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ASME B31.

3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

ASME B31.3 Process Piping
Charles Becht IV, PhD, PE Don ri!!en, PE Instructors
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Piping De#elop$ent Process
1. Esta%lish applica%le s&ste$ stan'ar'(s) *. Esta%lish 'esign con'itions 3. Ma!e o#erall piping $aterial 'ecisions
 Pressure Class  +elia%ilit&  Materials of construction

4.

ine tune piping $aterial 'ecisions
 Materials  Deter$ine ,all thic!nesses  Val#es

-. Esta%lish preli$inar& piping s&ste$ la&out . support configuration /. Perfor$ fle0i%ilit& anal&sis 1. inali2e la&out an' %ill of $aterials 3. a%ricate an' install 4. E0a$ine an' test
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

4. Pressure Design of Metals
 Design Pressure . 5e$perature  6ualit& actors  7el' 8oint Strength actor  Pressure Design of Co$ponents
 our Metho's  Straight Pipe  ittings  a%ricate' Branch Connections  langes an' Blan!s  9ther Co$ponents

 Piping Material Specifications
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5he Material in 5his Section is A''resse' %& B31.3 in:
Chapter II " Design Appen'i0 V " Allo,a%le Variations in Ele#ate' 5e$perature Ser#ice

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Design Pressure . 5e$perature
design pressure: the pressure at the $ost se#ere con'ition of internal or e0ternal pressure an' te$perature e0pecte' 'uring ser#ice (3;1.*)
 5he $ost se#ere con'ition is that ,hich results in the greatest re<uire' co$ponent thic!ness an' the highest co$ponent rating.  5he insi'e pipe in =ac!ete' piping shall %e 'esigne' for the $ost se#ere co$%ination of con'itions e0pecte' 'uring ser#ice.  Short"ter$ #ariations $a& %e consi'ere' separatel&. (3;*.*.4)
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Design Pressure . 5e$perature
design pressure:
 Pro#isions shall %e $a'e to safel& contain or relie#e an& pressure to ,hich the piping $a& %e su%=ecte'.  Sources of pressure to %e consi'ere' inclu'e > A$%ient influences > Pressure oscillations > I$proper operation > Deco$position of flui's > Static hea' > ailure of control 'e#ices
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Design Pressure . 5e$perature
design temperature: the te$perature at ,hich, un'er the coinci'ent pressure, the greatest thic!ness or highest co$ponent rating is re<uire' (3;1.3). or insulate' piping:
 Ma& %e ta!en as flui' te$perature  Ma& %e %ase' on calculate' a#erage ,all te$perature, or  Ma& %e %ase' on $easure$ents or tests  Consi'er heat tracing an' other sources of heat
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Design Pressure . 5e$perature
design temperature: ?ninsulate' piping
 flui' te$peratures %elo, 1-;@ (/-@C): Shall %e ta!en as flui' te$perature, unless solar ra'iation or other effects $a!e the te$perature higher  flui' te$peratures 1-;@ (/-@C) an' a%o#e: > Ma& %e ta!en as flui' te$perature > Ma& %e %ase' on calculate' a#erage ,all te$perature, or > Presu$pti#e re'uctions 'escri%e' in para. 3;1.3.3 $a& %e use'
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Design Pressure . 5e$perature
design minimum temperature: the lo,est co$ponent te$perature e0pecte' in ser#ice
 Ma& %e ta!en as flui' te$perature  Ma& %e %ase' on calculate' a#erage ,all te$perature, or  Ma& %e %ase' on $easure$ents or tests

