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M. K. Rwigema School of Mechanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa Keywords: Blade Element Momentum, Propeller, Vortex Wake, Wake Deflection Abstract Various propeller theories are treated in developing a model that analyses the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft propeller along with the construct and behaviour of the resultant slip-stream. Blade element momentum theory is used as a loworder aerodynamic model of the propeller and is coupled with a vortex wake representation of the slip-stream to relate the vorticity distributed throughout the slip-stream to the propeller forces. Nomenclature
a! c
axial induction factor tangential induction factor chord length (m) drag coefficient lift coefficient thrust coefficient blade element and annulus width (m) torque of element or annulus (Nm) thrust of element or annulus (Nm) combined tip- and hub-loss coefficient momentum of inertia in-plane normal force (N) pressure (P) radial position (m) propeller radius (m) hub radius (m)

S t

propeller disk/cross-sectional slip-stream area (m2) time (s) resultant velocity at blade element (m/s) flow velocity (m/s) thrust axis location downstream from propeller (m) local angle of attack (rad) local element pitch angle (rad) strength of distributed annular vorticity (m/s) strength of distributed swirl vorticity (m/s) strength of bound vorticity on propeller (m2/s) blade angular coordinate around propeller disk (rad) local inflow angle (rad) local solidity air density (kg/m3) propeller rotational speed (rad/s)

! !



"! !


! x p s 0
free-stream at station x propeller/aircraft body fully-developed slip-stream at ! = !/2 between thrust line and direction of resultant propeller force



1 Introduction An understanding of the propeller slipstream is important in the design phase of propellerdriven aircraft. Aerodynamic performance, aircraft stability, and noise and vibration can be significantly affected by it’s interactions with


imposes five simplifying assumptions. Applying Bernoulli’s equation upstream and downstream of the actuator disk. 1 2 p + ! p ! = "(Vs2 ! V# ) (1. The static pressure falls to a value p. momentum theory to relate the flow momentum at the propeller to that of the far wake. introduced by Froude [1] as a continuation of the work of Rankine [2]. which are an infinitesimal distance apart. to a value p+ immediately downstream. The iterative optimisation procedure requires rapid analysis of prospective engines and propellers to compare aircraft performance and discover configuration characteristics. Fig.M. having an effect of the stability and control of the aircraft. except for those that pass through the disk. and then moving off into the slip-stream must equal the thrust produced by this propeller. one of the inputs is the thrust curve of the power plant available thrust versus flight velocity. [3] (1. The flow is assumed to be: 1) inviscid. This may rudimentarily be considered as a cylindrical tube of spiraling air propagating rearward over the fuselage and wings – having detrimental and beneficial effects. and a vortical wake model to describe the slipstream deflection. The axial and tangential velocities are continuous as no fluid is created within the constant along any streamline. 2 Mathematical Models 2. The thrust is therefore given by.3) T = ( p+ ! p! ) A Since the flow is inviscid. and 3) irrotational.immediately upstream of the actuator disk and rises discontinuously through the disk. passing through the accordance with Bernoulli’s equation .5) 2 2 . the total pressure . and both 4) the velocity and 5) the static pressure are uniform over each cross section of the disk and stream-tube. V + Vs V= ! (1. A propeller producing thrust by forcing air behind the aircraft produces a slip-stream. This analysis shows compatibility between different approaches to propeller modeling using blade element theory to predict the propeller forces.2) A!V! = AV = AsVs Far upstream the static pressure is p! and the velocity V!.1 Momentum Theory Classical momentum theory. (1. 1: Propeller stream-tube For the axial direction. During the early stages of design. Rwigema structural and aerodynamic control surfaces. 2) incompressible. the change in flow momentum along a stream-tube starting upstream. (1. although the velocity remains constant at V between these two planes. Flow within the slip-stream is faster than free-stream flow resulting in increased drag over the parts exposed to it’s trajectory.4) 2 From the equations above it can be shown that the velocity of the flow through the actuator disk is the average of the upstream and downstream velocities. the increase in total pressure is therefore experienced as an increase in static pressure.1) T = !" Rs2Vs (Vs # V$ ) Applying the conservation of mass to the stream-tube control volume yields. The rotary motion of the slip-stream also causes the air to strike the tailplane at indirect angles.K.

