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There are many definitions of technology (see Wikipedia for a good discussion of this). Essentially definitions of technology range from the basic notion of tools, to systems which employ or exploit technologies. Thus ‘technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve realworld problems’ is a simple definition; ‘the current state of humanity’s knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants’ is a more complex and grandiose definition and has a smugness (or excessive feeling of selfsatisfaction) about it that I think is undeserved (not earned) – technology often does the opposite of satisfy wants, for instance.). In terms of educational technology I think we have to consider a broad definition of technology. The technology of the Internet involves more than just a collection of tools, but a system that combines computers, telecommunications, software and rules and procedures or protocols. However, I baulk (check) at the very broad definition of the ‘current state of humanity’s knowledge’. Once a definition begins to encompass many different aspects of life it becomes unwieldy (unmanageable) and ambiguous or (doubtful or uncertain). I tend to think of technology in education as things or tools used to support teaching and learning. Thus computers, software programs such as a learning management system, or a transmission or communications network, are all technologies. A printed book is a technology. Technology often includes a combination of tools with particular technical links that enable them to work as a technology system, such as the telephone network or the Internet. However, for me, technologies or even technological systems do not of them communicate or create meaning. They just sit there until commanded to do something or until they are activated or until a person starts to interact with the technology. If properly used, technology will help students acquire the skills they need to survive in a complex, highly technological knowledge-based economy. The word technology does not necessarily imply the use of machines but refers to any practical art using scientific knowledge. Technology can make the ordinary person capable of superior performance and a means, either printed or electronic, to distribute that instruction. Technology is ubiquitous, (meaning being present everywhere, it exist in all places at the same time) touching almost every part of our lives, our communities, our homes. Yet most schools lag (falling behind) far behind when it comes to integrating technology into classroom learning. Many are just beginning to explore the true potential tech offers for teaching and learning. If properly used, technology will help students acquire the skills they need to survive in a complex, highly technological knowledge-based economy. Integrating technology into classroom instruction means more than teaching basic computer skills and software programs in a separate computer class. Effective tech integration must happen across the curriculum in ways that research shows deepen and enhance the learning process. In particular, it must support four key components of learning: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connection to real-world experts. Effective technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is routine and transparent and when technology supports curricular -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
B. Types of Technology
1. Assertive Technology /ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
Assistive technology employs the use of various types of services and devices designed to help people with disabilities function within the environment. Assistive technologies include mechanical, electronic, and microprocessor-based equipment, non-mechanical and non-electronic aids, specialized instructional materials, services, and strategies that people with disabilities can use either to (a) assist them in learning, (b) make the environment more accessible, (c) enable them to compete in the workplace, (d) enhance their independence, or (e) otherwise improve their quality of life. Assistive technologies may include commercially available or "home made" devices that are specially designed to meet the idiosyncratic peculiar to the individual) needs of a particular individual (Blackhurst & Lahm, 2000). Examples include eyeglasses, communication aids, alternative computer keyboards, adaptive switches, and services such as those that might be provided by speech/language pathologists. 2. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Information technologies provide access to knowledge and resources on a wide range of topics. The Internet, and its World Wide Web component, is the most prominent example of information technology. The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is another example. The ERIC system enables people to search and locate much of the world's educational literature on a given topic.
3. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Although there are differing opinions about the nature of instructional technology, the Commission on Instructional Technology (1970) provided the following definition: Instructional technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication, and employing a combination of human and nonhuman resources to bring about more effective instruction. (p. 199) Typical applications of instructional technology may use conventional media such as videotapes, computer assisted instruction, or more complex systems, such as hypermedia programs in which computers are used to control the display of audio and visual images stored on
using. Use of technology cannot compensate for instruction that is poorly designed or implemented. A system's structure and behavior may be decomposed via subsystems and sub-processes to elementary parts and process steps. As in all forms of applied technology. 1995) and its World Wide Web component (Williams. A system has interconnectivity: the parts and processes are connected by structural and/or behavioral relationships. it contains processes that transform inputs into outputs (material. especially if the item is not consumed in the process. and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. A system has behavior. small units of instruction that are carefully sequenced. E. the field studies how theoretical knowledge and scientific principles can be applied to problems that arise in a social context. examining all aspects from direct student learning to management and impacts on institutions. Analyze Learners . & Lahm. All effective instruction needs careful planning. Computer software systems are now available that can be used to manage the delivery of instruction via the Web. Some systems share common characteristics. precise instructional procedures based upon the tasks that students are required to learn. These activities rely upon a body of knowledge for successful and ethical implementation. They are: A: Analyze Learners S: State Objectives S: Select Media and Materials U: Utilize Media and Materials R: Require Learner Participation E: Evaluate and Revise A. liberal use of reinforcement. particularly the Internet (Williams. technological devices are considered as means to an end and not an end in and of themselves. energy or data). and careful monitoring of student performance. including: A system has structure. What is System? A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called 'components' ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets. As a field. and which typically include the use of well-defined objectives. rather than routine tasks or isolated technical skills. Scholars in the field examine the uses of innovative media and technologies for education. this is important to know how to plan systematically for the effective use of media. In this conceptualization. have great promise for use in classrooms and for distance education. Practitioners in educational technology seek new and effective ways of organizing the teaching and learning process through the best possible application of technological developments. C. high levels of student involvement. Educational technology? Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating. ASSURE MODEL TECHNOLOGY OF TEACHING The integrating of instructional approaches that are very systematically designed and applied in very precise ways.videodisc (Blackhurst & Morse. it contains parts (or components) that are directly or indirectly related to each other. 1996). a high degree of teacher activity. the systematic plan that used given acronym ASSURE model. Informally the word is also used to describe a procedure or process with a specific purpose. The use of telecommunication systems. Such systems have been used successfully to deliver instruction to undergraduate and graduate students on topics related to special education (Blackhurst. educational technology emphasizes communication skills and approaches to teaching and learning through the judicious use and integration of diverse media. So that is why. Hales. D. 1996). A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal. 1997). Because of the purpose is to ASSURE effective use of media in instruction. It is important to note the various components of the above definition and to realize that technology is actually a tool for the delivery of instruction. Refers to TECHNOLOGY OF TEACHING Teaching with instructional media should be effective in order to make all instruction become to be effective too. CD-ROM and digital video discs.
there are some assumption that usually come to the teacher’s mind. we can select appropriate media and methods. respond to different stimuli such as anxiety. we should analyze the knowledge or skill that the students have or lack such as prerequisite (entry skill). explain how they can take this information and use it and how they will be evaluated up front. modify. It is clear that certain traits affect our ability to learn effectively from different media and method. On the other hand. This assumption is often mistaken. and the many objectives to be pursued. The research finds that on the average 90 to 95 percent of instructional class time is spent on activities of using instructional material. Even if there are many media model and new formula time by time. Prepare the environment. There are three alternatives in obtaining material: selecting available materials. Learning Styles Learning style refers to the whole spectrum of psychological traits that affect how we perceive. Classification of Objectives Classifying objective is really important because the selection of instructional methods and media depends on the types of objectives being pursued and so does the choice of evaluation instruments. General Characteristics > are factors that are not related to the content of the lesson. An objective maybe classified according to the learning aimed. the variety of learners. We must know our students in order to select the best medium to meet the objectives. Objectives and Individual Differences The objectives that has already discussed should be adapted to the abilities of individual learners. 3. 2. grade level. 