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Name Of The Students

Khamir Makwana. Pratiksha Manchekar. Samiksha Mane. Ashish Mendon. Shilpa Madne.

Roll No.
07. 08. 09. 10. 24.

Class: - F. .!.M.S. Subject: - !"siness #n$ironment. Topic: - #conomic #n$ironment. Faculty: - Mrs.Meghna Patil.

We would also like to thanks our librarian Mr. Uchale for rendering us the books as and when required. . We have gained lot of knowledge. practically as well as theoretically. Mrs.We feel immense pleasure to present this project on ‘Economic Environment’. The opportunity to make this project has been fully utilized by us. We would like to take the privilege to thanks our professor. Meghna Patil for giving us such a wonderful project.

illion. %n&rastr"ct"re' %ntrod"ction. petrochemicals. sectors s"ch as a"tomo.< . (he in$estment needed o$er the ne/t 10 +ears. 4 . :& this.oth domestic 4 &orei*n 5oads are the li&eline o& the co"ntr+ 4 the cornerstone o& economic de$elopment. comm"nication.le in $irt"all+ e$er+ sector o& the econom+. 290 .180 . water 4 power etc. telecomm"nications. 22o .7 .illion 72S 388. ser$ices sectors.8 . . are the areas which pro$ides ser$ice &acilities to economic . (he . 1. .iles.le in$estment. Pri$ate sector in$estment re0"ired is at least 5s.ilateral a*encies 5s.illion9. &or the de$elopment o& the national 4 state hi*hwa+s are estimated to total 5s. roads.o"t 2S 3400 .illion 72S 38. e/citin* .illion 72S 3."siness opport"nities are a$aila.erali-ation process in 1991.illion9.89. (he estimated in$estment re0"ired o$er the ne/t ten +ears to keep in&rastr"ct"re with the pro1ected *rowth o& the econom+ is a. (he *o$ernment policies on in$estment in road in&rastr"ct"re "nderscore the importance o& the pri$ate sector6s participation 4 how inte*ral their in$ol$ement is. #conomic %n&rastr"ct"re ' #conomic in&rastr"ct"re= transport.4. A lar*e part o& this in$estment will need to come &rom the pri$ate sector .illion9. Manmohan Sin*h set %ndia &irml+ on the path to li.i**est in$estment opport"nities are arisin* in the in&rastr"ct"re sector..ha$e attracted considera. power.#conomic %n&rastr"ct"re' (ransport.etc."d*etar+ reso"rces are e/pected to pro$ide 5s. Since )r.illion 72S 318.8 . oil and nat"ral *as.

(5A?SP:5( (ransport re&ers to the means o& ph+sical mo$ement o& *oods 4 passen*ers. Separated cate*ories o& ."t also in &orei*n co"ntries. Pro$ision o& these &acilities has .acti$ities.ene&its deri$ed &rom transport &acilities. not onl+ within a co"ntr+ . (rans&ers o& *oods in a lar*e scale is also possi.e mo$ed in lar*e 0"antities o$er lon* distances. the economic .ecome speciali-ed. All these re0"ire the "sers o& transport 4 other means o& in&rastr"ct"re. Arowth o& ind"stries has th"s .+ transport ser$ices are as &ollows' 1.lem o& distance ."tion. roadwa+s. . !esides.le in di&&erent areas. @ith de$elopment o& modern transport places.le to meet needs o& cons"mersB "sers in distant markets. F"nctions :& (ransport Ser$ices' Se$eral &"nctions which are per&ormed . there are also $ario"s social 4 political ad$anta*es which accr"e as a res"lt o& the modern means o& transport.+ trans&errin* *oods &rom places o& prod"ction to places o& cons"mption. waterwa+s 4 airwa+s. all kinds o& *oods can . Prod"ction takes place on a lar*e>scale in a limited n"m."siness ha$e de$eloped to "ndertake the ser$ice acti$ities.een possi. (ransport creates place o& "tilit+ 4 remo$es the pro. (he *oods 4 ser$ices prod"ced are re0"ired to meet the needs o& cons"mers scattered o$er lar*e territories.oth ind"str+ 4 trade. @idenin* o& markets. (he means o& transportation ma+ consists o& railwa+s. (he need &or these &acilities arises &rom the nat"re o& prod"ction 4 distri. Small scale prod"cers 4 traders with limited reso"rces cannot arran*e all these in&rastr"ct"ral &acilities on their own. which are o& $ital importance to .