8) dt dt dt 2.6) V = V! (1 + a ) and from Equation (1. (1. blade geometry and flow-field properties can be related to a differential propeller thrust. The slip-stream can be split into a series of non-interacting. 2. dT.5). 3 . At each element. The flow entering the control volume far upstream remains purely axial and uniform 2. the assumption that the flow is irrotational has not been lifted.7) Vs = V! (1 + 2 a ) A real propeller. Additional equations [1]. a.1.PROPELLER BLADE ELEMENT MOMENTUM THEORY WITH VORTEX WAKE DELFECTION An axial induction factor. is never uniformly loaded as assumed by the Rankine-Froude actuator disk model. annular stream-tube control volumes 3. The forces exerted on the blade elements by the flow stream are determined solely by the two-dimensional lift and drag characteristics of the blade element airfoil shape and orientation relative to the incoming flow. In order to analyse the radial load variation along the blades.1) #r (1 $ a% ) From Fig. BE theory. Although wake rotation is now included in the analysis. dQ. Fig. [5] governing the state of the flow are dependent on the characteristics of the propeller blades. however. again. it is assumed that there is no interaction between the analyses of each blade element 2. As such. The angular velocity of the slip-stream flow far downstream of the propeller is low so the static pressure can be assumed to be the unobstructed ambient static pressure.1 Effects of Wake Rotation The conservation of angular momentum necessitates rotation of the slip-stream if the propeller is to impart useful torque. momentum theory does not provide enough equations to solve for the differential propeller thrust and torque at a given span location. and torque. if the following assumptions are made: 1. each of width dr. such as airfoil shape and twist distribution. the angular momentum being imparted to the wake by the propeller must be considered. V (1 + a ) tan ! = " (2. 2 the following relation is apparent. Jonkman [4] describes how the Rankine-Froude actuator disk model may be modified to account for this rotation. Conserving angular momentum about an axis consistent with the slip-stream’s axis of symmetry can be applied to determine the torque. As we are required to obtain the local angle-ofattack to determine the aerodynamic forces on a blade element. assumptions 4) and 5) from the actuator disk model may be relaxed and three supplementary assumptions added: 1. we must first determine the inflow angle based on the two components of the local velocity vector. dL dI! dm 2 Q= = = !r (1. Just as the annular stream-tube control volumes used in the slip-stream rotation analysis were assumed to be noninteracting [assumption (1)]. At the propeller plane.2 Blade Element Theory Unless some state of flow is assumed. uses several annular stream-tube control volumes. is customarily defined as. Blade Element (BE) theory uses these geometrical properties to determine the forces exerted by a propeller on the flowfield. 2: Blade element aerodynamic forces As the word element in the title suggests. the boundaries of these control volumes effectively split the blade into a number of distinct elements. (1.

