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1

DC Optimal Power Flow Including HVDC Grids

Roger Wiget, Student Member, IEEE, Gran Andersson, Fellow, IEEE,

AbstractMany simulations in power systems analysis contain

an AC grid which is solved using linearized power ow methods.

This paper extends the known DC optimal power ow method

for AC grids for use in combined AC and HVDC grids. Future

studies would now incorporate in their simulations combined AC

and HVDC grids. This paper describes the additions made to the

algorithm and the inuence of the soft penalties. The algorithm

is tested in the IEEE 14 bus test case with a 5 node DC overlay

grid. The accuracy compared to the full power ow model is in

a reasonable range. The calculation performance is signicantly

increased.

Index TermsHVDC transmission, multi-terminal HVDC, op-

timal power ow.

I. INTRODUCTION

T

RANSMISSION grids have to be reinforced to meet

future energy demands. There are proposals to solve

this issue with voltage-source converter (VSC) Multi-terminal

HVDC (MTDC) grids [1], [2]. The introduction of a HVDC

grid instead of new AC lines has several advantages, mainly

the reduction of the overall costs, due to the lower losses and

the higher controllability [3].

Steady-state power ow can been calculated with different

methods. In order to reduce the costs, or losses, in a grid,

optimal power ow (OPF) was introduced. The main obstacle

for the accurate full OPF calculation is the high computational

effort, which is needed to solve this nonlinear, not convex

problem. That is why many linearized, so called DC OPF

methods, where introduced to speed up the calculations [4],

[5]. It should be noted that with DC power ows methods

we denote the linearized methods in order to solve the OPF

problem. The DC grid is not incorporated in these methods.

This may lead to some confusion. Including the HVDC grid

in these methods is the contribution of this paper.

The additional benets of the DC calculation methods

are the reliable and unique solutions with relatively simple

methods. The injections and the resulting ows are optimized

efciently, particularly in the demanding area of contingency

analysis [6]. The accuracy of the known linearized methods

is still in a reasonable range for most applications. A detailed

study of the errors is done in [7].

Active and reactive power ows can be calculated with the

full OPF. The reactive power production has strong effect only

on a local basis, therefore the active power ows are of primary

interest for studies in topics such as large scale energy markets.

The method presented considers only the active power.

R. Wiget and G. Andersson are with the Power Systems Laboratory, ETH

Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Switzerland. Corresponding

authors email address wiget@eeh.ee.ethz.ch. The work proposed in this paper

has been carried out within the HVDC networks research project, which is

nancially supported by ABB, Alstom Grid, Siemens, and the Swiss Federal

Ofce of Energy.

Manuscript received March 28, 2013

The production costs of the generators in the AC grid are

usually calculated with a quadratic cost function to calculate

social welfare. Linear cost are used for electricity market

bidding. Both are possible to use in this paper. One of these

cost models is included in most OPF as an objective function

and the linearized steady-state ow equations are embedded as

constraints. This results in a convex optimization. Additionally

the voltage angle differences are penalized with a soft penalty

factor. It allows to estimate the size and pattern of the error

and improves the numerical stability and convergence [8]. The

equations and constraints for the converter stations and a DC

grid are added to use the algorithm for combined AC and DC

grids.

This paper rst gives a brief theoretical background about

the linearized ow in the DC grid, followed by the detailed

formulation of the combined AC and DC grid OPF. A study

case in the IEEE 14 bus test case compares the presented

algorithm with a full OPF for combined AC and HVDC grids,

which was presented in [9]. Finally conclusions are provided.

II. OPF FORMULATION

The well known DC power ow for AC grid is expanded

to MTDC grids. The AC formulation can be found in detail

in [8] and is not repeated here.

A. DC calculation of active power ows in the HVDC grid

The main idea is to linearize the quadratic power ow

equations for the DC grid. The exact steady-state power ow

in a HVDC line from node k to m is represented in (1), where

U

k

is the voltage at node k in pu. R

km

is the resistance of

the HVDC line between the these nodes.

P

km

=

U

k

(U

k

U

m

)

R

km

(1)

If it is assumed that the DC voltages are rather close to the

nominal voltage, dened as 1 pu, (1) can be approximated.

P

km

(U

k

U

m

)

R

km

(2)

The resulting voltages U

k

and U

m

give only the deviation

from the nominal voltage at the reference bus.

