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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Algebra

2. (a − b)2 = a2 − 2ab + b2 ; a2 + b2 = (a − b)2 + 2ab

3. (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca)

4. (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b); a3 + b3 = (a + b)3 − 3ab(a + b)

5. (a − b)3 = a3 − b3 − 3ab(a − b); a3 − b3 = (a − b)3 + 3ab(a − b)

6. a2 − b2 = (a + b)(a − b)

7. a3 − b3 = (a − b)(a2 + ab + b2 )

8. a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 − ab + b2 )

9. an − bn = (a − b)(an−1 + an−2 b + an−3 b2 + · · · + bn−1 )

10. an = a.a.a . . . n times

11. am .an = am+n

am

12. n = am−n if m > n

a

=1 if m = n

1

= n−m if m < n; a ∈ R, a 6= 0

a

13. (am )n = amn = (an )m

14. (ab)n = an .bn

a n an

15. = n

b b

16. a0 = 1 where a ∈ R, a 6= 0

1 1

17. a−n = n , an = −n

a√ a

18. ap/q = q ap

19. If am = an and a 6= ±1, a 6= 0 then m = n

20. If an = bn where n 6= 0, then a = ±b

√ √ √ √

21. If x, y are quadratic surds and if a + x = y, then a = 0 and x = y

√ √ √ √

22. If x, y are quadratic surds and if a + x = b + y then a = b and x = y

23. If a, m, n are positive real numbers and a 6= 1, then loga mn = loga m+loga n

m

24. If a, m, n are positive real numbers, a 6= 1, then loga = loga m − loga n

n

25. If a and m are positive real numbers, a 6= 1 then loga mn = n loga m

logk a

26. If a, b and k are positive real numbers, b 6= 1, k 6= 1, then logb a =

logk b

1

27. logb a = where a, b are positive real numbers, a 6= 1, b 6= 1

loga b

28. if a, m, n are positive real numbers, a 6= 1 and if loga m = loga n, then

m=n

Typeset by AMS-TEX

2

√

29. if a + ib = 0 where i = −1, then a = b = 0

√

30. if a + ib = x + iy, where i = −1, then a = x and b = y √

−b ± b2 − 4ac

31. The roots of the quadratic equation ax2 +bx+c = 0; a 6= 0 are

2a

( √ √ )

−b + ∆ −b − ∆

The solution set of the equation is ,

2a 2a

where ∆ = discriminant = b2 − 4ac

32. The roots are real and distinct if ∆ > 0.

33. The roots are real and coincident if ∆ = 0.

34. The roots are non-real if ∆ < 0.

35. If α and β are the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a 6= 0 then

−b coeff. of x

i) α + β = =−

a coeff. of x2

c constant term

ii) α · β = =

a coeff. of x2

36. The quadratic equation whose roots are α and β is (x − α)(x − β) = 0

i.e. x2 − (α + β)x + αβ = 0

i.e. x2 − Sx + P = 0 where S =Sum of the roots and P =Product of the

roots.

37. For an arithmetic progression (A.P.) whose first term is (a) and the common

difference is (d).

i) nth term= tn = a + (n − 1)d

n n

ii) The sum of the first (n) terms = Sn = (a + l) = {2a + (n − 1)d}

2 2

where l =last term= a + (n − 1)d.

38. For a geometric progression (G.P.) whose first term is (a) and common ratio

is (γ),

i) nth term= tn = aγ n−1 .

ii) The sum of the first (n) terms:

a(1 − γ n)

Sn = ifγ < 1

1−γ

a(γ n − 1) .

= if γ > 1

γ−1

= na if γ = 1

39. For any sequence {tn }, Sn − Sn−1 = tn where Sn =Sum of the first (n)

terms.

P

n n

40. γ = 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n = (n + 1).

γ=1 2

P 2

n n

41. γ = 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 = (n + 1)(2n + 1).

γ=1 6

3

P

n n2

42. γ 3 = 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + · · · + n3 = (n + 1)2 .

γ=1 4

43. n! = (1).(2).(3). . . . .(n − 1).n.

44. n! = n(n − 1)! = n(n − 1)(n − 2)! = . . . . .

45. 0! = 1.

n(n − 1) n−2 2 n(n − 1)(n − 2) n−3 3

46. (a + b)n = an + nan−1 b + a b + a b +···+

2! 3!

bn , n > 1.

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