5oad (ransport' 5oad transport is one o& the most promisin* 4 potent means &or rapid ind"strial 4 a*ric"lt"ral de$elopment in a co"ntr+.ilit+ o& reso"rces. etc.ene&its. 5ailwa+s. 2. 1. 8.9 %t is cheaper in comparison to railwa+ or air transport.rin*in* the ma1orit+ o& people who are li$in* in $illa*es 4 &ar>o&& places. Ad$anta*es o& 5oad (ransport' 19 ?eed less capital in comparison to other means o& transport. Social . @aterB:cean transport.asic in&rastr"ct"re &or . 49 5oad transport can . 89 %t is help&"l where 0"ick transportation is needed in the case o& perisha. 4. 4. 5oad transport.le. Mo. 79 %t helps in .le prod"cts like milk. 8.rin*in* impro$ement in a*ric"lt"re prod"cts are prod"ced lar*el+.2. 89 %t &acilitates mo$ement o& people to 4 &rom remote areas in the co"ntr+.e "sed &or transportation o& small 0"antities o& *oods. 29 %t is &le/i. $e*ita. %t pro$ides the . <9 5oad transport is more sa&er 4 maintains re*"larit+ in transportation.le means o& transport as re*ards time 4 ro"te. . CA?) (5A?SP:5( (he di&&erent modes o& land transport are as &ollows' 1. . Air transport. Car*e scale prod"ction.

machiner+ etc. tools.lems :& 5oad (ransport' (he important pro. 29 Slow as compared to railwa+s. 79 %ns"&&icient roads network in r"ral areas.4 also takin* &inished prod"cts &rom &actor+ to cons"mption centers. 49 5ain+ seasons a&&ects road transport.le to deterioration. 109 %t also *enerates emplo+ment opport"nities &or those associated with this sector. . <9 Dea$+ ta/es.9 ?o proper maintenance o& roads.99 %t is $er+ m"ch important &or ind"strial de$elopment thro"*h the s"ppl+ o& raw materials. 89 Aoods are lia. . Pro.lems o& road transport in %ndia are' 19 2neconomical &or lon* distance.

in 1994>9< plan wise de$elopment o& road network is stated .een constr"cted.000 $illa*es. Forth &i$e +ear plan' )"rin* this plan a total pro$ision o& 5s. 10 crore was made &or railwa+. 100 crore.1< lakh 19<0><1. 17 crore 7&or . %ndia has one o& the lar*est road network in world.rid*es4 road links. .0 crore spent d"rin* the plan period. incl"din* constr"ction o& .elow' First &i$e +ear plan' %n this plan total pro$isions was o& 5s. Fi&th &i$e +ear plan' (he main attention o& this plan was the completion o& spill>o$er works o& the 4th plan . ?earl+ 1. :& di&&erent t+pes o& roads ha$e .000 $illa*es were connected with roads "nder minim"m need pro*ramme as a*ainst tar*et o& 20.78 kms. 824 crore was made co$erin* ?ational Di*hwa+s 4 inter State roads. :& roads were "p*raded as ?ational Di*hwa+s4 <. 7. Si/th &i$e +ear plan' )"rin* this plan 2. 5s. to 80. the emphasis was to settin* "p o& corporations the road transport corporation Act. 19<0 &or the de$elopment o& road 4 railwa+ transport. A pro$ision o& 5s.l+ d"rin* the &i&th +ear plan.77 kms.89 crore was proposed &or a"*mentin* the ser$ices o& the nationali-ed transport "ndertakin* o& states. 418 crore was made &or de$elopment o& roads in the Eentral sector to .oth roadwa+s 4 railwa+s9 (hird &i$e +ear plan' %n this plan a pro$ision &or 5s. A pro$ision o& 5s. the total road len*th has e/panded &rom 4 lakh kms.rin* impro$ements in the e/istin* network o& ?ational Di*hwa+s. Second &i$e +ear plan' )"rin* this plan. A pro$ision o& 5s. :"t o& which 1B4 was "tili-ed &or de$elopment p& ?ational Di*hwa+s 4 the remainin* 8B4&or State roads.)e$elopment :& 5oads 4 5oad (ransport %n %ndia' 5oads 4 road transport network in the co"ntr+ has e/panded considera.8 crore was appro$ed &or )elhi (ransport Eorporation makin* total in$estment to 5s.