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Design Pressure . 5e$perature
allowance for pressure and temperature variation: 5he Co'e allo,s the 'esign pressure to %e set %elo, the $ost se#ere coinci'ent pressure an' te$perature un'er certain con'itions:
 Ao cast iron or other non"'uctile co$ponents  Ao$inal pressure stresses 'onBt e0cee' &iel' strength at te$perature  Congitu'inal stresses are ,ithin the allo,a%le
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Design Pressure . 5e$perature
allowance for pressure and temperature variation: $ore con'itions:
 5he nu$%er of e0cursions %e&on' 'esign 'oes

not e0cee' 1;;;  5he increase' pressure 'oes not e0cee' the test pressure  7ith the o,ners per$ission can e0cee' allo,a%le %& 33D for no $ore than 1; hrEe#ent an' no $ore than 1;; hrE&ear  7ith the o,ners per$ission can e0cee' allo,a%le %& *;D for no $ore than -; hrEe#ent an' nor $ore than -;; hrE&ear
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Design Pressure . 5e$perature
allowance for pressure and temperature variation: $ore con'itions:
 7ithout the o,ners per$ission, can e0cee' allo,a%le %& *;D for no $ore than -; hrEe#ent an' nor $ore than -;; hrE&ear for self"li$iting e#ents such as pressure relie#ing  Effects of the #ariations $ust %e e#aluate', e.g. %& rules 'escri%e' in Appen'i0 V  Differential pressure on #al#e closures shoul' not e0cee' $a0i$u$ esta%lishe' %& #al#e $anufacturer
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Design Pressure . 5e$perature
7or!shop Pro%le$ 1: St&rene $ono$er at a$%ient te$perature.
Pressure s,itch shuts off positi#e 'isplace$ent pu$p at /3; psi (43 %ar)
PSF

Deter$ine 'esign pressure, 'esign te$perature an' relief #al#e set pressure.
See Page *4 of the supple$ent.
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Design Pressure . 5e$perature
7or!shop Pro%le$ *: If the line in pro%le$ 1 is stea$ cleane' ,ith -; psi (3.- %ar) stea$ superheate' to 13-G (34;GC)
 7hat shoul' the 'esign pressure %eH  7hat shoul' the 'esign te$perature %eH  7hat shoul' the relief #al#e setting %eH

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

6ualit& actors
Casting <ualit& factor Ec (3;*.3.3)  ?se' for cast co$ponents not ha#ing ratings  Ec I 1.;; for gra& an' $allea%le iron  Ec I #aries fro$ ;.3; to 1.;; 'epen'ing on the le#el of e0a$ination  5a%le A"1A lists Ec for specific pro'ucts 7el' =oint <ualit& factor E= (3;*.3.4)  5a%le 3**.3.4 lists factors use' for pipe  So$e factors $a& %e increase' ,hen a''itional e0a$ination is perfor$e'  5a%le A"1B lists E= for specific pro'ucts
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7el' 8oint 6ualit& actor E=
Type of Weld Aone (sea$less) Electric +esistance 7el' urnace Butt 7el' Single usion 7el' Dou%le usion 7el' API -C SA7, JMA7
KDepen'ing on le#el of e0a$ination
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Factor (5a%le 3;*.*.4) 1.;; ;.3;./; ;.3; to 1.;;K ;.3- to 1.;;K ;.41/

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

7el' 8oint Strength actor
7el' =oint strength re'uction factor 7 (3;*.3.-)  ?se' to account for the long"ter$ (creep) strength of ,el's that $a& %e lo,er than the %ase $aterial  In the a%sence of $ore applica%le 'ata, 7 shall %e  1.;; for all $aterials 4-;@ (-1;@C) an' %elo,  ;.-; for all $aterials at 1-;;@ (31-@C)  Cinearl& interpolate' for inter$e'iate te$peratures

7 #alues are %ase' on testing of selecte' lo, allo&s, stainless steels, an' nic!el allo&s
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Pressure Design of Co$ponents
 our Metho's for Pressure Design  Straight Pipe  ittings
 Pipe Ben's  Miter Ben's  +e'ucers

a%ricate' Branch Connections  langes an' Blan!s  9ther Co$ponents 
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

our Metho's for Pressure Design
 Calculations in accor'ance ,ith Co'e for$ula  +atings gi#en in a co$ponent stan'ar'  +atings sa$e as straight sea$less pipe  6ualification %& calculation plus e0perience, anal&sis or test

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Straight Pipe
5otal thic!ness re<uire' is the su$ of
1. Pressure 'esign thic!ness *. Manufacturing tolerance (usuall& 1*.-D of the no$inal ,all thic!ness) 3. Corrosion (or erosion) allo,ance 4. Mechanical allo,ances, e.g. threa'ing