2) and carrying out some algebra.2) sin " The induced velocity components in Equations (2. and play a major role in . 1 dQ = BpU 2 (C L sin ! + C D cos ! )crdr (2. in which case the two correction factors are multiplied to create the total loss factor.4) 2 U= 2. dT = " !#$ 2 V% (1 + a )2 the induced velocity distribution along the propeller. and twist distribution are known. From Equations (1.8) and substituting Equation (1.M. As a blade has a suction-surface and a pressuresurface. originally developed by Prandtl [7] is used. a tip-loss (or correction) factor.7) .1) and (3.2) 2. Rwigema V! (1 + a ) (2. This states that the thrust introduced by each propeller annulus is equivalent to the change in axial momentum flow rate.3) ! where. 2 (3. the local aerodynamics may be affected by both the tip.4) 2 r sin " Much like the tip-loss model. 2. (as seen in Fig. Equations (2. B R!r ftip = (3. This analysis is based on the differential propeller thrust.4) with. to relate the induced velocities in the propeller plane to the elemental forces of Equations (3. Substituting Equation (2. From Fig. dT.6). replacing Equation (3.3) 2 and the torque introduced by each annular section is given by.K.2). Now. Prandtl Loss Correction The effect on induced velocity in the propeller plane is most pronounced near the tips of the blades. and (1. and torque. The correction factor is used to modify the momentum segment of the BEM equations. (1. 4 sin 2 & (C L cos & ' C D sin & rdr ) (3. size.3 Blade Element Momentum Theory Combining the results of the previous two analyses enables a model of the performance of a propeller whose airfoil properties. 1 dT = B!U 2 (C L cos " # C D sin " )cdr (2. 3). the conservation of momentum in the axial direction (between the far upstream and the far downstream section) must be considered. dQ.6) dT = 4! r "V# (1 + a ) aFdr Considering a radial differential of Equation (1.and hub-loss.1.1) and (2. F. effectively reducing the resulting forces in the vicinity of the tip.2) are a function of the forces on the blades and blade element momentum theory is used to calculate them.3).5) 2 r sin " For a given element. the thrust distributed around an annulus of width dr! is equivalent to. being equivalent. considering a radial differential. air tends to flow over the blade tip from the lower (pressure) surface to the upper (suction) surface.4).3) and (2. The model uses a similar implementation to that of the tip-loss to describe the effect of this vortex.4) are made more useful by noting that " and U can be expressed in terms of induction factors etc [3]. [6]. The original blade element momentum theory does not consider the influence of vortices shed from the blade tips into the slipstream on the induced velocity field.3. derived from momentum theory and blade element theory. These tipvortices create multiple helical structures in the wake. This theory is summarized by a correction to the induced velocity field and can be expressed simply by the following: 2 F = cos "1 e" f (3. B r ! Rhub f hub = (3. the hub-loss model serves to correct the induced velocity resulting from a vortex being shed near the hub of the propeller.1) dQ = " !#$ 2 V% (1 + a )2 sin & 2 (C L sin & + C D cos & r 2 dr ) (3. To compensate for this deficiency in BEM theory.

7) with Equations (2. Rs. Since there is no pressure discontinuity across the sheets. hence equal pressure.6) and (3. $ ' 4 F sin 2 ! a=& # 1) % " (C L cos ! # C D sin ! ) ( #1 (3.2) VR 2 = Vs Rs2 3. To approximate this we assume that the discrete bound vorticity is transformed in the slip-stream onto the surface of a vortex tube. The induced velocity may be considered to be the resultant velocity at a point due to the entire system of bound and free vorticity. Considerations of symmetry further reveal that equally spaced radial vortex 5 .4.4).1. a reduction in blade lift [10]. There is also no discontinuity of normal velocity.PROPELLER BLADE ELEMENT MOMENTUM THEORY WITH VORTEX WAKE DELFECTION dQ = 4! r 3"V#$(1 + a ) a%Fdr (3. the vortex sheets shed from the trailing edges of the propeller blades form a set of interleaved helicoidal sheets which propagate uniformly downstream parallel to the slip-stream axis without further deformation as if they were rigid surfaces. Only the annular vorticity is considered initially. we have a set of equations that can be iteratively solved for the induced velocities and the forces on each blade element.3) ! = Vs " V# 2.4 Vortex Structure of the Wake Propeller theory generally presumes that. There will be two components of this vorticity: a tube of elemental annular vortices that account for the thrust. 3: Vortex tube Thus. !. the velocity jump across the wake boundary. only a discontinuity of tangential velocity with magnitude equivalent to the vortex strength of the sheet. The helicoidal vortex sheets are floating freely in an irrotational field with equal velocity on either side of the sheet. This has strength. these sheets will soon roll up into a set of helical vortex filaments and a central vortex filament of opposite sense on the axis.1) 2 2 # R2 2. #. it is possible to obtain. The total pressure inside the wake is taken to be higher than the free-stream by the loading on the propeller. (4. and lines of elemental axial velocity along the tube that account for swirl [8]. after an initial distortion.9) Fig. From a consideration of the continuity of mass.8) $1 % ( 4 F sin " cos " a! = ' + 1* & # (C L sin " $ C D cos " ) ) (3. the radius of the fully-developed slip-stream. the inner and outer flows must have the same static pressure. For simplicity we assume that the propeller blades are narrow and are distributed along equally spaced radial lines. By considering vorticity.7) Equalising Equations (3. resultantly. 1 2 1 2 T !Vs = !V" + (4. The Propeller related to the Vortex Wake From the previous description of air flowing from the aerodynamic pressure side to aerodynamic suction.3) and (2. However. by. which yields the condition. this is now described with the trailing vorticity which includes a reduction of the inflow angle towards the blade tip and. when we include two-dimensional airfoil tables of lift and drag coefficient as a function of the angle-of-attack. (4. In reality. 2. is related to that of the propeller. respectively. R. and has to meet certain compatibility conditions: 1. we deduce that sheets move axially backward without deformation.