With this approximation the linearization is already done.

The losses in the DC grid are neglected, similar to the AC

grid. The power balance equations for the AC (3) and DC (4)

grid are as follows:

P

Lk

= P

Gk

m

P

km

P

T k

(3)

P

Lk

=

M

m

P

km

+P

T k

(4)

2

P

Lk

, P

Gk

, and P

T k

are the load, generation and the AC/DC

terminal power at node k. N are the total amount of AC

branches. M the similar value for the DC branches.

Additionally some parameters have to stay within certain

limits. The active power generation at each bus is limited

between the maximal and minimal generation.

P

min

Gk

P

Gk

P

max

Gk

(5)

(6)

The power ow through the terminals is also limited. It is

assumed that in each direction the same maximum power can

be used.

P

max

T k

P

T k

P

max

T k

(7)

(8)

The limits in the branches, regardless of whether AC or DC,

are also xed. Similar to the converter stations, the ow can

either be positive or negative up to the same limit.

P

max

km

P

km

P

max

km

(9)

(10)

Equation 9 is valid for all DC and AC lines.

B. Objective function

The objective function (11) chosen in this paper represents

quadratic costs for the generators. In addition the voltage angle

differences for the AC grid and the DC voltage differences

in the DC grid are penalized to improve stability and allow

sensitivity experiments to get information about the AC-DC

approximation errors [8]. The soft penalty weights

AC

and

DC

are chosen rather small, such that the generator cost

strongly overweight the second part of the objective function.

I

i=1

[c

lini

P

Gi

+c

quad i

P

2

Gi

]+

AC

_

km

[

k

m

]

2

_

+

DC

_

km

[U

DCk

U

DCm

]

2

_

(11)

The coefcients for the linear costs are c

lini

and c

quad i

are

the coefcients for the quadratic costs for all I generators. The

AC voltage angle differences and DC voltage differences are

considered over all lines in the AC and DC grid.

This objective function is only one possibility, several other

options are possible to choose depending on the purpose of

the simulation. E.g. if c

quad i

= 0 and both

i

= 0, the whole

algorithm is linear.

C. Decision variable vector x

The vector x for the combined OPF contains different sets

of values. All active power generations P

G

are represented

in the state vector. Additionally the AC voltage angles are

contained in x. To control the power ow between the AC and

the DC grid also the power transfers through the terminals P

T

are in the state vector. Finally the voltages in the DC grid U

DC

are added to x. To calculate the ows in both grids only the

AC voltage angles differences and DC voltage differences are

of interest, therefore in each grid a slack bus can be chosen. At

these buses the angle , respectively voltage U

DC

are dened

as reference values and can be removed from x.

D. Nomenclature

The symbols used for the formulation of the algorithm are

summarized in table I.

TABLE I

NOMENCLATURE

I Total amount of generators

K Total amount of AC nodes

L Total amount of terminal stations

M Total amount of DC nodes

N Total amount of AC branches

O Total amount of DC branches

Z I+K+L+M-2 Length of the state vector x

Y 2(I+N+L+O) Amount of inequality constraints

E. Matrix form

The optimization problem can be formulated in matrix form

as follows:

min f(x) = min

1

2

x

T

Gx +a x (12)

with respect to

x = [P

G1

. . . P

GI

2

. . .

K

P

T1

. . . P

TL

U

DC2

. . . U

DCM

]

T

[Z1]

(13)

subject to

C

eq

x = b

eq

(14)

C

iq

x b

iq

(15)

The matrices used are constructed as explained in the fol-

lowing paragraphs. The quadratic costs matrix Gis constructed

out of QC and the reduced version of W

AC

and W

DC

.

The generators cost coefcients for the quadratic costs are

composed to a diagonal matrix QC with the size of I I.

QC = diag[2c

quad 1

2c

quad 2

. . . 2c

quad I

] (16)

W

DC

is the voltage difference weight matrix. The diagonal

elements W

ii

stand for the amount of DC lines connected to

node i. The off diagonal elements W

ij

indicate whenever a

line from i to j with a -1.

W

DC

= 2

DC

_

k=1

I

k1

I

12

. . . I

1M

I

21

k=2

I

k2

. . . I

2M

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

I

M1

I

M2

. . .

k=M

I

kM

_

_

[MM]

(17)

3

where I

km

is a function dened as:

I

km

=

_

1 if there is a branch from k to m or m to k

0 otherwise

The voltage angle difference weight matrix for the AC grid

can be constructed similarly. W

AC

is then a K K matrix.