Pressure Design of Metals "

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Straight Pipe
5hrea'ing allo,ance " no$inal threa'
'epth 'escri%e' in ASME B1.*;.1 APS L.M 1 thru * Depth (in.) ;.;-1 ;.;/4 Depth ($$) 1.41.11

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Straight Pipe
t = PD / [2 ( !W " P#$%
7here: t I pressure 'esign thic!ness P I 'esign pressure D I outsi'e 'ia$eter of pipe S I stress #alue for $aterial fro$ Appen'i0 A E I <ualit& factor 7 I ,el' =oint strength re'uction factor N I coefficient (function of $aterial an' te$perature), usuall& ;.4
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Coefficient N
O4;;@ O43*@C 4-;@ -1;@C 1;;;@ 1;-;@ -33@C -//@C 11;;@ -43@C P11-;@ P /*1@C

erritic Steels Austenitic Steels 9ther Ductile Metals Cast Iron

;.4 ;.4 ;.4 ;.;

;.;.4 ;.4 """

;.1 ;.4 ;.4 """

;.1 ;.4 ;.4 """

;.1 ;.;.4 """

;.1 ;.1 ;.4 """

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Straight Pipe 7all 5hic!ness
Wor&s'op: 7hat is the re<uire' no$inal pipe ,all thic!ness for the follo,ing case: St&rene $ono$er ser#ice
AS5M A-3 Jr B E+7 car%on steel pipe Design pressure an' te$perature fro$ Pro%le$s 1 an' *, page *4 of the supple$ent. S I *;,;;; psi (133 MPa) " #erif& Corrosion allo,ance I 1E3Q (3.* $$) Soc!et ,el'ing thru APS 1L Butt,el'ing APS * an' larger

See Supple$ent starting on page 31.
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Pipe 7all 5hic!nesses
)ar*on teel TD WT + WT ++ WT (lso for )ar*on teel Sch 1; Sch *; Sch 3; c' .Sch /; c' /c' ,0tainless teel Sch -S c' ,c' .Sch 3;S

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Pipe 7all 5hic!ness
 S5D 75 an' Sch 4; are the sa$e APS 1E3 through 1;  S5D 75 is 3E3Q (4.-* $$) APS 1* an' larger  RS 75 an' Sch 3; are the sa$e APS 1E3 through 3  RS 75 is 1E*Q (1*.1; $$) APS 3 an' larger  Sch 4;S is the sa$e as S5D 75  Sch 3;S is the sa$e as RS 75

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

ittings
1isted Fittings " Can %e use' ,ithin their pressure"te$perature ratings 2nlisted Fittings " Must ha#e pressurete$perature ratings that confor$ ,ith para. 3;4
 +ules for specific geo$etries in paras. 3;4.* through 3;4./  +ules for other geo$etries in para. 3;4.1

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ittings " Ciste'
1/;; 14;; 1*;; 1;;; 3;; /;; 4;; *;; ; ; 1;; *;; 3;;

itting E0a$ple

Class 1-; Class 3;; up to APS *

4;;

-;;

Temperature (F$

B1/.3 " Mallea%le Iron 5hrea'e' ittings
(?S Custo$ar& ?nits)
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

ittings " Ciste'
1;;.; 3;.; /;.; 4;.; *;.; ;.; ; -; 1;; 1-;

itting E0a$ple

Class 1-; Class 3;; up to APS *

*;;

*-;

Temperature ()$

B1/.3 " Mallea%le Iron 5hrea'e' ittings
(Metric ?nits)
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ittings " Ciste'

itting E0a$ple

B1/.4 " 7rought Steel Butt,el' ittings 5he allo,a%le pressure ratings for fittings 'esigne' in accor'ance ,ith this stan'ar' $a& %e calculate' as for straight sea$less pipe of e<ui#alent $aterialSin accor'ance ,ith the rules esta%lishe' in the applica%le sections of ASME B31SPipe si2e, ,all thic!nessSan' $aterial i'entit& on the fittings are in lieu of pressure rating $ar!ings.
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

ittings " Ciste'