oth the sectors.alanced de$elopment o& roads. . #i*hth &i$e +ear plan' %t laid more emphasis on a coordinated 4 . network "nder primar+ road s+stem co$erin* state hi*hwa+s. 10. Most s"ita. were e/ceeded &or .7 crore &or the state sector. 2. 7. 5ailwa+s' %n %ndia..een pro$ided &or central 4 state sectors. 4. 8. Cess e/pensi$e. #conomical &or lon* distance. A lar*e n"m. comm"nication 4 a"tomation is lon* standin*.000 crore 4 5s.. 8. An o"tla+ o& 5s..019 crore was kept &or the central sector. 1. (he act"al e/penses howe$er. .stantial o"tla+ were proposed &or road de$elopment.le &or carr+in* . <. 2.+ the Eentral Ao$ernment.. 2.oth. Faster than road transport. <18 crore &or "nion territories o& 5s. 5s. Dea$+ carr+in* capacit+. @ith modern con$eniences 4 *ad*ets. o& trains carr+ either *oods or passen*ers. the railwa+ is owned 4 operated . S". @eather conditions are least a&&ected.Se$enth &i$e +ear plan' A pro$ision o& 5s. the railwa+s tr+st with in&ormation technolo*+. Ad$anta*es o& 5ail transport' 1.10 crore respecti$el+ has . A"*ments e/port>import acti$ities. the railwa+ ro"tes are spread o$er all parts o& the co"ntr+. secondar+ 4 &eeder road s+stem co$erin* state hi*hwa+ 4 ma1or district roads 4 r"ral roads incl"din* $illa*e roads 4 other district roads. Some o& them carr+ ."lk+ *oods. %t occ"pies important place in the inland transport s+stem. Protection o& *oods &rom e/pos"re..

9' (he de$elopment d"rin* this plan was essentiall+ a reha.2. (his plan pro$ided an o"t la+ o& 5s.ilitation 4 moderni-ation plan.lems con&rontin* the railwa+s are as &ollows' 1. 2nder "tili-ation o& capacit+ leads losses..le lines. 2.ance. Monopol+ o& the *o$ernment.1>.. :peration o& rail tra&&ic thro"*h "npro&ita. )e$elopment :& 5ailwa+s ?etworkin* )"rin* Fi$e Plans' ear %ndian railwa+s consist o& e/tensi$e network spread o$er . (hird &i$e +ear plan 719.ilit+. 8. (he &irst plan pro$ided an o"tla+ o& 5s. 4. Plan wise de$elopment o& railwa+s is as "nder' First &i$e +ear plan 719<1><. 8.000 kms.o&.solete portions o& track.lem o& a$aila.>. <. 4.)isad$anta*es o& 5ailwa+ (ransport' 1. . Fear o& hea$+ accident. Cack o& &le/i.2 kms.ilit+ o& &"el. Accidents. (ra$el witho"t tickets. 7. Pro.9. Cack o& &inancial reso"rces. <. 2.9' . Pro.217 crore &or this p"rpose. Second &i$e +ear plan 719<.728 crore &or all p"rposes. Dea$+ capital in$estment.lem with metre 4 narrow *"a*e.lems :& 5ail (ransport' (he main pro.acco"nts &or 22. 8. Pro. Ei$il dist"r. #lectri&ied network o& a len*th o& 18.000 kms. Pro. which !road Aa"*e is meas"red to 48.8F o& the total ro"te kilometers.lem o& replacement o& old or o"tdated en*ines.19' (his plan &acilitates the remo$al o& speed restrictions in &orce o$er o.

