary Education. in particular. National scales). Description and explanation of the tropical monsoon climate (Local. They should develop an awareness of interactions between people and their environment and an appreciation of the need to plan for the sustainable use of the environment. The organisation of the Japanese manufacturing industry. students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. they should develop some understanding of the ties between more economically developed countries and less economically developed countries (MEDCs and LEDCs). They should be aware that many aspects of the world are in a state of change. 2008 examination .3 in Full Course Specification] • • • • hij 73 . This should help them to develop some understanding of global citizenship. International scales).1 The Ganges Delta: Dense Population in a High Risk Environment [11. National scales) (I)(S)(C)(D). national and international scales.Geography B (Short Course) 11 The Wider World Through selected studies of the Wider World. Regional. 11. Traditional subsistence rice farming and the changes to the people/environment brought about by technological changes linked with the Green Revolution. based on the study of specified regions. Factors affecting birth rates and death rates in either India or Bangladesh (Regional. Factors affecting the distribution of the motor vehicle industry within Japan. A consideration of whether these changes can lead to sustainable development (Local.2 in Full Course Specification] • • • The location and physical features of the Ganges Delta (Regional. National.

− voluntary aid.2 Global Warming: Its Causes and Consequences [12. environments and geographical patterns at international and global scales. − short-term and long-term aid (International. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). They should be aware that many aspects of the geography of the world are in a state of change. International. 2008 examination 12 Global Issues Students will study selected global issues. • The scale of international aid compared to the needs of less economically developed countries (International.Geography B (Short Course) . Students should also develop an awareness of interactions between people and their environment. and an appreciation of the need to plan globally for the sustainable use of the environment. A study of one development project in a less economically developed country (Local scale) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).2 in Full Course Specification] • The types of international aid. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). The role of international aid donors in encouraging sustainable development (I)(G)(S)(C)(D). Factors affecting the Greenhouse Effect. Questions will be limited to: − official aid. Students should realise that places throughout the world are interdependent. developed from topics studied in the previous sections of the specification content. Through these studies students are expected to acquire knowledge and understanding of a range of places. − destruction of the rainforest (National. and that this change presents challenges and constraints to people. In particular. Investment and International Development [12. Questions will be limited to: • • 12. 9 to 11. students should develop some understanding of the ties between more economically developed and less economically developed countries (MEDCs and LEDCs). This should help students to develop further their understanding of global citizenship. 74 hij .3 in Full Course Specification] • − burning of fossil fuels.General Certificate of Secondary Education. inclusive. 12. Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).1 Aid.

2008 examination . Global scales) (I)(G)(S)(C)(D).General Certificate of Secondary Education. National. National. Global scales) (I)(G)(S) (C)(D). Questions will be limited to: − reduction of fossil fuel use and development of renewable energy (Local. Regional. International.Geography B (Short Course) • The consequences of global warming to the people / environment relationship. Questions will be limited to: − the rise in sea level and how this might affect low lying areas such as the Ganges Delta and eastern England (Local. Regional. International. • Attempts to reduce global warming and to manage its consequences thus allowing more sustainable development. hij 75 .

2) Arête Conservation Corrie Frost shattering (Glacial) abrasion (Glacial) trough Glaciation Electricity generation Fossil fuel Non-renewable energy Brownfield site Footloose industry Greenfield site Central Business District (CBD) Commuter Commuter village Comprehensive re-development Counter-urbanisation Gentrification Green belt Housing renovation Inner city Glacier Honey pot site Ice Age National Park Plucking Ribbon lake Electricity generation for the future (9. inclusive.3) Renewable energy Thermal power station The changing location of manufacturing industry (9.1) Diversification Hill sheep farming Input Mechanisation Output Process Tourism in a glacial environment: The Lake District National Park (9. 2008 examination 13 List of Geographical Terms The following words and phrases must be known and understood by candidates.General Certificate of Secondary Education. Farming.5) 76 hij .4) Raw material Secondary industry Site Migration Out-of-town shopping centre Retail park Rural-urban fringe Suburb Suburbanisation Twilight zone Urbanisation Urban morphology Understanding the modern urban environment (9. The abbreviations referred to below and in Sections 9 to 12. of the specification content must also be known to candidates.Geography B (Short Course) . food and the environment (9.

General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2008 examination - Geography B (Short Course)

Rich and poor regions in the European Union (10.1) Core Gross national product (GNP) Gross national product (GNP) per capita Level of development Periphery Tourism in Mediterranean Spain: development on the periphery (10.2) Functions Situation The Ganges Delta: dense population in a high risk environment (11.1) Delta Distributary Eye High pressure air High yielding variety (HYV) Hybrid seed Low pressure air Storm surge Tropical cyclone

Japan: urbanisation and industrialisation in a resource-poor environment (11.2) Assembly plant Capital investment Component Export Long-term aid Manufactured products Official aid Primary products Greenhouse Effect Import Pollution USA

Aid, investment and international development (12.1) Short-term aid Trade Transnational corporation (TNC) Voluntary aid

Global warming: its causes and consequences (12.2.)