2.Set up the classroom so that whatever you’re doing will work in the space you have. Knowing the objectives also become to be a contract between the teacher and learners so learning and teaching become to be objectives oriented. teachers think that the learners lack the knowledge or skill that the teachers want to teach. B. teachers sometimes think that learners have already mastered the prerequisite knowledge or skill (the knowledge base required to enter the lesson). Utilize Media and Materials Plan of how you are going to implement your media and materials. it helps assure proper evaluation. learners and teachers what the goal of the lesson that expected to reach by the learners. Please write in full sentences. Sometimes. These factors help us to determine the level of lesson and select content. it helps teacher to make a correct selection of media and method. group work. Prepare the material. auditory preference. In order to select the appropriate media and method. This assumption can be accepted but sometimes it is not always right. Showmanship is part of the facilitator’s job. In order to utilize materials correctly there are several steps to creating good student-centered instruction. Analyzing specific entry competencies can be done by using pretests. C.Make sure you have everything you need and that it all works. Require Learner Participation Describe how you are going to get each learner "actively and individually involved in the lesson. There are three categories of analyzing learners : 1. etc. This selection will be presented here into two stages: 1. By stating the objectives. Our role in the classroom today is one of a guide on the side and students. For each type of media and/or materials listed under Select. Ex: games. We have to consider many aspects such as the vast array of media available. Select Media and Materials When we have identified our learners and stated the objectives. and design describe in detail how you are going to implement them into your lesson to help your learners meet the lesson's objective. 4. Specific Entry Competencies When teacher begin to plan any lesson. By knowing our learners we can decide the match between the characteristics of the learner and the content of the lesson and its presentation in order to get the good media for them. 3. 2.Teaching is simply high theatre. Every learner has their different capability in getting the objectives. cultural and socioeconomic factors. Obtaining Specific Materials Obtaining specific material is the most important problem that we have to solve. we have established the beginning and ending point of instruction. Prepare the learners. or. presentations. Objectives are not intended to limit what the student learns but they just provide the minimum level of expected achievement. do this for each item. visual. if there is no one appropriate with the objectives we have to design the new materials. E. modifying materials. Preview the material. . 1. Our task now is how to build a bridge between these two point by selecting media and materials.Give the students an overview. skit. State Objectives (ABCD method The next step in ASSURE model is to state the objectives as specifically as possible.Never uses anything in class you haven’t thoroughly checked out. target skills and attitudes. Teaching and learning should be an experience not an ordeal. the only one that can decide what media that appropriate is the teacher itself by considering the setting and the condition of the learners. Choosing Media Format Choosing the correct media will be really complex problems that are to solve. By knowing what audiences already known. Remember that the days of sage on the stage are gone. Provide the learning experience. Thirdly. aptitude.The first step that we have to do in ASSURE model is analyze the learners. 5. job or position. It also forces us to create a learning environment in which the objectives can be reaching. Example: age. etc. D. and examples that will be meaningful to the audiences. At a very first place. context. That becomes to be very important because of some reasons.
with computers. online social networking. Thus in terms of representing knowledge we can think of the following educational media: text. such as writing (for text). If the objectives call for demonstrating a process. but I classify it as a medium. Within these different media are particular ways of representing. communication and interpretation of meaning are added features that turn a technology into a medium. the creation. and by the ‘receiver’. I use the term computing. and the Internet. in that they intermediate ideas and images that convey meaning. In this sense. Sometimes the formats overlap but even then there are symbol systems within a medium that distinguish it from other media. Media of course depend on technology. and again usually involves some form of human intervention. Computing as a medium would include animations. computing involves some kind of intervention. action programs. such as news. talking. We can also then think of online teaching as a different medium. Media require an active act of creation of content and/or communication. newspapers. since although computing uses computers. For instance in movies there are cuts. using a search engine. need to experience learning. game shows. learners and online resources within the unique context of the Internet that are the essential component of online learning. meaning in the middle (a median) and also that which intermediates or interprets. symbol systems and unique characteristics (e. measure whether or not the lesson objectives were met.g. The word ‘medium’ comes from the Latin. close-ups. Thus we can think of the Internet as merely a technological system. the 140 character limit in Twitter) are deliberately created and need to be interpreted . In education we could think of classroom teaching as a medium. while in publishing there are novels. drawing or design for graphics. the Internet (in the sense of the communication network) and a learning management system as core technologies. and other techniques that are markedly different from those in other media. but technology is only one element of media. construction and interpretation. documentaries. All activities should provide opportunities to manipulate the information and allow time for practice during the demonstration of the skill. as well as computer algorithms to assist the