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KENTUCKY PEST NEWS

ENTOMOLOGY • PLANT PATHOLOGY • WEED SCIENCE

Lexington, KY 40546

Online at: www.uky.edu/KPN

Number 1370
FORAGES -Winter of 2013-2014 Points to Later Alfalfa Weevil Season TOBACCO -Fungicide Spray Schedule for Tobacco Transplant Production SHADE TREES & ORNAMENTALS -Time for DIY Drench Applications to Control the Emerald Ash Borer

March 25, 2014
HOUSEHOLD -Varied Carpet Beetles Are Common in Kentucky Homes

DIAGNOSTIC LAB HIGHLIGHTS

INSECT TRAP COUNTS

FORAGES Winter of 2013-2014 Points to Later Alfalfa Weevil Season Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist Contrasts in degree-day (dd) accumulations (base 48) from January 1 emphasize annual differences that can occur with alfalfa weevil activity. Adult weevils fly to alfalfa fields in the fall and remain there over the winter. If temperatures allow it, some egglaying can occur during the fall and into mild winters resulting in some early spring feeding damage by the larvae followed by a later peak. Earliest feeding can show up when degree-day accumulations reach 190. A cold winter and/or cool spring usually pushes that date back into about the 250 dd range. Our winter weather and current dd accumulations point to a late weevil season this spring. In contrast, the dd accumulations in Table 1 show a weevil season that was largely over by this date in 2012. You can check on dd accumulations for several pest insects, including the alfalfa weevil, at this Web site. http://weather.uky.edu/dd.php. Information using degree-day accumulations and assessing alfalfa weevil populations are available at http://www2.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef127.a sp.

Table 1. Degree-day accumulations from the UK Ag Weather Center as of March 23 of the year

Location
Campbell (north) Caldwell (west) Fayette (central) Warren (south)

2014
80 11 87 122

2013
85 150 108 158

2012
341 445 354 435

TOBACCO Fungicide Spray Schedule for Tobacco Transplant Production Clint Hardy, Daviess County ANR Agent and Kenny Seebold, Extension Plant Pathologist Fungicides are an important tool for managing diseases in tobacco float beds, and getting the best results from these inputs hinges on using each product at a time when it will have the most impact in preventing a particular problem. The following is a suggested schedule for timing the applications of products labeled for diseases in tobacco float beds.

The emphasis is on preventive use, and the timings are based on an 8-week transplant cycle (seeding to useable plant). Suggested Spray Schedule 2 to 4 Weeks after Seeding When roots of plants emerge from trays and enter float water, apply Terramaster EC at 0.7 to 1 fl oz/100 gal of float water for control of Pythium root rot. Make a follow-up application of Terramaster at 1 fl oz/100 gal of float water no earlier than 3 weeks later (see below). 3 to 4 Weeks after Seeding When plants have reached the size of a dime, apply Manzate Pro-Stick for suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off and target spot. The rate is 0.5 lb/100 gal of water (equivalent to 1 tsp/gal). Use 3 gal of spray solution per 1000 sq. ft of bed (~400 trays); apply as a fine mist to ensure good foliar coverage. 5 to 6 Weeks after Seeding The first time plants are clipped:  If target spot is not present, continue with Manzate Pro-Stick; increase spray volume to 6 (or more if needed) gal/1,000 sq. ft. Don’t exceed 12 gallons of spray volume per 1,000 sq. feet (even on the largest plants).  If target spot is active, substitute Quadris for Manzate at a rate of 0.14 fl oz/1000 sq. ft of bed. This is the equivalent of 4 cc (~1 tsp), and should be diluted in 4 to 5 gallons of water before dispersing as a fine spray. One application of Quadris is permitted on tobacco seedlings in float beds. 6 to 7 Weeks after Seeding  Make follow-up application of Terramaster EC at 0.7 to 1 fl oz/100 gal of float water.  If Quadris was not applied earlier, make one application of this fungicide at the second clipping. 7 Weeks after Seeding. Continue with Manzate Pro-Stick, slightly increasing spray volume per 1,000 sq. ft as plant size increases, not to exceed 12 gallons of spray volume per 1,000 sq. feet (even on the largest plants). 8 Weeks after Seeding (and beyond) Continue with Manzate Pro-Stick. A final application of Terramaster EC can be made at 0.7 to

1 fl oz/100 gal of float water if needed; do not apply more than 5 days before transplanting. Additional Information • The amount of float water in a bed (in gallons) is calculated by the following formula: (the number of trays in the bed) X (the water depth in inches) X 1.64. • 5 cc = approximately one teaspoon (tsp). • 1,000 sq. ft = 400 trays. • For more information on float-bed fungicides, refer to the “2014 Fungicide Guide for Burley and Dark Tobacco” (UK Plant Pathology Fact Sheet No. PPFS-AG-T-08). • Manzate Pro-Stick is the only mancozeb fungicide currently labeled for tobacco floatbeds. Growers must have a copy of the 24(c) label for Manzate at the time of application. • Banrot, Rovral, Iprodione 50W or Ridomil Gold are not approved fungicides for use in tobacco greenhouses.