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Geography B (Short Course) - General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2008 examination

14

Geographical Skills Checklist
Candidates are required to develop a range of geographical skills including cartographic, graphical, enquiry and ICT skills.

14.1

Basic Skills

Labelling and annotation of diagrams, maps, graphs, sketches etc. Drawing sketches from photographs and in the field. Literacy: most communication is through the written word raising the importance of good literacy skills. Photographs: candidates should be able to use and interpret aerial/oblique and satellite photographs of rural and/or urban landscapes.

14.2

Cartographic Skills

Atlas maps: recognising and describing distributions and patterns of both human and physical features. Sketch maps: draw, label, understand and interpret sketch maps. Ordnance survey maps: 1:50 000 scale, recognise symbols; four and six figure grid references, straight line and winding distances; direction; draw and annotate cross-sections; height and degree of slope; simple contour patterns; patterns of vegetation and land use; patterns of communications; location, shape and pattern of settlement; different land use zones of settlements; infer human activity from map evidence; use maps in association with photographs.

14.3

Graphical Skills

Construct line, bar, scattergraphs and pie diagrams. Complete a variety of graphs and maps including choropleth, isoline and proportional symbols. Interpret a variety of graphs, including those located on maps and topological diagrams.

14.4

Geographical Enquiry Skills

Identification of geographical questions, issues, hypotheses. Establish and follow appropriate enquiry approaches to include: • • • • • • identifying and collecting a range of appropriate evidence from primary (including fieldwork) and secondary sources; recording, processing and presenting the data collected; describing, explaining and analysing of the data; drawing conclusions; evaluating the methods of data collection, the results and the conclusions; understanding and applying the geographical principles underlying the enquiry.

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General Certificate of Secondary Education, 2008 examination - Geography B (Short Course)

14.5

ICT Skills

Candidates are required to develop skills in the use of ICT. There is a wide range of opportunities in the specification for students to develop and use ICT skills. In the following examples the figures refer to the specification content. • • Using the Internet to access web sites which can help with an enquiry based upon 9.1, Farming, food and environment; Word processing, data presentation and analysis techniques to assist in the preparation of a coursework investigation on 9.4, The changing location of manufacturing industry; Extraction of information from video and TV programmes about 10.2, Tourism in Mediterranean Spain; Use of databases made available by the EU to provide information for 10.3, Development of the European urban core; Photographs and satellite images concerning 11.1, The Ganges Delta; CD ROMs loaded with map extracts and images of different cultures as background for 11.2, Japan: urbanisation and industrialisation in a resource-poor environment; Use of spreadsheets and data handling to investigate 12.1, Aid, investment and international development; Use of the Internet and GIS to access news information on 12.2, Global warming; Research and presentation of coursework.

• • • •

• • •

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but they do not form part of the Key Skills Qualification. Copies of the Key Skills Units may be down loaded from the QCA web site (www. The coursework component provides an opportunity for students to problem solve and work with others. Developing and Providing Opportunities for Generating Evidence Introduction The Key Skills Qualification requires candidates to demonstrate levels of achievement in the Key Skills of Application of Number.1 80 hij . The units for each Key Skill comprise three sections: A B C What you need to know What you must do Guidance Candidates following a course of study based on this specification for Geography B (Short Course) can be offered opportunities to develop and generate evidence of attainment in aspects of the Key Skills of Communication. 2008 examination Key Skills and Other Issues 15 Key Skills – Teaching.General Certificate of Secondary Education.Geography B (Short Course) . The units for the “wider” Key Skills of Improving own Learning and Performance. 15. Communication and Information Technology.qca. Areas of study and learning that can be used to encourage the acquisition and use of Key Skills. and to provide opportunities to generate evidence for Part B of the units. The acquisition and demonstration of ability in these “wider” Key Skills is deemed highly desirable for all candidates. Information Technology.uk/keyskills). Working with Others and Problem-Solving.2 Key Skills Opportunities in (Short Course) Geography B The study of a course based on Geography B (Short Course) provides ample opportunities for the development of evidence of achievement in Key Skills in the context of both classroom work and fieldwork . A course based on this specification will normally require a student to become practised in different media. Application of Number. 15. Working with Others and Problem-Solving are also available. but class based work will similarly produce similar opportunities.org. are signposted below. Improving own Learning and Performance.

explore and develop information IT1.1 Interpret information from different sources N1.3 Interpret results and present findings Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Information Technology Level 1 What you must do … The UK IT1.2 Present information.1 Take part in discussions C1. including text.2 Read and obtain information C1.3 Write different types of documents Application of Number Level 1 What you must do … The UK N1. numbers and images Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills hij 81 .General Certificate of Secondary Education. 2008 examination .2 Carry out calculations N1.Geography B (Short Course) Communication Level 1 What you must do … The UK Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills C1.1 Find.

1 Confirm what needs to be done and who is to do it WO1.3 Check if problems have been solved and describe the results 82 hij .2 Plan and try out ways of solving problems PS1.1 Confirm short-term targets and plan how these will be met LP1.3 Review progress and achievements Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Problem Solving Level 1 What you must do … The UK Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills PS1.1 Confirm understanding of given problems PS1.2 Work towards agreed objectives WO1.Geography B (Short Course) . 2008 examination Working with Others Level 1 What you must do … The UK WO1.General Certificate of Secondary Education.2 Follow plan to meet targets and improve performance LP1.3 Identify progress and suggest improvements Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Improving own Learning and Performance Level 1 What you must do … The UK LP1.