search. Each of these is always an interpretation of reality. These symbol systems are not neutral or arbitrary but are used to influence our interpretation of reality. scripting or recording for audio and video. publishing. both of which are different from definitions of technology.especially with technology connected lessons. These formats. graphics. as well as the technologies that carry the medium. chalk and blackboards. All these features of media bring with them their own conventions and assist or change the way meaning is extracted or interpreted. who must also interpret it. and someone who receives and understands the communication. television. we can consider text. or developing an attitude. video and computing. for instance film and movies. in the future. since it needs content and content providers. or as a medium that contains unique formats and symbol systems that help convey meaning and knowledge. Some objectives can be adequately assessed with a pen and paper test. graphics. Were the media and the instruction effective? Evaluate student performance: How will you determine whether or not they met the lesson's objective? The evaluation should match the objective. Thus for instance within television there are different formats. comics.g. Media Media (plural of medium) is another word that has many definitions and I will argue that it has two distinct meanings relevant for teaching and learning. or designing and using simulations. ===================================================================================================================== Computing can also be considered a medium in this context. Note that there are two types of intervention in me dia: by the ‘creator’ who constructs information. audio and video as media. etc. Evaluate media components: How will you determine the media effectiveness? Evaluate instructor performance: How will you determine whether or not your own performance as instructor/facilitator was effective? B. but it is the interaction between teachers. The implication is clear that the most effective learning situation is those that require learners to perform activities that build toward the objective. In 1900 John Dewey urged reorganizations of the curriculum and instruction to make student participant a central part of the process. F. Evaluation and Revise Describe how you will. Thus while media use technology to communicate or interpret meaning. Technology or tools are used (e. organizing and communicating knowledge. creating a product. fades. audio. the evaluation will frequently require observing the behavior in action. biographies. The second meaning of media is broader and refers to the industries or significant areas of human activity that are organized around particular technologies. not computers. and an end user who defines the parameters of the search. or PowerPoint and a projector) but the key component is the intervention of the teacher and the interaction with the learners in real time and in a fixed time and place. Thus Google uses a search engine as its primary technology.
"utensil". Thus one major advantage of the Internet is that it encompasse s all the representational media of text. people can be at the same time both creators and interpreters of knowledge. but a large number of more complex machines exist. Tool use by humans dates back millions of years.g. A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action. "machine". simulation. Lastly. broadcasters often have a different set of professional criteria and ways of assessing ‘quality’ in an educational broadcast from those of educators. 3. Physical or abstract systems. the advent of electronics technology has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. 4. The term system may also refer to a set of rules that governs structure and/or behavior. Over time. graphics. television) incorporating some of the components of earlier media (e. 7. audio. especially if the item is not consumed in the process. with newer media (e. 2. thermal. 4. Furthermore. "implement". there is a strong organizational context to media. at least with the Internet. When digital media incorporate many of these components they become ‘rich media’. Informally the word is also used to describe a procedure or process with a specific purpose. Digital media and the Internet increasingly are incorporating and integrating all previous media. This also applies to computer professionals and educators. audio) as well as adding another medium (video). such as animation. 6. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force.g. Computer-based information systems. 3. Inputs and outputs Processor Control Environment/surroundings Feedback Boundaries and interface Relationship Types of systems Systems are classified in different ways: 1. Evaluation of Learner Achievement . and usually in the context of complex social systems. and are often motorized. and other animals are also known to employ simple tools. The set of tools needed to achieve a goal is "equipment". A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal. and interactivity. 'Man-made' information systems. Historically. Real-time system. and video. the term institution is used to describe the set of rules that govern structure and/or behavior. Elements of a system Following are considered as the elements of a system in terms of Information systems: – 1. and adding new media components. For instance. Alternatively. Tools that are used in particular fields or activities may have different designations such as "instrument". 5. video and computing – as we saw also with the characteristics of broadcast/communicative and synchronous/asynchronous. and radio. molecular machines. Industries are often organized around specific media.by both creators and end users. Machines are usually powered by mechanical. electronic systems. Open or closed systems. such as text. The knowledge of constructing. 5. 6. Formal information systems. Informal in format Ion systems. a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. audio. media have become more complex. and hence media use and interpretation is influenced by strong cultural or organizational values. 7. chemical. However. 2. television. obtaining and using tools is technology. or "apparatus". computers. Examples include vehicles. 8. or electrical means.
