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NTW Exploratory Workshop, 19th March 2014, Brussels

"Ageing of nuclear power plants: a threat to nuclear safety?"

Related Issues: Ageing of human know-how, design and technology What does the JRC do in this respect?

Peter Hähner
DG JRC, Institute for Energy and Transport Petten, NL

Established in 1957 7 institutes in 5 countries

991 scientific publications in 2013 1360 documents in support to EU policies in 2013

Petten (NL)

provides support to European Union policies and technology innovation to ensure sustainable, safe, secure and efficient energy production, distribution and use and to foster sustainable and efficient transport in Europe
Ispra (IT)

Interdisciplinary Study
Benefits and Limitations of Nuclear Fission for a Low-Carbon Economy February 2013

Recommendation # 10:

The role of the Commission’s Joint Research Centre as an EU centre for nuclear safety, safeguards and security science should be reinforced; Consideration should be given to the JRC playing an active role in collecting and disseminating Euratom research results.

• Examples of JRC research into ageing mechanisms • Management of materials data from EU research • Ageing knowledge base • EHRO-N: HR monitoring in the nuclear field

• ECVET: European Credit System for Vocational E&T
• EU Stress Tests: JRC contribution

Corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking in LWR environments
Materials degradation depends on a hierarchy of interacting environmental factors: - temperature - mechanical stress - water chemistry - neutron irradiation

Environmental mechanical testing at JRC

Recirculation loop with controlled water chemistry

With its state-of-the-art test installations JRC investigates corrosion and stresscorrosion cracking phenomena of reactor internals and fuel cladding materials.

High Flux Reactor in Petten

LYRA-10: A joint JRC–NRG irradiation project
• Is there accelerated RPV embrittlement due to Late Blooming Phases (LBP) appearing at high n fluence during long-term operation? • If yes, identify decisive factors for LBP - chemical composition - critical elements (Mn, Ni, Cr, Si) - initial microstructure (BM/WM, etc.)

High Flux Reactor (HFR) - PSF

JRC investigates the microstructural damage processes in RPV base metals and welds under neutron irradiation to a relatively high fluence (LTO).

Materials under irradiation in LYRA-10
 Realistic welds (SV12Ch2N2MAA) 8 heats Fixed Mo (0,6%) Fixed Cr (~2%) Fixed V (~0.1%) & C (0.06%) Fixed Si (~0.3%) Ni (~1.3% - 1.6% - 1.9%) Mn (0.56% - 1.08%) Cu (<0.1%) & P (<0.01%)

 Model steels 12 batches Fixed Mo (0,7%) V (0% & 0.1%) Si (~0.3% & 0.5%) Ni (<0.02% & 2%) Cr (~0.1% & 2.2%) Mn (~0.4% - 0.8 - 1.4) C (0.11% - 0.18%)
Cu (<0.1%) & P (<0.01%)

> 600 specimens  Additional materials WWER‐1000 BM JRQ steel Eurofer97 P91, T91 BM JRQ B17 A302 B 10khMFTpldc 10khMFTWZ AISI304 UHP-Fe UHP-Fe+C NDT, PAS, TEM, SANS…

WWER• -1000 weld 12Ch2N2MAA (high Ni=1.7%)

Impact Charpy & tensile testing

Fracture resistance of different specimen types containing multi-metallic welds FP7 Indirect Action Project MULTIMETAL:
Motivation: There is no experimental test standard

and no agreed numerical scheme for fracture resistance
assessment of dissimilar metal welds (DMW). Objectives: • Develop a standard for experimental fracture resistance testing of DMW specimens. • Develop harmonized numerical procedures for toughness assessment of DMW.

JRC contributes to experimental and numerical benchmark exercises (prenormative research) for the development of best-practice recommendations for the

integrity assessment of DMW components.