3 Interpret results and present findings Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Information Technology Level 2 What you must do … The UK IT2.General Certificate of Secondary Education.2 Read and summarise information C2.Geography B (Short Course) Communication Level 2 What you must do … The UK C2.2 Carry out calculations N2.3 Write different types of documents Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Application of Number Level 2 What you must do … The UK N2. including text.1a Contribute to discussions C2.1 Interpret information from different sources N2.3 Present combined information.1b Give a short talk C2.2 Explore and develop information and derive new information IT2.1 Search for and select information IT2. 2008 examination . numbers and images Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills hij 83 .

2 Plan and try out options PS2.Geography B (Short Course) .3 Apply given methods to check if problems have been solved and describe the results The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills 84 hij . 2008 examination Working with Others Level 2 What you must do … The UK WO1.1 Confirm what needs to be done and who is to do it WO1.3 Review progress and identify evidence of achievements The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Problem Solving Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK PS2.3 Identify progress and suggest improvements Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The EU The WW Global Issues Geographical Skills Improving Own Learning and Performance Level 2 What you must do … Signposting of Opportunities for Generating Evidence in Subject Content The UK LP2.2 Work towards agreed objectives WO1.General Certificate of Secondary Education.1 Identify problems and come up with ways of solving them PS2.2 Use plan and support from others.1 Help set short-term targets and plan how these will be met LP2. to meet targets LP2.

3 Further Guidance More specific guidance and examples of tasks that can provide evidence of single Key Skills.General Certificate of Secondary Education. 2008 examination . or composite tasks that can provide evidence of more than one Key Skill are given in the AQA specification support material. particularly the Teachers’ Guide. hij 85 .Geography B (Short Course) 15.

long term sustainable development. Short term exploitation of resources and the environment v. tourists and the environment. Social The nature of traditional rural society and the pressures to change this. Ethical. 2008 examination 16 16. remote and unspoilt landscape. Cultural Hill steep farming as a traditional culture in the UK in conflict with modern tourist and intensive economic forces. The artist’s view of the Lake District from the 18th century onwards. other than the physical and material.2 Values of wild.1 Spiritual. social and cultural issues to help clarify and develop a candidate’s own values and attitudes in relation to geographical issues. Social and Cultural issues. ethical. The role of the MP and Authorities in balancing the needs of local people. The special nature of mining communities in past periods and the effect on those communities of pit closures. Ethical. Candidates should be aware that the peoples of the world embrace a variety of cultures and that these change over time and space and may be shaped and influenced by their physical environment. Candidates should show knowledge and an awareness that society is made up of individuals with a variety of opinions that may lead to conflicts of interest. The concept of quality of life should be considered. The United Kingdom 9. Areas of Geography B (Short Course) that can offer opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. consider and discuss moral and ethical issues such as the treatment of individuals. Cultural and Other Issues Spiritual. 9. communities or groups by others. Moral. Spiritual The spiritual values of forests and their relationship with their land and animals.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. Moral.General Certificate of Secondary Education. Moral.g.3 Aesthetic aspects of energy development (e. Cultural and Other Issues The study of a course based on Geography B (Short Course) can contribute to a candidate’s understanding of a range of moral. Social and Cultural issues are signposted below. Moral/Ethical Compassion in farming. The needs of urban dwellers for open space for a variety of leisure activities. Responsibility of farmers as “custodians of the countryside”. Candidates will have the opportunity to gain a greater awareness of aspects of human life. Social. 9. together with the social and cultural wealth of nations. 86 hij . The fragility of natural systems and the concept of sustainable development should be familiar. The various effects of energy policy on local communities (e. mining communities/remote rural communities). Ethical.g. effect of wind farm development on “unspoilt” scenery). Ethical. Candidates should be encouraged to discern.Geography B (Short Course) . Moral. Social.