Word documents and Adobe PDF Portfolios. proportion of correct responses required. for example:. observation of student behavior should be used to evaluate instructional media and provide meaning full student particular. Some objectives call relatively simple cognitive skills. The result of your evaluation should be entered on a form in your personal media file. as in the accompanying example regarding welding. SlideShare offers users the ability to upload and share publicly or privately PowerPoint presentations. the student nurse will explain a bronchoscope. is warranted. Artograph Tracer Projector . describing cause and treatment. more and more colleges are switching to digital projectors and Powerpoint presentations.Opaque Art Craft Projector . used transparencies to illustrate a point or problem. But the test results would be indirect and weak evidence of how well the learner has mastered the objectives. and after instruction. Degree: How well do you want them to demonstrate their mastery? Degree to which the new skill must be mastered or the criterion for acceptable performance (include time limit. during.” For military training an objective could be “With the aid of a topographic map. are made before. Use an action verb from the helpful verbs list if you have difficulty doing this. but only if you constantly use it to upgrade the quality of your instruction. This problem is typically limited to High School and College-level mathematics. facts. For product skill. range of accuracy. Where are there discrepancies between what you intended to happen and what did happen? Did student achievement fall short on one or more of the objectives? How did students react to your instructional methods and media? Are you satisfied with the value of the materials you selected? If your evaluation data indicate shortcomings in any of these areas. and/or special environmental conditions in which the learner has to perform.” A possible test item would be “what is a bronchiole? Describe the cause and treatment in your answer. measurable behavior. aids. Were your instructional materials effective? Could be improve? Were they cost-effective in term of student achievement? Did your presentation take more time than it was really worth? Particularly after firs use. And class discussions. Uses for transparencies are as varied as the organizations that use them. Evaluation of Media and Methods Evaluation also includes assessment of instructional media and methods. an observable. or attitude type could be assessed to some extent by means of written or oral test. Behavior: What do you want them to do? The behavior or capability needs to be demonstrated as learner performance. Math classes in particular use a roll of acetate to illustrate sufficiently long problems and to create illustrations a computer cannot. because of the inclusion of Algebra and Calculus courses. a performance check list can be an effective. individual interview. For example: “Given a diagram of the human trachea.225-360 – NEW A projector used to view images of nontransparent materials. a product rating checklist can guide your evaluation of critical sub skills and make qualitative judgments more objectives. Audience: Who is the audience? Specifies the learner(s) for whom the objective is intended. and/or qualitative standards. as shown with the checklists for driving skills.” The written test could ask “how would you call for artillery fire upon point X on the accompanying topographic map?” Capabilities of the process. The model works. and computer programs. such as printed sheets or drawings. respectively. In recent years. now is the time to go back to the faulty part of the plan and revise it.” In broadcaster training the objectives might be “ Given the pertinent information. or references the learner may or may not use. objectives way of recording your observations. compositions in an English course.The method of evaluating achievement depends on the nature of the objective. such as those associated with Mathematics or History. the officer will call for field artitellery fire using the four essential items of information in prescribed military sequence. Evaluation of the Instructional Process Evaluation is ongoing process. or a real-world skill. instructional materials need to be evaluated to determine if future use.) . Other types of products that lend themselves to evaluation by a rating scale include pastry from a bakery. In this case process skill. The evaluation procedures should correspond to the objectives stated earlier in the ASSURE model. product.before instruction learner characteristic are measured to ensure that there is a fit between existing student skills and the methods and materials you intend to use. It is the starting point of the next and continuing cycle in our systematic ASSURE model for effective use of instructional media. and figures. the student will write a twenty -second and a thirty-second broadcast news story using correct broadcast style. due to a lack of math symbols on a standard computer keyboard. Certain classes. Revision The final step of the instructional cycle is to sit back and look at the result of your evaluation data gathering. tools. Evaluation is not the end of instruction. with or without modification. Condition: Under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skill being taught? Be sure to include equipment.
We must consider the total learning situation. No single medium is the total solution.g.selection Criteria Media Selection Media should be selected on the basis of student need. Does it match the curriculum? Is it accurate and current? Does it contain clear and concise language? Will it motivate and maintain interest? Does it provide for learner participation? Is it of good technical quality? Is there evidence of its effectiveness (e. Should follow learning objectives. Should be selected in order to best meet the learning outcomes.. Should be chosen objectively. field-test results)? Is it free from objectionable bias and advertising Is a user guide or other documentation included? . Must be appropriate for the teaching format. Should be consistent with the students' capabilities and learning styles.
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