Node 1 is chosen as the slack bus in the DC grid , similarly

AC node 1 is dened as the slack bus in the AC grid. Since

only the relative angle of the AC buses and the relative voltage

of the DC buses are of interest, the voltage angle at the AC

slack bus can be dened as zero, equally the voltage difference

at the DC slack bus is zero. Therefore the matrices W

AC

and

W

DC

can be reduced. The rst row and column of each of

them can be removed to get W

AC

r

and W

DC

r

.

The block diagonal matrix G is then composed out of QC,

W

AC

r

and W

DC

r

.

G = diag[QC, W

AC

r

, 0

[LL]

, W

DC

r

]

[ZZ]

(18)

The zero-columns with width of L correspond to the power

ow through the terminals. The zeros mean that no costs are

assigned to the terminal ows.

In vector a the linear cost coefcients c

lini

are included.

No other linear costs are considered in the proposed objective

function.

a = [c

lin1

c

lin2

. . . c

linI

0

[1 (Z I)]

]

[1Z]

(19)

F. Constraints

The equality constraints are given by the power balances

at each node. The power ow through the lines and terminals

is limited by the inequality constraints. The rst matrix to

calculate is H, it allocates the different generators to the nodes.

H =

_

_

H

11

. . . H

1I

H

21

. . . H

2I

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

H

K1

. . . H

KI

_

_

[KI]

(20)

H

pq

=

_

1 if generator q is connected at node p

0 otherwise

The next matrix to calculate is the admittance matrix B

DC

.

The rst row of the admittance matrix can be removed due to

the xation of the voltage at bus 1. Therefore

B

DC

r

=

_

_

B

DC

21

k=2

B

DC

k2

. . . B

DC

2K

B

DC

31

B

DC

32

. . . B

DC

3K

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

B

DC

M1

B

DC

M2

. . .

k=M

B

DC

kM

_

_

[(M1)M]

(21)

B

DC

km

=

_

1

R

km

[pu]

if branch km or mk exist

0 otherwise

where R

km

is the line resistance and R

km

= R

mk

.

The same matrix for the AC grid is B

AC

r

. Here B

AC

km

is

dened as follows:

B

AC

km

=

_

1

X

km

[pu]

if branch km or mk exists

0 otherwise

where X

km

is the line reactance and X

km

= X

mk

.

The line adjacency matrix A denes the branches. For each

branch the starting bus is marked positive conductivity and the

ending bus with the negative. Again the rst column can be

neglected.

A

DC

r

=

_

_

J

21

. . . J

M1

J

22

. . . J

M2

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

J

2O

. . . J

MO

_

_

[OM]

(22)

J

pq

=

_

_

B

DC

p

if line p starts at node q

B

DC

p

if line p ends at node q

0 otherwise

The same procedure done for the AC grid results in the A

AC

matrix, with the size of N K. The connection matrix T

between the AC nodes and the DC nodes is composed as

following:

T =

_

_

T

11

. . . T

1L

T

21

. . . T

2L

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

T

K1

. . . T

KL

_

_

[KL]

(23)

T

pq

=

_

1 if terminal q is connected at node p

0 otherwise

The same is done for the DC nodes.

S =

_

_

S

11

. . . S

1L

S

21

. . . S

2L

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

S

M1

. . . S

ML

_

_

[ML]

(24)

S

pq

=

_

1 if terminal q is connected at DC node p

0 otherwise

The equality constraint matrix C

eq

can be built out of the

prepared matrices.

C

eq

=

_

H B

AC

r

T 0

0 0 S B

DC

r

_

[(K+M)Z]

(25)

The rst row corresponds to the power balances at the AC

nodes, the second row is the respective equations in the DC

grid. The equality vector b

eq

consists out of the total load at

each node, for AC and DC nodes.

4

b

eq

= [P

L1

P

L2

. . . P

L(K+M)

]

T

[(K+M)1]

(26)

Loads can be connected directly to the DC grid, if no such

connections exist P

Li

= 0 for all i > K. The inequality

constraints are represented by the C

iq

matrix. I

I

and I

L

are

identity matrices with the size of I and L respectively.