hij 87 . The European Union 10.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. The differing needs of different groups. Moral. heavy industry and modern footloose industry on the development of local communities and culture.2 Contrasts between factory organisation in Japan and in the UK. A discussion of the ethical implication of greenfield v. 2008 examination . The contribution local culture can make to the “sense of place” of the chosen urban area. Cultural The multicultured nature of the EU and the development of “European” culture. 9. Spiritual Contrasts between western and eastern attitudes to development and population issues in the Indian sub-continent. Social and Cultural issues. The contribution of aspects of Japanese culture to the “sense of place” of Japan. Moral/Ethical Concepts of justice linked to wealth distribution on national and international scales. Concepts of justice linked to wealth distribution and type of housing in urban areas. Cultural The cultural links between India/Bangladesh during the period of the British Empire and in the present. The need for open spaces in cities to allow for spiritual renewal and relaxation from stress. gender. age and ability groups which must be addressed by the urban planners. Development of multicultural societies in urban areas. Moral. Ethical. Spiritual The role of European integration in bringing peace and democracy to Western Europe since 1945. The attractions of Spanish architecture including both Moorish and local building styles. The effects of the development of the tourist industry on local society. brownfield development of industry. Ethical. 10.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. Varying social attitudes in different urban areas. The contrast between traditional Japanese beliefs about the environment and modern development of the environment.4 The threats to the planet posed by the development of industry. 11.3 The Wider World 11.5 The spiritual values of architecture – old and new. Community needs v. The role of urban planners in resolving conflicts between competing interests. A comparison of the effects of old.2 The responsibilities of tourists towards the environment. Social and Cultural issues. including class. including the EU’s support for freedom and democracy in Eastern Europe. and the possible extension of this role into Eastern Europe. 10. Moral/Ethical The dilemmas of developing policies influencing birth and death rates. The spiritual renewal aspects of holiday making in a beautiful environment. Issues involved in controlling and reversing damage to the environment both in Japan and overseas. Social People’s attitudes to and perception of natural hazards.General Certificate of Secondary Education. Social The social advantages and disadvantages of the European Union.Geography B (Short Course) 9. profits in the location of industry.

Cultural values to the planet and its future. 16. “Compare the advantages and disadvantages of coal fired power stations and wind farms. “The impact of the increased use of road transport on urban structure and environment. 16. The United Kingdom 9. The legacy of colonialism and the debt owed by the developed world to the developing world. “The pressure on tourism.1 9. 12. Examples of where the specification content contributes to this greater awareness are indicated throughout the text. The changes in society that might arise if climate change continues. Spiritual Moral/Ethical The inter-connection between the North and South. the need for conservation of the landscape and the conflicts of interest caused” requires an understanding of pressures on the environment and of the need for conservation of the landscape. 2008 examination Global Issues Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Spiritual. Moral. with reference to their environmental impact” requires a study of people’s impact on the environment and of the need to manage and reduce their impact. and to education for sustainable development.1 The “oneness” of humanity and the worth of each individual. Social and Cultural issues. Cultural The need for aid to work within existing cultural norms but to tackle issues such as the role of women in traditional cultures. “Modern footloose industry … to illustrate the influence of … greenfield sites on location” provides the opportunity for consideration of the need to preserve greenfield sites.2 The temporary nature of each individual compared with the permanence of the planet. The section on the European Union gives candidates ample opportunities to study the European dimension of 21st century society.General Certificate of Secondary Education. the pressures on that environment and ways to manage that pressure. The content of this specification promotes an understanding of geography’s contribution to environmental education.2 European Dimension AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community in preparing this specification and associated specimen papers. 12.3 Environmental Issues AQA has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community and the Report “Environmental Responsibility: An Agenda for Further and Higher Education” 1993 in preparing this specification and associated specimen papers.2 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues. 9. Social The nature of different aid-giving organisations and the nature of the organisation delivering aid.6 88 hij . The responsibility of each individual towards the future of the human race and the environment.3 9. Ethical. Possible solutions to the problems of traffic in towns” requires a study of the urban environment.Geography B (Short Course) .

and attempts to reduce the damage they cause” requires students to study environmental hazards.5 Avoidance of Bias 16. and the way this issue is being managed. “The consequences of tropical storms and floods. “The role of international aid donors in encouraging sustainable development”. even if rather belatedly. Examples of where the specification content contributes to this greater awareness are indicated throughout the text. economic development and environmental issues. 16.1 12. “Attempts to reduce global warming and to manage its consequences” requires students to consider both attempts to reduce damage. and attempts by people to manage their environment and the hazards it presents. especially through international co-operation.General Certificate of Secondary Education. 2008 examination . “The effects of tourism on the environment of the region” requires the study of the environment of Mediterranean Spain and of the way the development of the tourist industry has affected and is affecting the environment.2. “A planning issue in the chosen conurbation” requires students to consider an issue in the urban environment. their causes and consequences. issues of diversity.4 Citizenship Geography B (Short Course) offers ample scope to include citizenship as part of a scheme of work. Global Issues 12. Candidates should be made aware of health and safety issues particularly in developing the skills and techniques required in fieldwork investigation. to develop stewardship of the environment. 16. AQA has taken great care in the preparation of this specification and associated specimen papers to avoid bias of any kind.Geography B (Short Course) The European Union 10.6 Health and Safety hij 89 . Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues.2 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues.e. 10. responsibilities.1 Signposting of opportunities to study matters related to Environmental Issues.3 The Wider World 11. and to manage the consequences of present and future damage i. legal and democratic institutions and processes. Candidates should develop a knowledge and understanding of rights. and ways in which it can be achieved.