(4.4) dL = !U " #dr The cross-product relationship can be used to separate the two components of the resultant force. Initially. 4: Propeller slip-stream Considering a simple propeller blade at a rotation angle % (where % = 0 is at the top) with constant bound vorticity shed at the tip. and for a number of blades. the thrust and the torque.8). Rwigema lines of equal strength induce no overall velocity on any one of the lines. the inplane force acting normal to the blade will be &$VR (for 'p = 0). ensures that the swirl is contained within the stream-tube and induces no flow outside the wake [9].8) 2! Rs" s = B# This satisfies the condition that the total vorticity shed at the tips. and the forward component of this is (Rs'ssin(%) for small 's.11) # R2 This combined vortex model. In general. The fundamental expressions for the forces developed by the propeller may be described most conveniently by applying the KuttaJoukowsky theorem. ' 1 + $Rs% s sin(& ) * (4. The aerodynamic forces generated by a propeller under any deviation from uniform flight parallel to the thrust axis will lead to deflection of the slip-stream. Now a 6 . B$.5).6) 2. (4. T !" Vw = (4. the down-going blade will have a forward velocity component.13) 2! Rs" s = B# ) .9) ! 2"Vw = B#$ Fig. the vertical component of the tip velocity is (Rssin(%). must also be shed in the opposite sense at the roots as a discrete vortex down the axis.10) B!" = # R2 such that. 2T (4. The annular component of the bound vorticity shed per unit time is related to the elemental annular vorticity distributed over the surface of the tube by. the inclusion of the in-plane force will follow as an incremental effect. (4. thrust alone is considered. We begin by considering the swirl component in the wake. Equation (4. B![V + "Rs# s sin($ )]%t = & s 2' RsV %t (4. represented by the vorticity #s. whereas the up-going side will be retreating. integrated across the blade.7) now becomes.12) from which.K. B.M. Taking an angular position % around the propeller disk. These conditions therefore satisfy that the effect on each blade due to bound vorticity on the other blades can be ignored and only trailing vorticity contributes to the resultant velocity at a blade. (4. Relative to the slip-stream. The axial component of the bound vorticity shed from the tip of the propeller blades per unit time is related to elemental axial vorticity lines along the stream-tube by. Behind the propeller the vortex tube translates downstream as it is embedded between the inner and outer flows with a velocity. Vw. (4. The Propeller Slip-stream The deflection of the wake is determined by relating the propeller forces to the characteristics of the fully-developed slipstream. this shows an incremental sinusoidal variation of swirl velocity that will induce a downwash.5) dT = !"#r (1 $ a% ) dr dQ = !"V# (1 + a )rdr But from a simplification of Equation (4. this will generate thrust and a tangential in-plane force N. (4. Propeller at Incidence We now consider a propeller at incidence to the slip-stream axis. V ( + Compared with Equation (4.7) B!V "t = # s 2$ RsV "t so that.4.