202 crore. 100 crore . Fi&th &i$e +ear plan 71974>799' (his plan pro$ided &or an o"tla+ o& 5s. Si/th &i$e +ear plan 71980>8<9' %t pro$ided an o"tla+ o& 5s. (he total o"tla+ &or the railwa+ was 5s. (he plan pro$ided &or an o"tla+ o& 5s. 478 crore the per&ormance o& railwa+ d"rin* this period was credi. Alon* with this it was proposed to "ndertake 19000>to 21000 kms.8<0 crore .1ecti$e o& third &i$e>+ear plan was to keep rail transport polic+ ahead o& demand."t the e/pendit"re e/ceeded ."tion to )epreciation 5eser$ed F"nd was s".9>749' A&ter the third plan..970 passen*ers coaches.12. in addition to an e/pendit"re o& 5s. Se$enth &i$e +ear plan 7198<>909' A pro$ision o& 5s. . %t was proposed to reach &rei*ht tra&&ic to 2.+ the end o& the third plan. Eontri.le 4 47 million tones o& additional &rei*ht tra&&ic was carried o"t. a period three +ears 719.<2< crore to . %t was proposed to ac0"ire 9. 9<0 electrical m"ltiple "nits 4 128< diesel B electric locomoti$es d"rin* ei*hth plan period. 884 crore was made &or in$estment 4 completion &or the e/istin* pro1ects incl"din* the &rei*ht tra&&ic lines.12< crore to 5s.e met o"t o& the )epreciation 5eser$ed &"nd 4 there was a pro$ision o& 5s. (he pro*ramme aimed to achie$e a tar*et o& reachin* &rei*ht tra&&ic to 5s. #i*hth &i$e +ear plan 71992>979' (his plan started a&ter a plan o& one +ear &rom 1992.100 crore &or this pro*ramme.>.0 million tones.<.24< million tones a +ear .1.00 wa*ons.+ 5s.20 crore &or metro lit an transport.1. 27.99 was kept as ann"al plans 4 d"rin* that period the on*oin* schemes were completed.o& track .stantiall+ "p &rom 5s.+ the end o& the plan period. <28 crore &or completion on*oin* tra&&ic 4 pro1ect oriented lines.(he main o. (he plan pro$ided &or an o"tla+ o& 5s.1. Forth &i$e +ear plan 719. crore &or railwa+s.82.

Mo$in* *oods 4 passen*ers &rom one part o& the co"ntr+ to another . :cean (ransport' :cean transport represents the oldest &orm o& transport &or mo$ement o& *oods 4 people across hi*h seas 4 oceans. (ransport o& *oods 4 passen*ers to other co"ntries is called o$erseas shippin*. (he+ are most s"ita. Ad$anta*es :& :cean (ransport' . which link almost all co"ntries o& the world. canals. %t is also "se&"l &or coastal transport in the case o& co"ntries ha$in* na$i*a.le &or perisha. Seasonal &actors ma+ restrict the "se o& waterwa+s.@aterB :cean (ransport' @ater transport in$ol$es the "se o& ri$ers. ?ormall+. etc.anks o& waterwa+s.+ sea.oats. 4. 8.+ ship is called coatal shippin*. (he+ are slow 4 not s"ita."t less costl+ *oods like steamers. Ships are "sed in sea transport. %t is most "se&"l &or trade amon* co"ntries connected . priorit+ was *i$en to electricit+ 84000kms. 4 the sea. 2. are "sed in inland a waterwa+ that is ri$ers 4 canals. 2. (he+ can ser$e onl+ those areas which are located on the .le shores 4 port &acilities.lems :& %nland @aterwa+s' 1. 8. Pro. (he+ are relati$el+ more economical as re*ard the cost o& transport."lk+ .renewal plan a part &rom this. (he+ don6t in$ol$e hea$+ e/pendit"re &or maintenance. 1"te. 8. . Ad$anta*es :& %nland @aterwa+s' 1. :$erseas transport is carried o"t . &erries. etc.le &or transportin* . tim.+ de&inite ro"tes. (he+ can6t directl+ ser$e the interiors. (heir carr+in* capacit+ is relati$el+ less than that o& railwa+s.le *oods.