Candidates are to be advised that the total coursework should be approximately 1250 words. a questionnaire. 18. 18. will be assessed. The sheets of each candidate’s work must be paginated and secured together and must be identified with the centre and candidate number. visits. The use of ICT is encouraged. it is important that candidates are able to show their own initiative and that their own work is readily identifiable. hij 90 . persons to interview. 2008 examination Centre-Assessed Component 17 Nature of the Centre-Assessed Component This component requires one geographical fieldwork investigation at a local/small scale to be produced which allows each candidate to investigate an argument. techniques to be used in the field and the production of their reports). stream survey or pedestrian count).Geography B (Short Course) . Details will be provided when AQA knows which centres are following the specification. First-hand data collection (e.2 Planning Teachers should advise candidates on their choice of topic to ensure that each candidate is able to show “what he or she understands and can do”. 18 18. This should be presented on A4 paper (any larger material must be folded to this size). problem or issue. although candidates will not gain any extra credit simply for its use.1 Presentation Guidance on Setting the CentreAssessed Component Coursework must be completed and compiled into one folder.g. Centres should select tasks appropriate to the abilities of their candidates. Where work is undertaken within a group. The quality of presentation and range of skills used.3 Coursework Advisers Coursework Advisers will be available to assist centres with any matters relating to coursework. recording and use must take place within the investigation. The investigation which candidates undertake should be appropriate to their abilities and allow them to show their initiative. The topic chosen for investigation must relate to some part of the content specification. Candidates may be advised on the focus of the investigation and the selection of source materials (such as statistics.General Certificate of Secondary Education. or is teacher initiated. regardless of the methods employed. Investigations may be hand-written or prepared using information technology (ICT). The design of the tasks should give all candidates the opportunity to achieve the level of marks commensurate with their ability.

observation. The candidate uses accurately TWO appropriate techniques. Conclusions are drawn that relate to the original purpose of the enquiry. The candidate describes how the enquiry process can be improved by questioning the reliability of the methods used to collect the data and/or the accuracy of results. Uses a limited range of geographical terminology. concept and process involved and can apply them constructively to the geographical topic. to present and develop the information appropriate to their investigation. The work is organised and planned and shows some evidence of the development of tasks. ONE of which is ICT based. demonstrates some understanding of ONE idea or concept involved and can apply them in a simple manner to the geographical topic. planned and shows evidence of originality and the initiative by the candidate. 2008 examination . The candidate identifies a question or issue explains why that particular question or issue was chosen. The candidate uses accurately THREE more complex techniques. the methods used in obtaining the information and explains why the methods selected are relevant to their investigation. Uses a wide range of geographical terminology.1 Criteria Strand Applied Understanding Assessment Criteria Criteria for assessing coursework component. Level 3 Marks 5-6 The candidate locates the study area in detail and through description and explanation. using a wide range of geographical terms. collection and recording uses THREE appropriate techniques. Level 1 Marks 1-2 The candidate locates the study area in a basic manner and through description. using geographical terms. the sequence of investigation and describes the methods used in obtaining the information. The candidate identifies a question or issue and lists the methods used in obtaining the information. Evaluation The candidate briefly describes how the enquiry process can be improved by questioning the reliability of the methods used to collect the data. Attempts are made to analyse the results. The candidate describes how the enquiry process can be improved by questioning how the reliability of the methods used to collect the data have affected the accuracy of results and the validity of conclusions. The candidate makes valid statements about the results. collection and recording uses ONE basic technique. demonstrates an understanding of ONE idea or concept involved and can apply them to the geographical topic. observation.General Certificate of Secondary Education. which is ICT based. The candidate demonstrates links through a detailed analysis of the material. Methodology Data Presentation The candidate uses ONE basic technique. Selection observation. using a range of geographical terms.Geography B (Short Course) 19 19. to present the information and express simple ideas with some degree of accuracy. Selection. In referring specifically to the data valid conclusions are drawn that relate to the original purpose of the enquiry. The work is well organised. to present and develop the information. Uses a range of geographical terminology. Selection. collection and recording uses TWO of appropriate techniques. ONE of which is ICT based. The candidate identifies a question or issue. demonstrates a thorough understanding of ONE idea. and express ideas with considerable accuracy in the use of English. Data Interpretation The candidate gives a brief description of the results and/or suggests basic reasons for the results. Level 2 Marks 3-4 The candidate locates the study area and through description and explanation. fluent and logical form using precise and accurate English. express ideas in a clear. The candidate describes the sequence of investigation. hij 91 .

Geography B (Short Course) .2 Coursework Mark Table Assessment Objective Coverage AO3 AO4 AO3 AO4 AO4 Strand Applied Understanding Methodology Data Presentation Data Interpretation Evaluation Total Maximum Mark Available 6 6 6 6 6 30 19. When the assessments are complete. with supporting information given in the spaces provided. 92 hij .3 Evidence to Support the Award of Marks Teachers should keep records of their assessments during the course in a form which facilities the complete and accurate submission of the final assessments at the end of the course. 2008 examination 19. the exact design may be modified before the operational version is issued and the correct year’s Candidate Record Forms should always be used. the marks awarded under each of the assessment criteria must be entered on the Candidate Record Form. A specimen Candidate Record Form appears in Appendix B.General Certificate of Secondary Education.