from Equation (4.15). V")p as above. balanced by the up wash from the free-stream. and adding this to the right hand side of Equation (4. and hence it’s lateral displacement at any streamwise station. (4. which governs the deflection angle of the wake as it is counterbalanced by the up wash from the freestream. Considering this along with Equation (1. 4.14) 2 4'V From Equation (4. in addition to any constant bound vorticity that may be present to generate thrust.24) 2 "p 1 + 1 # CT When 'p * 0.10) we deduce that.17) The incremental term due to the in-plane force now has a similar form to the contribution from thrust alone. The incidence case is considered and all angles are assumed small. $ = $0sin(%).PROPELLER BLADE ELEMENT MOMENTUM THEORY WITH VORTEX WAKE DELFECTION sinusoidal vorticity distribution of the form #0sin(%) induces a uniform downwash of strength #0/2 inside the wake.15) V!" p = 2 $% R 2V From Fig. which is represented by &!R2VVs)p and resolved through )p. From Equation (4.18) N (! ) = "VR# 0 sin 2 (! ) Integration around the propeller disk. The deflection from the datum can then be obtained by integration. and Equation (4. dC CT + N !p d" p = (4. 7 . N (4. allowing for the number of blades. The other term. see Fig.19) 2 ( ) 2. to account for the net normal force it is assumed that.8).21) !V"# p = 2$% RRsV Expressing the above equation in terms of the force coefficient and the propeller incidence. the analysis proceeds until Equation (4. from Equation (4. 4 [10].16) Where T'p is the tangential component of thrust and must be equivalent to the tangential momentum flux in the slip-stream. T# s (4. B. The approach adopted is to consider momentum in a direction perpendicular to the resultant force F. 'p.23) ( ) (4. ! p % V$ ( 1 dC N Vs2 (4. The incremental effect is therefore. Slip-stream Trajectory The trajectory of the slip-stream. gives an average of 1 N = !VBR" 0 (4.)p. T ! p = "# R 2V (Vs + V$ )% p (4. 's = 'p . as &!Rs2VsV")p. From the above it can be shown that !p V CT = 1# $ = 2 "p V 1 + 1 # CT Following the analysis above. #0 = B$('s / (2!V). there is a component of bound vorticity that varies sinusoidally around the propeller disk. with % = !/2.2). this is dispersed over the trailing wake stream0tube with a form # = #0sin(%).17) becomes [9].13). Vs2 4Vs2 = V2 Vs + V! 4 " V! % $1 + V ' # s & 2 ( ) 2 = (4. V")p. (4.1). from actuator theory. can be rewritten.20) 2! Rs" 0 = B# 0 This will add to the downwash in the wake.4. &!R2VV")p. and represents the momentum flux of the part of the free-stream displaced by the cylindrical wake.4. so that # B$%& s V!" p = 0 = (4.22) = 1# * + "p ' V ) 4 d" p V 2 & But. In this direction there is no force and the momentum must remain constant.17) becomes. The effect on the slip-stream by the tangential in-plane force may be determined by resolving the normal-to-blade force vertically. where. is governed by it’s angle to the thrust line (or free-stream).