C

iq

=

_

_

I

I

0 0 0

I

I

0 0 0

0 A

AC

r

0 0

0 A

AC

r

0 0

0 0 I

L

0

0 0 I

L

0

0 0 0 A

DC

r

0 0 0 A

DC

r

_

_

[Y Z]

(27)

The rst two rows correspond to the generators limits,

followed by two rows for the AC line limits. The transfer

capacities of the terminal are limited in row 5 and 6. The

last two rows limit the ow through the DC lines. The vector

b

iq

consists of 8 other vectors. There b

Up

gen

and b

Up

gen

stand for

the upper and lower limits of the generators. b

br

and b

DCbr

represent the line limits for the AC and DC lines, respectively.

The active power through each terminal is limited by the

values in b

ter

.

b

Up

gen

= [P

Up

G1

P

Up

G2

. . . P

Up

GI

]

T

[I1]

(28)

b

Lo

gen

= [P

Lo

G1

P

Lo

G2

. . . P

Lo

GI

]

T

[I1]

(29)

b

br

= [P

br1

P

br2

. . . P

brN

]

T

[N1]

(30)

b

ter

= [P

T1

P

T2

. . . P

T L

]

T

[L1]

(31)

b

DCbr

= [P

DCbr1

P

DCbr2

. . . P

DCbrO

]

T

[O1]

(32)

All this vectors together result in b

iq

.

b

iq

= [b

Up

gen

b

Lo

gen

b

br

b

br

b

ter

b

ter

b

DCbr

b

DCbr

]

T

[Y 1]

(33)

III. CASE STUDY

The comparison between the linearized and full AC OPF [9]

algorithms is carried out at the IEEE 14 bus test case, with a 5

node overlay DC grid as shown in Fig. 1. Node 25 is a DC bus

only, with no connection to the AC grid. All parameters for the

AC grid are from the MATPOWER test case14 [10]. All DC

lines have the same resistance of 2.78 , which represents a

100 km DC cable. Their capacity is limited to 50 MW, which

compares to the capacities of the rest of the grid.

A. Accurancy

Three different values for the soft penalties are used in the

linearized OPF. First

AC

and

DC

are set to zero, second

both have the same value of 0.05. The third simulation uses

weighted penalty factors. They are calculated iteratively, the

average penalty costs per line in the AC and DC grid are

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

1

3

2

V

S

C

V

S

C

V

S

C

V

S

C

25

AC Line

Generator

Voltage source

converter

DC Line

Transformer

VSC

Fig. 1. Combined AC and HVDC grid

calculated. Then

AC

is adjusted, until the average penalty

cost on the AC lines are equal to the value on the DC lines.

This is achieved for

AC

= 28 and

DC

= 0.05. For all

simulations the ows in the lines and terminals are compared

to each other.

The power injection to the DC grid is in all simulations

node 1, as shown in Fig. 2. This is reasonable since the

cheapest and highest generation capacity is located at this

node. All other terminals take power out of the DC grid. The

most load is connected to node 3, 4 and 9 are next in the

loading. To reduce the losses it makes sense to control the

DC grid in such a way that the output is as close as possible

to the highest loads. For the full OPF case, node 3 takes the

highest power out of the DC grid. In the linearized OPF it is

depending on the penalty terms, where the weighted values

ts best compared to the full OPF.

The ows in the DC lines are shown in Fig. 3. Except

the small ow on line 13-25, all branch ows have the same

direction for all simulations. Only two lines are loaded close

to their limit of 50 MW for the full OPF. In the linearized

method the line loadings are far below this level, except the

simulations with the weighted penalty terms. For the other two

linearized simulations the utilization of the DC grid is much

smaller than for the full OPF. Since losses are considered in the

full OPF, its preferable to transfer the power over the DC lines

instead of using the AC lines. Therefore an opposite situation

is observable in the AC grid.

Figure 4 shows the AC lines loadings, which are in general

more loaded in the linearized OPF. All major ows in the AC

lines are similar for the full and the linearized OPF. Again the

simulation with weighted penalty factors ts best to the full

OPF.

In the simulation without penalty terms the ow are not

penalized, therefore its hard to decide if the power should

ow through the AC or DC grid. If similar values for the

penalty terms are used, the ows are penalized, but not in

a similar amount. The voltage difference are usually bigger

than the voltage angle differences. Therefore the AC grid is

preferred choice in this simulation. With the weighted soft

penalty factors all ows are penalized in the same amount.