20. The teacher declares that the work was conducted under the specified conditions.2 Guidance by the Teacher 20.General Certificate of Secondary Education. and records details of any additional assistance. The work assessed must be solely that of the candidate concerned. The penalties for malpractice are set out in the AQA Regulations.4 Authentication of Candidates’ Work hij 93 . and must understand that to present material copied directly from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception. the supervising teacher is responsible for informing candidates of the AQA Regulations concerning malpractice.3 Unfair Practice 20. sufficient work must take place under direct supervision to allow the teacher to authenticate each candidate’s whole work with confidence.1 Supervision of Candidates’ Work Supervision and Authentication Candidates’ work for assessment must be undertaken under conditions which allow the teacher to supervise the work and enable the work to be authenticated. Centres must report suspected malpractice to AQA. Both the candidate and the teacher are required to sign declarations confirming that the work submitted for assessment is the candidate's own. Candidates must not take part in any unfair practice in the preparation of coursework to be submitted for assessment. Any assistance given to an individual candidate which is beyond that given to the group as a whole must be recorded on the Candidate Record Form.Geography B (Short Course) 20 20. 2008 examination . If it is necessary for some assessed work to be done outside the centre. At the start of the course.

Common pieces of work must be marked on a trial basis and differences between assessments discussed at a training session in which all teachers involved must participate.2 Internal Standardisation of Marking The centre is required to standardise the assessments across different teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates at the centre have been judged against the same standards. 21. Centres entering candidates for the first time must send a representative to the meetings. one teacher must be designated as responsible for internal standardisation. where a significant adjustment has been made to a centre’s marks in the previous year’s examination.1 Standardising Meetings Standardisation Annual standardising meetings will usually be held in the autumn term. 2008 examination 21 21. where the nature of coursework tasks set by a centre has been inappropriate. A specimen Centre Declaration Sheet appears in Appendix B.General Certificate of Secondary Education. to confirm that the marking of centreassessed work at the centre has been standardised. 94 hij . If two or more teachers are involved in marking a component. The centre is required to send to the moderator the Centre Declaration Sheet. that person must sign this form. After the first year. The teacher responsible for standardising the marking must ensure that the training includes the use of reference and archive materials such as work from a previous year or examples provided by AQA. At these meetings support will be provided for centres in the development of appropriate coursework tasks and assessment procedures. If only one teacher has undertaken the marking. Attendance is also mandatory in the following cases: • • • where there has been a serious misinterpretation of the specification requirements.Geography B (Short Course) . attendance is at the discretion of centres. duly signed.

If it occurs late in the course it may be possible to accept the assessments made at the previous centre. to allow for the possibility of an enquiry upon results. The work may be returned to candidates after the issue of results provided that no enquiry upon result is to be made which will include re-moderation of the coursework component. AQA must be informed so that such help can be taken into account when assessment and moderation take place. under secure conditions. The completed Candidate Record Form for each candidate must be attached to the work and made available to AQA on request.Geography B (Short Course) 22 22. Centres should contact AQA at the earliest possible stage for advice about appropriate arrangements in individual cases.3 22.4 Retaining Evidence and Re-Using Marks The centre must retain the work of all candidates. AQA should be notified immediately of the date of the loss. how it occurred. Centres will be informed which candidates’ work is required in the samples to be submitted to the moderator.General Certificate of Secondary Education. and who was responsible for the loss. hij 95 . The marks and supporting information must be recorded in accordance with the instructions in Section 19. If an enquiry upon result is to be made. Where special help which goes beyond normal learning support is given. and they may be carried forward an unlimited number of times within this shelf-life. Factors Affecting Individual Candidates Teachers should be able to accommodate the occasional absence of candidates by ensuring that the opportunity is given for them to make up missed assessments.1 Recording Assessments Administrative Procedures The candidates’ work must be marked according to the assessment criteria set out in Section 19. Special consideration should be requested for candidates whose work has been affected by illness or other exceptional circumstances. If the move occurs early in the course the new centre should take responsibility for assessment. the work must remain under secure conditions until requested by AQA. Candidates re-taking the examination may carry forward their moderated coursework marks. with Candidate Record Form attached. These marks have a shelf-life which is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. Information about the procedure is issued separately. 22. from the time it is assessed. Possible courses of action depend on the stage at which the move takes place. 2008 examination . AQA will advise on the procedures to be followed in such cases. 22. If work is lost. Candidates who move from one centre to another during the course sometimes present a problem for a scheme of internal assessment.2 Submitting Marks and Sample The total component mark for each candidate must be submitted to AQA on the mark sheets provided or by Electronic Data Interchange Work for Moderation (EDI) by the specified date.

96 hij .Geography B (Short Course) . In some cases it may be necessary for the moderator to call for the work of other candidates. the accuracy of the assessments made. In order to meet this possible request.1 Moderation Procedures Moderation Moderation of the coursework is by inspection of a sample of candidates' work. 23. The candidates' work is returned to the centre after the examination with a report form from the moderator giving feedback to the centre on the appropriateness of the tasks set. Following the re-marking of the sample work.2 Post-Moderation Procedures On publication of the GCSE results. sent by post from the centre to a moderator appointed by AQA.General Certificate of Secondary Education. the moderator’s marks are compared with the centre marks to determine whether any adjustment is needed in order to bring the centre’s assessments into line with standards generally. Some candidates' work may be retained by AQA for archive purposes. The centre marks must be submitted to AQA and the sample of work must reach the moderator by the specified date in the year in which the qualification is awarded. Mark adjustments will normally preserve the centre’s order of merit. the centre is supplied with details of the final marks for the coursework component. and the reasons for any adjustments to the marks. AQA reserves the right to alter the order or merit. but where major discrepancies are found. 2008 examination 23 23. centres must have available the coursework and Candidate Record Form of every candidate entered for the examination and be prepared to submit it on demand.

