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Production Quality management

Introductions
ERGONOMICS
Ergonomics is a science whose main purpose is to design workspaces and tools that help people do their jobs and use their tools and other products comfortably and safely. Ergonomics uses knowledge of human abilities and limitations to design systems, organizations, jobs, machines, tools, and consumer products for safe, efficient, and comfortable human use. Ergonomics helps to make the best use of human and technical resources through optimizing the application of existing and new technology to the benefit of users and environment. Its applications enhance job satisfaction, productivity and maximize the product or system quality by improving usability. he importance of arranging a workstation in a healthy way has already been stated in old records dating back to the !"th #entury. $n old %atin quote notes that &the maladies that afflict the clerks arise from three causes' first, constant sitting, secondly the incessant movement of the hand always in the same direction and thirdly the strain on the mind from the effort to not disfigure the books by errors.& Ergonomics is the study of understanding the limitations of the human body in order to design productive and comfortable workplaces, tools and work tasks. (e study what postures are comfortable for computer work and what are not.

COMPUTER ERGONOMICS
#omputer Ergonomics is about things that you can do to make working on a computer more comfortable and better for your body. )or example, wearing a bike helmet when riding a bike and a seatbelt when riding in a car are two simple things that you do to be safe. Computer Ergonomics is also called as the HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION !HCI" or MAN MACHINE INTERACTION !MMI"# *uman+computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. he basic goal of *#I is to improve the interactions between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user,s needs. he study of ergonomics is applied in the workplaces where computers are used in large numbers and for large durations in a day because it is very essential to design the

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1 .Production Quality management layout of the place where the computer will be attached and how will each hardware of the computer be located in regards to the position of the computer user.s health by creating a comfortable environment through an ergonomic computer workstation. -rotecting one.

/o one should do what they can to prevent the minor aches of work from progressing to disabling conditions. shoulders and neck. he problems may vary from aches to pain. data entry workers. hese musculoskeletal problems can happen in anyone who uses a computer for long hours' computer programmers. hese symptoms may be felt during typing or mouse use or at other times when no work is being done. $ simple+to+follow !0 step ergonomic guidelines his while will help you improve your working environment and protect your health working at a computer workstation. -rolonged and repetitive work at your computer workstation can create discomfort. customer service workers. we may notice increasing aches and pains in some parts of our bodies. he problems can range from minor muscle aches that last less than a few hours to persistent tendon problems that can last for years. engineers. he research on computer ergonomics is important for the working individual as well as for the employer who is interested in limiting absenteeism. he more severe problems can lead people to leave a job they like or stop doing sports activities they enjoy. wrists. $s we use computers for longer hours every day.Production Quality management #omputer related injuries are increasing with the explosion of computer technology in the workplace. 1 . and even graduate students. telephone operators. numbness or tingling. muscle aches. he most common body areas to watch for are the hands. like tennis or bicycle riding. including during the night when the symptoms might wake you up. Improper posture and improper body positioning at your computer workstation can cause or exaggerate the problems. burning. and be the cause of work related injuries. elbows. and in increasing worker productivity.

5. POINTS TO REMEM$ER %HI&E 'ESIGNING A %O(P&ACE )OR COMPUTER% %ITH THE HE&P O) ERGONOMICS 1. here are height adjustable desks and using an ergonomic computer workstation helps set your 1 .computer . #enter monitor and keyboard in front of you 10.or health. ake frequent short breaks 6micro breaks7 and stretch. 3o glare on screen4 use an optical glass anti+glare filter where needed 4. 9eeps arms and elbows relaxed close to body 9.s readable.t require your head to turn or tilt. 1se a document holder. here is a general rule that the top of your monitor should be positioned 0& to 2& above your seated eye level. . 1se a negative tilt keyboard tray with an upper mouse platform or downward tilt+ able platform adjacent to keyboard 11.or/# 0 :ou should be able to view the screen without having to turn your head or tilt it up or down. 5est feet on floor or on a stable foot rest 6move feet frequently for circulation7 6.Production Quality management 1. *our monitor+s height is important . op of monitor screen should be 0+2& above eye level 3.ecide what setting is most comfortable and doesn. preferably in+line with the computer screen 7. /it at arms length from monitor4 further if distance is comfortable and screen. 2. (rists flat and straight in relation to forearms to use keyboard8mouse8input device 8. 1se a stable work surface and stable 6no bounce7 keyboard tray 12. 1se a good chair with a dynamic chair back that is angled slightly to the rear.

4. 2. Monitor positioning# <ften. 3.epending on the size of your monitor you should center your monitor at arm. 1se an anti+glare8anti+radiation computer filter. 1 . .oot placement# $s already mentioned. monitor arms. monitors are placed too close or too far away from the viewer. $djustable footrests like the ones we offer help reduce strain on back and neck muscles. you should adjust your chair so that your feet rest on the floor or purchase an elevated foot rest.Production Quality management comfortable sitting position and monitor height. monitor arms are extremely helpful in adjusting to the most comfortable and ergonomic positioning. %#. $ much easier solution is to place monitors on flexible. Sta1le . counterbalanced %#.s length distance. *ere again. In both situations the computer monitor user will eventually suffer from eye strain. %aptop users will benefit with a height adjustable laptop stand which can accommodate to a variety of workers and work postures. Control glare#+ 9eep the screen perpendicular to any strong light source.