5

1-2 1-5 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-4 4-5 4-7 4-9 5-6 6-11 6-12 6-13 7-8 7-9 9-10 9-14 10-11 12-13 13-14

-50

0

50

100

AC line from k to m

P

o

w

e

r

o

w

[

M

W

]

Lin OPF,

AC

=

DC

= 0

Lin OPF,

AC

= 0.05,

DC

= 0.05

Lin OPF,

AC

= 28,

DC

= 0.05

Full AC OPF

Fig. 4. Flows in the AC grid

Therefore the algorithm tries to minimize the ow in the

grid, which is in line with a reduction of losses. That is

why this simulation is close to the full OPF. Nevertheless the

costs for the generators are several magnitudes higher then the

penalty factors. The costs are 7642.59 $/h and the weighted

simulations the penalties are 0.73$/h for the AC lines and

0.26$/h for the DC lines in total.

1 3 9 13

-50

0

50

100

Terminal Number, Connected to AC Bus

P

o

w

e

r

o

w

[

M

W

]

Lin OPF,

AC

=

DC

= 0

Lin OPF,

AC

= 0.05,

DC

= 0.05

Lin OPF,

AC

= 28,

DC

= 0.05

Full AC OPF

Fig. 2. Interaction between AC and HVDC grid

1-13 1-25 3-9 3-25 9-13 9-25 13-25

-40

-20

0

20

40

DC line from k to m

P

o

w

e

r

o

w

[

M

W

]

Fig. 3. Flows in the DC grid

B. Performance

The main advantage is the fast calculation performance.

The full OPF for the combined AC and DC grid, with its

nonlinear constraints and the quadratic objective function,

requires 2.57 seconds to nd a solution within the tolerances.

The problem solved on the same ofce pc (Q9950 2.83GHz,

8GB RAM) with the linearized OPF takes 14.09 milliseconds,

this is over 180 times faster. This could be a major advantage

especially for all simulations which use multiple runs such as

Monte Carlo simulations. If several ten thousand repetitions

are needed, for example to calculate varying renewable infeed.

It is expected that the time ratio for bigger systems could even

increase, due to the simplicity of the algorithm.

IV. CONCLUSION

The method presented in this paper allows the inclusion of

multi-terminal HVDC grids in several different studies. Espe-

cially the topic of energy markets and uctuating infeed could

prot and it is possible to include the future grid structure.

It can be simply implemented in most existing simulations.

The calculation performance gained compared to the full OPF

justies the simplications, whereas the simulation results are

never exact, but still in a reasonable range. Especially if the

weighted penalty factors are used. A future expansion of this

algorithm will include some security assessments, allowing an

OPF which fullls the N-1 security constraints.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank Emil Iggland for linguistic

input and Spyros Chatzivasileiadis for the support.

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[10] R. Zimmerman, C. Murillo-Sandchez, and R. Thomas, MATPOWER:

Steady-State Operations, Planning, and Analysis Tools for Power Sys-

tems Research and Education, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 26,

no. 1, pp. 12 19, feb. 2011.

Roger Wiget (S11) was born in Lucerne, Switzer-

land. He received a bachelor degree in electri-

cal engineering from the ETH Zurich, Switzerland

in 2009 and a masters degree in Energy Science

and Technology from the same institution in 2011.

He joined the Power Systems Laboratory of ETH

Zurich, Switzerland in 2011 where he is working

towards a PhD. His research is dedicated to HVDC

networks. He is a student member of the IEEE.

Gran Andersson (M86, SM91, F97) obtained

his M.S. (1975) and Ph.D. (1980) degrees from

the University of Lund, Sweden. In 1980 he joined

ASEAs, now ABBs, HVDC division in Ludvika,

Sweden, and in 1986 he was appointed full professor

in electric power systems at KTH (Royal Institute

of Technology), Stockholm, Sweden. Since 2000

he is full professor in electric power systems at

ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology),

where he also heads the powers system laboratory.

His research interests include power systems dynam-

ics and control, power markets, and future energy systems. Gran Andersson

is a fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and of the Royal

Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. He is Editor-in-Chief of IET

Proceedings Generation, Transmission and Distribution and the recipient of

the IEEE PES Outstanding Power Educator Award 2007 and of the George

Monteore International Award 2010.

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