GCE and VCE and GNVQ Code of Practice 2006/07 and will be revised in the light of any subsequent changes for future years. For candidates entered for the Foundation Tier. E. A. Candidates must be entered for either the Foundation Tier or Higher Tier. 24. grades C–G are available. This specification complies with the grading. Candidates who fail to reach the minimum standard for grade G will be recorded as U (unclassified) and will not receive a qualification certificate.5 Minimum Requirements Carrying Forward of CentreAssessed Marks Candidates will be graded on the basis of work submitted for assessment. There is a safety net for candidates entered for the Higher Tier where an allowed Grade E will be awarded where candidates just fail to achieve Grade D. and they may be carried forward an unlimited number of times within this shelf-life.1 24. Shelf-Life and Re-Sits The qualification based on this specification has the following title: AQA GCSE (Short Course) in Geography B. Candidates who fail to achieve a Grade E on the Higher Tier or Grade G on the Foundation Tier will be reported as unclassified. and they may be carried forward an unlimited number of times within this shelf-life. 24. This does not preclude such candidates from resubmitting coursework in a modified form or from submitting completely new coursework. The qualification will be graded on an 8 point grade scale A*. Candidates re-taking the examination may carry forward their moderated coursework marks.6 Awarding and Reporting hij 97 . C.General Certificate of Secondary Education. D. F and G. 2008 examination .Geography B (Short Course) Awarding and Reporting 24 24. awarding and certification requirements of the GCSE. These marks have a shelf-life which is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. These marks have a shelf-life which is limited only by the shelf-life of the specification. For candidates entered for the Higher Tier A*-D are available.4 24. 24.3 Re-Sits Candidates re-taking the examination may carry forward their moderated coursework marks. B.2 Qualification Titles Grading System Grading.

Candidates understand thoroughly geographical ideas from the specification content. 2008 examination Appendices A Grade Descriptions The following grade descriptors indicate the level of attainment characteristic of the given grade at GCSE. as required by the specification. They understand complex interrelationships between people and the environment. and apply their understanding to analyses of unfamiliar contexts. reaching substantiated conclusions. Shortcomings in some aspects of the examination may be balanced by better performances in others. They understand thoroughly the way in which a wide range of physical and human processes interact to influence the development of geographical patterns. and show detailed knowledge of location and geographical terminology. They give a general indication of the required learning outcomes at each specific grade. Grade C Candidates recall accurately information about places. collecting a range of appropriate evidence from a variety of primary and secondary sources. environments and themes. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon the extent to which the candidate has met the assessment objectives (as in section 6) overall. and show detailed knowledge of location and geographical terminology. and their interdependence. across all scales. They understand interrelationships between 98 hij . Grade A Candidates recall accurately detailed information about places.Geography B (Short Course) . They understand a range of physical and human processes and their contribution to the development of geographical patterns.General Certificate of Secondary Education. they are not designed to define that content. the geographical characteristics of particular places and environments. the geographical characteristics of particular places and environments. The descriptors should be interpreted in relation to the content outlined in the specification. drawing selectively on geographical ideas to interpret evidence. and how considerations of sustainable development affect the planning and management of environments and resources. across all scales. and their interdependence. Candidates understand thoroughly geographical ideas from the specification content in a variety of physical and human contexts. using effectively relevant skills and techniques. as required by the specification. They evaluate the significance and effects of values and attitudes of those involved in geographical issues and in decision-making about the use and management of the environments. implementing effective sequence of investigation. Candidates undertake geographical investigation identifying relevant questions. communicating clearly and effectively outcomes and critically evaluating the validity and limitations of evidence and conclusions. environments and themes.

and show an elementary level of knowledge of location and geographical terminology. at more than one scale. suggesting appropriate sequence of enquiry. They show some awareness of the values and attitudes of people involved in geographical issues and in decision-making about the use and management of environments. Candidates undertake geographical investigation. Grade F Candidates recall basic information about places and themes. 2008 examination .General Certificate of Secondary Education.Geography B (Short Course) people and the environment and appreciate that considerations of sustainable development affect the planning and management of environments and resources. reaching a plausible conclusions. using a range of appropriate techniques. Candidates understand some simple geographical ideas from the specification content in a particular context. collecting appropriate evidence from a variety of primary and secondary sources. and recognising some of the limitations of the evidence. drawing simple maps and diagrams. and appreciating some of the limitations of evidence and conclusions. They understand some simple interrelationships between people and the environment. hij 99 . as required by the specification. They understand some simple physical and human processes and recognise that they contribute to the development of geographical patterns and the geographical characteristics of places and environments. communicating outcomes. and the idea of sustainable development. collecting and recording geographical evidence from primary and secondary sources. Candidates undertake geographical investigation. They understand the effects of values and attitudes of those involved in geographical issues and in decisionmaking about the use and management of environments. identifying questions or issues. communicating information and outcomes by brief statements.