<rganizing your desk with frequently used items close by prevents you from having to reach and strain. 1 . Ergo In .Production Quality management 5.ace# . and prevents you from stretching too far too often. 7. 6.emand has a large range of ergonomic keyboard trays and mouse rests. consider purchasing an ergonomic phone stand arm that swivels.ocument stands eliminate desktop chaos and help you work more effectively and in maximum ergonomic comfort.reaching# :our arms and elbows should be relaxed and close to your body.isting caused 1. Organi2e -our des/ sur. If you are a frequent phone user. frees up valuable computer desk space. Proper arm and hand positioning# +:our wrists should be flat and straight in relation to forearms to use keyboard8mouse8input device. Eliminate the strain and t. <ur brand name 3inka document stands can easily hold large binders or books.

It is often much easier to address these problems early than it is to treat them after they have become full+blown disorders.esigning a (orkplace for #omputers =usculoskeletal disorders 6=/. $s a result.Production Quality management Importance of Ergonomics in . $s the severity and depth 1 . they can be much more difficult to identify than an injury that is attributable to a single traumatic event. the damage continues to accumulate. >overnment bodies that track such statistics consistently show that the problem is significant. people tend to neglect the warning signs and work through the pain. these injuries can be very costly and difficult to treat once they develop into a full =/.s7. (orse. are a mammoth cause of medical costs. his issue affects both companies and employees. lost work time and reduced productivity. /ince these injuries develop slowly over time.. a superset of repetitive strain injuries 65/Is7. =eanwhile. unaware that they may be suffering significant injury.

reducing errors.s success with it. Ergonomics is an applied science aimed at studying people. =icrosoft and other companies are able to make products more comfortable and worker+friendly. selling more than all other brands of ergonomic keyboards. and =icrosoft.s physical patterns of work and helping improve them. physical capabilities and their work environment and activities. his technique resulted in mice designed for long+lasting comfort. distributed manner. $dvancing the measurement of contact area. ergonomics is aimed at maximizing productivity by reducing worker fatigue and discomfort. he first approach was the pressure+sensitive love. he incidence rate for symptoms of repetitive strain injury among computer users is very high. (hen considering workstation design. computer users can choose among a variety of pointing devices. Ergonomics seeks to make a better match between workers. <ne of the main emphases in designing ergonomic keyboards has been to try to improve user posture during keyboard use. ?y applying the principles of ergonomics to the design of workplace tools such as keyboards and mice. more emphasis is being placed on the science aimed at studying and addressing these work+related problems' ergonomics. his can be accomplished through better design and operation of tools. which was used to determine the areas of the hand that were contacting the mice and the location of contact. =icrosoft then shifted to infrared thermography to help evaluate the contact area provided by its mice. In the area of computer input. -roper contact pressure can be provided by a mouse that contacts a large portion of the hand and contacts it in an even. and increasing input speed. and provide it in the proper locations. Ergonomically designed products have been appearing in a variety of industries in response to the increasingly visible problems addressed by ergonomics. =icrosoft has become one of the leaders in ergonomic keyboard design by launching the first fixed ergonomic keyboard. /everal approaches have been taken in the design of =icrosoft mice to ensure that they provide the proper mount of contact area. ! best+selling ergonomic keyboard design of all time. it has become the 3o. garden tools and computer products are growing in popularity. workstations. oo much pressure on the hand is uncomfortable because it causes the mouse to press sharply into the palm. luggage. $ccording to findings mentioned above from a 0CC0 studyD surveying !. /ince the =icrosoft 3atural 9eyboard launched in !AAB. Ergonomically designed office furniture. <ne other factor that influences mouse comfort is contact pressure on the hand. has been largely influenced by the fact that =icrosoft is one of the few keyboard manufacturers to employ a full+time in+house ergonomist who helps design its input devices.0E2 1 . particularly during periods of extended use. the =icrosoft@ 3atural@ 9eyboard. his design. equipment and controls. he keyboard is a crucial component of a properly designed computer workstation.Production Quality management of these problems grow and begin to draw public attention.

concluding that. )or this reason. $ recent study demonstrated the injury+prevention benefits of using the fixed alternative design of the =icrosoft 3atural 9eyboard over time. =icrosoft has developed numerous input devices designed for comfort. providing a greater comfort benefit that is more accessible to everyone. effective ergonomic programs are extremely important. especially those who prefer a flat keyboard design. offers a breakthrough in ergonomic design that builds on the design principles used in the original 3atural keyboard design. $ddressing these symptoms before they become full+blown injuries is very important because it is generally much easier to prevent 5/Is than it is to treat them. )ollowing on the success of the 3atural 9eyboard design. o help deliver on an important component of effective ergonomic programs. /econd. ! best+selling ergonomic keyboard design of all time. =icrosoft now offers two new ergonomic keyboard designs. this fixed alternative keyboard design has been shown to reduce wrist and carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. launched in !AAB. E" percent of females and "D percent of males reported that they were experiencing at least one musculoskeletal symptom.CCC per year based on the hypothetical example of !C percent injury reduction in a JCC+person company.G In turn. the #omfort #urve design offers an easy+to+ approach design. the advanced 3atural 9eyboard.Production Quality management computer users from different occupations. but bolster the bottom line as well. only the fixed alternative keyboard demonstrated a significant effect on the incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms. this reduction in 5/I risk can lead to dramatic cost savings H over I"CC. Implementing a strong ergonomics program based on ergonomically designed mice and keyboards H such as those offered by =icrosoft H can result in many advantages and cost savings that not only boost employee morale and engagement. 1 .!! In fact. has become the 3o. )irst. =icrosoft also has developed a comfortable line of mice by focusing on providing proper contact area with the hand. 1sing these devices as part of a solid ergonomics program can lead to a reduction in the instance of repetitive strain injury. FIn terms of primary prevention. he =icrosoft 3atural line of keyboards. 3atural Ergonomic 9eyboard BCCC.

monash.orosha.com www.usernomics.org www.ad.Production Quality management Bibliography      www.klis.cdc.gov www.com 1 .edu www.

Production Quality management 1 .