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# DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (BASIC

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Order and Linearity State the order and determine whether the following ordinary differential equations linear or nonlinear. dy + x 2 y = xe x (a) dx 3 2 dr d r  = (b)  +1  ÷ 2 ds  ds  (c) x 2 dy + y 2 dx = 0 Formation One arbitrary constant Form a differential equation from the function (a) y = Ax + x 2 A y = x + (b) x T o arbitrary constants
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Form a differential equation from the function (a) y = Ax 2 + Bx 5 (b) y = Ae x + Be −2 x (c) y = A sin x + B cos x !enera" and #artic\$"ar so"\$tion 3 A Show that y = + 2 is the general 4 x solution of 2 xy′ + 4 y = 3 . Then, if y (1) = 4 , find a particular solution of the differential equation.

FIRST ORDER ORDINAR% DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
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Se#arab"e e&\$ation (a) Determine either the differential equation below is separable or not dy dy − xy = x = xe y − 2 x (i) (ii) dx dx (iii) xy′ = x − 2 y Hence, sol e the separable differential equation. dy y 2 (b) Find the general solution for = . dx x (c) Sol e the following initial alue problems dy 1 2 = 6 y x, y (1) = (i) dx 25 3x 2 + 4 x − 4 , y (1) = 3 (ii) y′ = 2y − 4 (d) !y using substitution z = xy , change the differential equation dy x + y = 2x 1 − x2 y 2 dx to separable equation. Hence, find the general solution of the equation.
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'omo(eneo\$s e&\$ation (a) Determine either the differential equation below is homogeneous or not dy y − x dy = = x− y (i) (ii) dx y + x dx dy xy = 2 (iii) dx x − y 2 Hence, sol e the homogeneous differential equation. (b) Find the general solution for x 2 dy − ( y 2 − xy )dx = 0 . (c) Sol e the following initial alue problems dy x 2 + y 2 = , y (1) = 1 (i) dx xy dr r r (ii) =2 + , r (1) = 4 dθ θ θ

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(d) !y using substitution x = X and y = Y + 2 , change the differential equation dy x − y + 2 = dx x + y − 2 to homogeneous equation. Hence, find the general solution of the equation. Linear e&\$ation (a) Determine either the differential equation below is linear or not dy (i) ( x + 1) = y dx 2 dy x + xy = y 2 + x (ii) dx dy dy = 3 y − 2 x + 6 xy = 2 x + 6 xy (iii) dx dx Hence, sol e the linear differential equation.

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(b) Find the general solution for dy = 9.8 − 0.196 x . dx (c) Sol e the following initial alue problems 1 xy′ + 2 y = x 2 − x + 1, y (1) = 2 (d) !y using substitution z = y −2 , change the differential equation dy + y = xy 3 dx to linear equation. Hence, find the general solution of the equation. E)act e&\$ation (a) Determine either the differential equation below is e"act or not dy 3 y ( x + xe − 2 y ) = −e y − 3 x 2 y (i) dx (ii) (2 x + y − cos y )dx + (4 y + x + sin x)dy = 0 (iii) yy′( x + 2) + x( y + 2) = 0

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(b) Find the general solution for  y 3 − 1  dy + y dx = 0 .  ÷ 2 x x  (c) Sol e the following initial alue problems ( x + y ) 2 dx + (2 xy + x 2 − 1)dy = 0, y (1) = 1 (d) Show that (2 y 2 − 6 xy ) dx + (3xy − 4 x 2 )dy = 0 is not an e"act equation. Then, by using integrating factor ρ ( x, y ) = xy , sol e the equation.

A##"ication
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!ro t* o+ #o#\$"ations The rate at which radioacti e nuclei decay is proportional to the number of such nuclei that are present in a gi en sample. Half of the original number of radioacti e nuclei ha e undergone disintegration in a period of #\$%% years. &hat percentage of the original radioacti e nuclei will remain after '\$%% years( Ne ton,s "a o+ coo"in(
)ewton*s law of cooling state that the rate of

dT change of the temperature, is dt dT = − k (T − Ts ) dt where Ts is ambient temperature and k is

positi e constant. +onsider the problem below, -s part of his summer .ob at a restaurant, /im learned to coo0 up a big pot of soup late at night, .ust before closing time, so that there would be plenty of soup to feed customers the
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ne"t day. He also found out that, while refrigeration was essential to preser e the soup o ernight, the soup was too hot to be put directly into the fridge when it was ready. (The soup had .ust boiled at 100 °C , and the fridge was not powerful enough to accommodate a big pot of soup if it was any warmer than 20 °C ). /im disco ered that by cooling the pot in a sin0 full of cold water, (0ept running, so that its temperature was roughly constant at 5 °C ) and stirring occasionally, he could bring that temperature of the soup to 60 °C in ten minutes. How long before closing time should the soup be ready so that /im could put it in the fridge and lea e on time (

Linear motions - particle is tra elling along a linear cur e at time t, with elocity v and 4 dv = k (8v ) 3 ( k is constant). Find the dt general solution of v.

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