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Earthquake loads:
Definition of earthquake loads in ETABS according to UBC1997
Code ( The same method used by the Jordanian Code).
1- Define the earthquake load as a static load case in both x & y
directions as follow
2- Modify
-Direction and eccentricity :
-Direction and eccentricity :
Choose to specify the X or Y direction of the seismic loading, or to specify
the direction with a percentage of eccentricity that is applicable to all
Use the % Eccentricity edit box to specify a value for eccentricity. Five
percent is the default and is entered as 0.05.
The eccentricity options have meaning only when diaphragms have been
assigned to joints or area objects. The program ignores eccentricities where
diaphragms are not present.
Where diaphragms are present, the program calculates a maximum width of
the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the seismic loading. This
width is calculated by finding the maximum and minimum X or Y coordinates
(depending on direction of load considered) of the points that are part of the
diaphragm constraint and determining the distance between these maximum
and minimum values.
After the appropriate diaphragm width has been determined, the program
applies a moment that is equal to the specified percent eccentricity times the
maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the
seismic loading times the total lateral force applied to the diaphragm. This
moment is applied about the diaphragm center of mass to account for the
-Seismic Coefficient:
-Seismic Coefficient
Soil profile type :
Soil Profile Types SA, SB, SC, SD and SE are defined in Table
below and Soil Profile Type SF is defined as soils requiring site-
specific evaluation.
-Seismic Coefficient
Seismic Zone :
- Each site shall be
assigned a seismic zone
according to the
following map.
-Seismic Coefficient
Seismic Zone Factor:
- Then the Seismic zone factor (Z) assigned for the Structure.
Seismic response coefficients
Each structure shall be assigned a seismic coefficient, Ca, in
accordance with Table 16-Q and a seismic coefficient, Cv, in
accordance with Table 16-R..
-Seismic Coefficient
-Time Period
The time an object takes to vibrate back and forth one complete cycle .
-Time Period
1. Method A:
For all buildings, the value T may be approximated from the
following formula:
T Ct (hn)
Ct = 0.035 for steel moment-resisting frames.
Ct = 0.030 for reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames and
eccentrically braced frames.
Ct = 0.020 for all other buildings.
hn = height in (m) above the base to Level n.
-Story Range
Story Range Choose the Top Story and Bottom Story to specify the
elevation range over which the automatic static lateral loads are to
be calculated. By default the bottom story is the base of the building
and the top story is the uppermost level of the building.
The bottom level would typically be the base level. However, if, for
example, a building has several below-grade levels, and the seismic
loads are assumed to be transferred to the ground at ground level, it
may be best to specify the bottom story to be above the base of the
Note: No seismic loads are calculated for the bottom story. They are
calculated for the first story above the bottom story and for all stories
up to and including the top story.
-Near Source Factor
-Near Source Factor
Na = near-source factor used in the determination of Ca in Seismic
Zone 4
Nv = near-source factor used in the determination of Cv in Seismic
Zone 4
-Over strength factor (R)
OVERSTRENGTH is a characteristic of structures where the
actual strength is larger than the design strength. The degree of
overstrength is material- and system-dependent.
R = numerical coefficient representative of the inherent over strength
and global ductility capacity of lateral force-resisting systems, as set
forth in Table 16-N or
-Structural Systems:
Structural systems shall be classified as one of the types listed in
Table 16-N .
Bearing wall system. A structural system without a
complete vertical load-carrying space frame. Bearing walls or
bracing systems provide support for all or most gravity loads.
Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced
Building frame system. A structural system with an
essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity
loads. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or
braced frames.
Moment-resisting frame system. A structural system
with an essentially complete space frame providing support for
gravity loads. Moment-resisting frames provide resistance to lateral
load primarily by flexural action of members.
-Structural Systems:
Dual system. A structural system with the following
1. An essentially complete space frame that provides support
for gravity loads.
2. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced
frames and moment-resisting frames (SMRF, IMRF, MMRWF or
steel OMRF). The moment-resisting frames shall be designed to
independently resist at least 25 percent of the design base shear.
3. The two systems shall be designed to resist the total design
base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities considering the
interaction of the dual system at all levels.
-Importance Factor (I)
-Base Shear (V)
The total design lateral force or shear at the base of a structure.
Shall be determined from the following formula :
The total design base shear need not exceed the following :
The total design base shear shall not be less than the following:
-Special seismic load combinations.
The purpose of the special load combinations is to protect the gravity
load-carrying system against possible overloads caused by overstrength
of the lateral-force-resisting system. Either columns or beams may be
subject to such failure.
-Rho Reliability/Redundancy:
The value of this factor is either 1.0 or 1.5. This factor has an effect of
reducing the R factor for less redundant structures thereby increasing the
seismic demand.
When calculating drift, or when the structure is located in Seismic
Zone 0, 1 or 2, r shall be taken equal to 1.
-IBC2000 Seismic Design Category :
Omega Factor :
For specific elements of the structure, as specifically identified in this
code, the minimum design strength shall be the product of the seismic
force overstrength factor and the design seismic forces.
shall be taken from table 16-N .
-Dl Multiplier :
the load effect resulting from the vertical component of
the earthquake ground motion and is equal to an addition
of 0.5CaID to the dead load effect, D.