SHADE TREES & ORNAMENTALS Time for DIY Drench Applications to Control the Emerald Ash Borer Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist Products containing the active ingredient imidacloprid (Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub Insect Control, Bonide Annual Tree & Shrub Insect Control, Ferti-lome Systemic Tree & Shrub Drench, Green Light Tree & Shrub Insect Killer, etc.) are available to homeowners for do-it-yourself protection of ash trees against attack by the emerald ash borer (EAB). Green Light Tree & Shrub Insect Control with Safari (dinetofuran) also is an option. Annual applications should be made between late March and late April according to label directions. The treatments can help to protect trees up to 60 inches in circumference (measured at 4.5 feet above the ground.) Larger trees require injection of insecticides available only to licensed commercial applicators. Protective treatments are suggested only for ash trees within 15 miles of known EAB infestations or for trees within quarantined counties (Figure 1).

HOUSEHOLD Varied Carpet Beetles Are Common in Kentucky Homes Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist Varied carpet beetles are 1/10-inch long black beetles with irregular patterns of white, brown, and yellow scales on their hard wing covers (Figure 2). The adults are active in early spring after completing their development indoors. Attracted to sunlight, they fly to windows in early spring as they move outdoors to feed on nectar and pollen.

Figure 1. Counties colored in green comprise the current EAB quarantine area in KY.

Consider several factors when making treatment decisions: tree location, health, value, treatment cost, and removal/replacement expense. There is no consensus as to how long treatments may be needed. However, it is likely that trees will need to be protected for at least 5 to 7 years as the EAB infestation sweeps through an area. Untreated ash trees will serve as sources of beetles. You can get an idea of the number in your county from this inventory: http://pest.ca.uky.edu/EXT/EAB/Ashnumbers.pdf. Numbers of stems per county range from over 6.8 million in Henry County to just over 38,000 in Martin County. The larger the population of ash trees, the longer and more intense the infestation is likely to be. The polar vortex probably was no help against the EAB in Kentucky. The borer is a hardy insect that spends the winter as a full-grown larva in a cell formed in the outer sapwood. Winter survival in a U.S. Forest Service experiment near St. Paul, MN (air temperature of minus 18.4° F for about 5 1/2 weeks) resulted in about 40% mortality. The researchers also learned that standard weather station temperature readings are not accurate indicators of those affecting larvae in their overwintering cells due to factors such as radiant warming on sunny days. It is unlikely that our 2013-2014 winter contributed significantly to natural EAB mortality.

Figure 2. Varied carpet beetles (left: top view of insect; right: bottom view)

The hairy, caterpillar-like larvae (Figure 3) prefer dark, protected places – drawers, stuffed furniture, closets, etc. They feed on a variety of natural products including wool, silk, and cotton; furs, feathers, and hair; processed meals and mixes; spices, cereals, crumbs; and dried pet foods. They also feed on accumulations of dead insects in ceiling light fixtures, wall voids, and attics, and shed pet hair. These insects are common in homes or buildings having problems with fall accidental invaders, such as cluster flies and boxelder bugs. Carpet beetles are very difficult to control because they can develop on small amounts of food in many obscure places. A vacuum cleaner is the best control measure. Rooms where the insects are found should be cleaned thoroughly. Heat vents, corners, cracks and crevices along baseboards and moldings, suspended light fixtures, and other hard-to-reach areas are ideal for them. Cleaning removes both insects and potential food sources.

DIAGNOSTIC LAB HIGHLIGHTS Julie Beale and Brenda Kennedy, Plant Disease Diagnosticians Greenhouse samples have included Botrytis blight on New Guinea impatiens; nutritional problems from high soil pH on bean and tomato seedlings, as well as phosphorus deficiency, Pythium root rot, and tomato spotted wilt virus on tomato. Landscape and turf samples have included Dothistroma needle blight on Austrian pine; Rhizosphaera needlecast on spruce; winter desiccation on euonymus and holly; and snow mold (Coprinus sp.) on bentgrass.

Figure 3. Varied carpet beetle larva – can be found most any time of year.

Cleaning is always the best strategy long-term; however, areas that cannot be cleaned can be sprayed with an insecticide labeled for indoor use. Use a product that lists carpet beetles on its label and closely follow the directions. Apply insecticides as spot, and crack and crevice treatments. Limit sprays to edges of floor coverings, under rugs and furniture, floors and walls of closets, shelving where susceptible fabrics are stored, cracks and crevices, and in other lint-accumulating areas.

2014 INSECT TRAP COUNTS

February 28- March 21 Location Princeton, KY Black cutworm 0 Armyworm 0

Note: Trade names are used to simplify the information presented in this newsletter. No endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products that are not named.