itting E0a$ple

B1/.11 " orge' ittings, Soc!et 7el'ing . 5hrea'e' Design te$perature an' other ser#ice con'itions shall %e li$ite' as pro#i'e' %& the applica%le piping co'e or regulation for the $aterial of construction of the fittings. 7ithin these li$its the $a0i$u$ allo,a%le pressure of a fitting shall %e that co$pute' for straight sea$less pipe of e<ui#alent $aterialS
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ittings " Ciste'

itting E0a$ple

B1/.11 " orge' ittings, Soc!et 7el'ing . 5hrea'e' 5he sche'ule of pipe correspon'ing to each Class of fitting for rating purposes is sho,nS )lass *;;; 3;;; /;;; 3;;; /;;; 4;;; T'd/ W 5h' 5h' 5h' S7 S7 S7 c' 3o4 3; 1/; """ 3; 1/; """ Wall RS """ RRS RS """ RRS 3*

Pressure Design of Metals "

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Pipe Ben's
t = PD / [2 ( !W/5 " P#$%
7here: II T4(+1ED) " 1U E T4(+1ED) " *U at the intra'os I I T4(+1ED) V 1U E T4(+1ED) V *U at the e0tra'os I I 1.; at the si'e centerline +1 I Ben' ra'ius
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Miter Ben's
Pm = [ !W(T6c$/r2% 7 8F
7here: r* I $ean ra'ius of pipe J I factor %ase' on the $iter angle (W) an' %en' ra'ius

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

+e'ucers
Ma& %e 'esigne' in accor'ance ,ith rules in ASME B.PV Co'e, Section VIII, Di#ision 1 for conical or toriconical sections.

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a%ricate' Branch Connections
5&pical 7el'e' Branch Connections T
ig.3*3.-.4U

?nreinforce'

+einforce'

Cateral (angular %ranch)
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

a%ricate' Branch Connections

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langes an' Blan!s
1isted Flanges 9 :lan&s " Can %e use' ,ithin their pressure"te$perature ratings 2nlisted Flanges 9 :lan&s " Must ha#e pressure"te$perature ratings that confor$ ,ith
 +ules for specific geo$etries in paras. 3;4.-  +ules for other geo$etries in para. 3;4.1

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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

langes an' Blan!s
1isted Flange !;ample: B1/.- " Pipe an' lange' ittings
<--0---

langes

=--.-->--2--,--,-2->-.-=-0-<-/-?-,---

Class 1-; Class 3;; Class /;; Class 4;; Class 1-;; Class *-;;

Temperature (F$

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langes an' Blan!s
1isted :lan& !;ample: B1/.43 " Steel Cine Blan!s  +atings the sa$e as for flanges of correspon'ing $aterial  Blan! thic!nesses ,ere 'eter$ine' in accor'ance ,ith B31.3 rules
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

langes an' Blan!s
2nlisted Flanges 9 :an&s:  langes $a& %e 'esigne' in accor'ance ,ith ASME B.PV Co'e, Section VIII, Di#ision 1, Appen'i0 * ,ith B31.3 allo,a%le stresses  Blan!s $a& %e 'esigne' in accor'ance ,ith para. 3;4.-.3

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9ther Co$ponents T3;4.1.*U
Co$ponents for ,hich there are no specific rules re<uire:
 Calculations consistent ,ith the 'esign criteria of B31.3, an'  Su%stantiation of the calculations %&
> E0tensi#e successful e0perience > E0peri$ental stress anal&sis > Proof test, or > inite ele$ent stress anal&sis

 Docu$entation a#aila%le for o,nerBs appro#al  Interpolation %et,een si2es . thic!nesses allo,e'
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ASME B31.3 Process Piping Course

4. Pressure Design of Metals

Piping Material Specifications
Descriptions of co$ponents in a piping $aterial specification shoul' inclu'e as applica%le:
 Jeneric 'escription of the co$ponent  Material specification, usuall& AS5M (inclu'e $aterial gra'e)  +ating or ,all thic!ness  Pro'uct specification, usuall& B1/ or MSS  En's (%utt,el', soc!et ,el', threa'e')  5&pe an' facing for flanges
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