……………………………… Date: Date: ……………………… ……………………… This form should be completed and sent to the moderator with the sample of centre-assessed work. If all the work has been marked by the same person.. that person should sign below. The marks given reflect accurately the unaided achievement of the candidates.. The following declaration must be signed by the teacher responsible for ensuring standardisation.………… Centre Declaration Sheet Series/Year Unit Code: Centre No: ……….….…………………………………… ……………….. If two or more teachers are involved in marking a unit..General Certificate of Secondary Education. hij 100 .………………………………… ………………. 2008 examination B Record Forms Centre-assessed work abc Specification Title: Centre Name: Authentication …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………… Signature(s) of teacher(s) responsible for assessment Teacher 1 Teacher 3 Teacher 5 ………………………………………..………………………………… (Continue overleaf if necessary) Internal Standardisation of Marking Each centre must standardise the assessments for this unit across different teachers and teaching groups to ensure that all candidates in the centre have been judged against the same standards.……………………… This is to certify that marks have been awarded in accordance with the requirements of the specification and that every reasonable step has been taken to ensure that the work presented is that of the candidates named..Geography B (Short Course) .………… ……………………………………….. I confirm that: (a) *I have marked the work of all candidates for this component.. (b) *the procedure described in the specification has been followed at this centre to ensure that the marking is of the same standard for all candidates. Any assistance given to candidates beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification has been recorded on the Candidate Record Form(s) and has been taken into account. Teacher 2 Teacher 4 Teacher 6 ……………. Signed: ……………………………………………………………………………………… Signature of Head of Centre ……………………….………… ………………………………………. one of them must be designated as responsible for standardising the marking of all teachers at the centre who mark the unit.

To present material copied from books or other sources without acknowledgement will be regarded as deliberate deception.. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… NOTICE TO CANDIDATE The work you submit for assessment must be your own. (Write YES or NO) 5. If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you. software packages or information from the Internet) to help you complete this work.………… This form should be completed and attached to the candidate’s work and retained at the Centre or sent to the moderator as required. information leaflets or other materials (e..………………… Date: …………. you must list these below. 2008 examination .g. If you have used any books. you may be disqualified from at least the subject concerned. Declaration by Candidate I have read and understood the Notice to Candidate (above). ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. I have produced the attached work without any help apart from that which I have stated on this sheet. Candidate’s Signature: ……………………………………………. This side is to be completed by the candidate Sources of advice and information.…. give details below. Have you received any help or information from anyone other than your subject teacher(s) in the production of this work? …………………………….General Certificate of Secondary Education. hij 101 . unless they are clearly acknowledged in the work itself. videos. or if you cheat in any other way. Centre-assessed work Candidate Record Form Series/Year Geography B (Short Course) (3037) Centre No: Candidate No: 4.Geography B (Short Course) abc Centre Name: Candidate Name: ………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary. If you have answered YES.

Geography B (Short Course) . Teacher’s Signature: ………………………………………………. Course Mark Table Strand Applied Understanding Methodology Data Presentation Data Interpretation Evaluation Total Maximum Mark Available 6 6 6 6 6 30 Centre Mark Details of additional assistance given (if any) Record here details of any assistance given to this candidate which is beyond that given to the class as a whole and beyond that described in the specification. 102 hij .General Certificate of Secondary Education.……………………… Date: …………………. Supporting information to show how the marks have been awarded should be given in the form of annotations on the candidate’s work and in the spaces below. 2008 examination This side is to be completed by the teacher Marks must be awarded in accordance with the instructions and criteria in Section 17 of the specification. Continue on a separate sheet if necessary.

however. although the perspective relates to beliefs and morality. There is also some degree of overlap with the following AQA GCSE specifications. Environmental Issues. All modules in this specification look at issues concerning poverty and/or environmental conservation. UK tourist destinations.Geography B (Short Course) C Overlaps with Other Qualifications There are overlaps in content between AQA GCSE (Short Course) in Geography B and other GCSE (Short Course) Geography and GCSE Geography specifications. Environment and Tourism. and Module 2. along with GCSE Science: Single and Double Award. People and leisure. there is overlap with the key ideas of Core Module 1. also have some peripheral overlap with GCSE (Short Course) in Geography B.General Certificate of Secondary Education. 2008 examination . Reference to a restriction on multiple entry in this regard is made in section 3. Impacts of tourism. At Intermediate level the relevant optional units are: hij 103 . the Relationships between society. GCSE Environmental Science. Foundation level GNVQ in Leisure and Tourism has overlap in the optional units of: 7 10 4 5 UK leisure and tourism destinations. and some overlap with the Option Modules 5 (Global Inequality) and 6 (People and Work). The focus and scientific approach to study. In GCSE Humanities. Tourism Destinations. There are some overlaps in content with GCSE Travel and Tourism Module 1. is significantly different from that for geography.3. There is also peripheral overlap with GCSE Religious Studies B.

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