Instrumented pipe in an NPP

Thermal fatigue (TF) is a Thermal fatigue test installation at IET degradation mechanism under complex loading conditions. JRC has developed TF test methodologies to underpin the monitoring of real components through laboratory testing.
X-ray CT scan of a TF test specimen

Knowledge Base for Ageing Mechanisms Research
In the frame of an MoU between JRC and GRS (Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit) development of an ageing knowledge base has been initiated building on the experience gained by GRS developing their AlmaMater system.
The content of the knowledge base will be based on critical reviews of the outputs of European research projects on the topic of aging of materials in the nuclear power sector. The purpose of the knowledge base is threefold: • Expert system • Training and education • Consolidation of European research JRC is conducting a feasibility architecture: • Aging mechanisms • Aging mechanisms • Aging mechanisms study to identify the initial scope and system associated with specific NPPs associated with certain operational events in nuclear codes and guidelines

Migration of the PC-based IAEA Surveillance Database to the web-enabled JRC-IET MatDB Online 40,000 data sets on RPV steel embrittlement from 190 reactor units in 7 countries, mainly US, France, Korea Transfer and data validation completed

JRC is currently working on extending the MatDB data evaluation tools library by tools based on the Master Curve Approach (ductile-brittle transition).

Data Citation
Data citation provides a means to support the Horizon 2020 Open Data policy by promoting sharing, aggregation and reuse of experimental data from FP projects. • • • • • • Test data are labelled by Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) Registries host metadata about data sets Researchers are acknowledged in derivative works Data citation promotes European research and innovation Contributes to the generation of new knowledge Guards against redundancy and the abundance of 'data silos' JRC has enabled its MatDB Online to support data citation through DataCite DOIs (digital object identifiers) in much the same way as conventional publications are cited. This serves as a pilot to promote the Open Data initiative under Horizon 2020.

2009 COUNCIL DIRECTIVE establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations Article 7: Expertise and skills in nuclear safety Member States shall ensure … education and training … relating to the nuclear safety of nuclear installations in order to maintain and to further develop expertise and skills in nuclear safety.


ENEF WG Risk SWG Education and Training

European Nuclear Energy Forum
Bratislava - Prague

2009 2011

Nuclear Human Resource Observatory Administrative Arrangement DG ENERJRC

JRC Operating Agent of

EHRO-N Senior Advisory Group Members


Main Challenges

Large-scale retirements

Attracting more students

Cross-border recognition of skills; mobility of experts

JRC puts into perspective the supply and demand of experts and their career expectations within the EU nuclear energy sector.

ECVET European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training
Tool designed to make qualifications systems more easily understood and flexible and to support more mobility for workers and learners throughout the EU

JRC as facilitator of its implementation in the nuclear energy sector

From knowledge creation ....... to competence building knowledge … => … skills & attitudes


Graduate or young professional will no longer be asked:

“What did you do to obtain your degree (or your qualification)?” but rather:




“What can you do now that you have obtained your degree?”

ECVET Nuclear
• Emphasis on ‘Learning Outcomes’: competences as the ability to apply knowledge, skills, attitudes … • Report on ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector of EU-27 & Croatia (October 2013) • Seminars for nuclear ECVET providers • Database and Expert System for employment and education; ‘Taxonomy’ in Design, Operation and Decommissioning (November 2013), comprising ~ 150 Job Descriptions and ~ 4000 LOs so far JRC, through EHRO-N, facilitates and promotes the implementation of a nuclear ECVET system.

The EU Clearinghouse for Operational Experience Feedback
EU Safety Authorities
Members Finland Hungary Lithuania The Netherlands Romania Slovenia Switzerland Observers Czech Bulgaria Belgium Republic Czech Bulgaria Spain Republic Czech France Republic Germany France Germany Slovakia Slovakia Spain Spain Sweden United Kingdom

OEF Clearinghouse Centralized Office (JRC)
Coordination & Communication Technical & Scientific work OE knowledge repository International Community IAEA OECD-NEA

Main deliverables: -Topical reports - Quarterly reports on events - Improved draft IRS reports

EU Technical Support Organizations
+ Areva

JRC Role in the post-Fukushima EU Stress Tests
• • • • • • Scientific Secretariat for the Stress Tests Provision of 9 experts for the peer reviews Participation to 3 Topical Peer-Reviews and 17 National Peer-Reviews Answering 10 EP Questions Contributing to the EC report to the Council 3000 pages of National Reports reviewed

Joint Research Centre
The European Commission’s in-house science service

Serving society Stimulating innovation Supporting legislation