New York].25) ! Ss dx[Vs (" s + # F ) + V$# p ] where the conditions on the right are those in the fully-developed slip-stream.28) From the equations of motion the streamwise distribution of velocity in the slip-stream is derived in [11] as.. the longitudinal moment is &SxVxdx. 1892.30) can be re-arranged to give Vx V! # V! & (4.29) and (4. 1889.35) Now.6(13). (4.26) S xVx = SsVs = SV and % ( V ! S pVdx ' " x + # F + $ # x * = Vx ) & (4. Vs (4. ! x ! s 1 Vx V# $ 1 ' = " & " 1) = ! p ! p f ( x ) Vs Vs % f ( x ) ( (4. Bulletin de L’Association Technique Maritime. Aerodynamic Theory. Trans Inst Naval Architects (British).30:390.V $ 1 ' " 1) / " # & " 1) . L. such that ! S x dx[Vx (" x + # F ) + V$# x ] = (4.31) = + 1 " ( f ( x) Vs Vs % Vs ' $ where The diameter of the slip-stream at any station x is given by Dx 1+ a = D 1+ s (4. Trans Inst Naval Architects.29) = 1+ s V! in which ! $ # & x (4.'s. 1935 [Reprinted 1963 by Dover Publications. A Second Paper in 1901. vol iv.28) can be re-written as ! x (Vx " V# )Vs = ! s (Vs " V# )Vx + (Vx " Vs )V#! p (4.'s and )p = 'p . Ss = !Rs2 and S = !R2. 1865. editor. z = D " ! x dx 0 x (4. and the tangential momentum due to the outer flow is (&SxV"dx))x. Rwigema For a segment of slip-stream at station x downstream of the propeller. 8 . [5] Drzewiecki S. )x = 'p .K. [3] Glauert H. On the mechanical principles of the action of propellers. References [1] Froude RE. [4] Jonkman JM.30) s = a #1 + & 2 2 d # & x + 4% " Equations (4.32) Equation (4. Vs % f ( x ) ( (4.M.27) % V$ ( ! S pVdx ' " s + # F + # p * V & ) ! # 1# f ( x) = # 1 + 2# # " $ & x & D & 2 & ! $ x 1 + # & 4 " D% & % (4.34) ( ( ) ) ! s * V# $ 1 '.31) Vx ! V" = (Vs ! V" ) f ( x ) So finally. [2] Rankine WJM.36) In order to calculate the displacement. In: Durand WF. NREL Technical Report [NREL/TP-500-34755]. of the slip-stream it is only necessary to integrate the angular deflection.33) and from Equation (4. Momentum is constant along the normal to F. Paris.37) 3. Writing Sx = !Rx2. div. Airplane Propellers. Inc.1 + & ! p + Vs % f ( x ) ( . Modeling of the UAE Wind Turbine for Refinement of FAST_AD. Berlin: Julius Springer. so that $ V ' V $ V ' V ! x &1 " # ) + # ! p = !s &1 " # ) + # ! p Vs ( Vs % Vx ( Vx % (4. z. 2003.

Engineering Sciences Data Unit. betz.PROPELLER BLADE ELEMENT MOMENTUM THEORY WITH VORTEX WAKE DELFECTION [6] Betz A. New York. 06013. Winter Annual Meeting. 1964. p. Reprinted in Vier Abhandlungen uber Hydro. pg 85-128. hold copyright on all of the original material included in this paper. London. Item No. The authors confirm that they give permission. 2006. Item No. Propeller slipstream modeling for incidence and sideslip. 85015. or have obtained permission from the copyright holder of this paper. The aerodynamics of propellers. Göttingen. from the copyright holder of any third party material included in this paper. 2006. The distribution of circulation on propellers with finite hubs. 1919. [9] ESDU. +27 83 324 2097 Copyright Statement The authors confirm that they. ASME Paper 64WA/UNT-4. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 42. Prandtl. Schraubenpropeller mit Geringstem Energieverlust. Prandtl & A. L. 1927 [7] Wald QR. Introduction to installation effects on thrust and drag for propeller-driven aircraft. The authors also confirm that they have obtained permission. to publish it as part of their paper. for the publication and distribution of this paper as part of the ICAS2010 proceedings or as individual off-prints from the with Appendix by L. [10] ESDU. Contact Author nasi@me. 193-217. Engineering Sciences Data Unit. Göttinger Nachrichten. and/or their company or organization. [8] Wald QR. 9 .und Aerodynamik. 1985. London.