distinct ad$anta*es are 7a9 speed.1. 8. Aoods ma+ . %t is s". )isad$anta*es :& Air (ransport' . 4 7. %t is the cheapest mode o& transport. %t is more s"ita. which *i$e it.e transported in . %t is relati$el+ slower means o& transport 4 there&ore not s"ita."lk.1ect to the risk arisin* o"t o& the perils o& sea like storms. %t is a &astest means o& transport.le &or transport o& perisha. enem+ attack etc. especiall+ &or a lon* distance.le when other means o& transport are disr"pted d"e to &loods.ilit+ where s"r&ace transport is lackin*. 2. dan*ero"s or e/pensi$e. Ad$anta*es :& Air (ransport' 1. %t promotes international trade. <. %t is a $ital &or the nat"ral sec"rit+ 4 de&ence. %t is $er+ "se&"l &or mo$in* *oods o& hi*h $al"e o& small .lems :& :cean (ransport' 1. 8. earth0"ake. %t is $er+ "se&"l to areas which are not other means o& transports. 8. 4. %t is ad$anta*eo"s in sit"ations where speed is desired= or where s"r&ace conditions are s"ch that land transport 4 water transport are slow. etc.le *oods.9 its s"ita. Pro. 4."lk. 2.le d"e to seasonal chan*es. %n certain parts o& the world oceans are not na$i*a. Air (ransport' %ntrod"cin* o& airwa+s as means o& transport is a relati$el+ new phenomenon. (he two principle &eat"res. 2.

%t is hi*hl+ "ncertain 4 "nrelia.1.le as the ser$ices depend on &a$o"ra. 8. 2.<0 crore &or Air %ndia 4 5s. Fli*hts ma+ . . (he risk accident is the hi*hest in air transport. crore &or %ndian Airlines."lk+ 4 low price prod"cts . Second &i$e +ear plan 719<.>.1. 1. etc. 80. 9< crore &or the p"rchase o& 18 aircra&ts. Second &i$e +ear plan 719<. inte*ration o& airlines was proposed d"rin* this plan.09' )"rin* this an o"tla+ o& 5s.9' %n order to ens"re that the e/istin* airports sho"ld work on economic . &o*. %t is not s"ita.le weather conditions. o"t o& that 5s.< crore was pro$ided &or de$elopment o& air ports within a co"ntr+.09')"rin* this plan an o"tla+ o& 5s. (he plan pro$ided an o"tla+ o& 5s.< crore was pro$ided &or de$elopment o& air transport within the co"ntr+. %t in$ol$in* lar*e capital in$estment 4 hi*h operatin* cost. crore &or %ndian Airlines.e postponed or cancelled d"e to rain.80.>.asis.eca"se o& hea$+ &rei*ht char*es. three o& which &or lon* distance tra$el o& international air ser$ice. o"t o& 5s.14.<0 crore &or Air %ndia 4 5s. 4. 14.le &or . )e$elopment :& Ei$il A$iation )"rin* Fi$e> ear Plan' First &i$e +ear plan 719<1><.

terminal 4 comm"nication &acilities at the &o"r international airports in %ndia= $i-.<. . 201<.(hird &i$e +ear plan 719. .ai. Si/th &i$e +ear plan 71080>8<9' )"rin* the si/th plan emphasis was placed an the pro$ision o& sa&et+ oriented e0"ipment so as to make air operations more sa&e 4 relia.<000 lakh E9 (rainin* 4 ed"cation e0"ipment.ile telecomm"nication network in order to impro$e the sa&et+ o& aircra&t operation.< crore &or the &ollowin* acti$ities' A9 @ork at aerodromes 5s.le &or international operation. (he other pro*rammes incl"de "p*radin* o& e/istin* airport.9' %n this plan the *o$ernment pro$ided a total amo"nt o& 5s.100 lakh (otal 5s. 5s. )elhi 4 Ehennai. So as to make them more s"ita. 5s. 1.>749' (his plan made emphasis &or impro$ements o& r"nwa+.1< crore which was to .le. (he total o"tla+ o& 5s. 8<9 crore was pro$ided &or this sector o& the econom+.18<0 lakh !9 Aerona"tical telecomm"nication e0"ipment. Se$enth &i$e +ear plan 7198<>909' A total o"tla+ o& 5s. 5s.s 4 de$elopment o& air strips.ration &acilities 4 &or impro$in* the aerona"tical &i/ed 4 mo.. M"m.2<<0 lakh Forth &i$e +ear plan 719. lakh #9 Air ro"tes 4 aerodromes.< crore was pro$ided &or this sector to meet the e/pendit"re in on*oin* schemes 4 to start with s"pport schemes s"ch as &l+in* cl". 5s. 84 lakh )9 5esearch 4 de$elopment e0"ipment.1>. 2<. Fi&th &i$e +ear plan 71974>799' (he &i&th plan had a pro$ision o& 5s. Kolkata..e "tili-ed &or the p"rpose o& aerona"tical comm"nication ser$ices incl"din* ar*"mentation o& cali.