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(Sap 2000 ver.

14) 2000

SAP 2000 ver. 14

Structural Analysis Program= SAP

CSI

.

structures elements

Frame elements

solid elements

Area elements

Dams

Frames
slabs
Beams

weirs
shells & domes

Trusses
large mass str.
foundation

Arch girders

R.c. Retaining walls

End j

Frame element

Area element

.
3

Solid element

.

4
2

End i

]
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Examples using frame elements

2-D
) plane analysis (x-z :

5t
3t

frames

supports

5t

5 t/m

5t

Beams

10t

10t

5t

5t
truss
frame elements

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Examples using frame and area elements

2-D
: plane analysis (x-y)
Beam

Flat slab

Beam

(Area Element)

solid slab

(area element)

solid slab

(area element)

Beam

cone (slab)

posts
(frame elements)

shaft

shell
(area elements)

3D
: space analysis

Columns
(frame elements)
beam

beam

Raft foundation

Reinforced concrete Retaining walls

frame elements
area elements

]
eng_m_z@yahoo.com - - /

(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

osnap

Area
elements

frame
elements

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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Types of Axes:
y
global axis

(XYZ) .

local axis

z
y

x
global axis x-y-z

,
.
:

.

)axis

frame elements

(local

)Axial force (tension +ve) , (comp. -ve

)Shear 2-2 (force in direction of local axis 2
)Shear 3-3 force in direction of local axis 3
)Torsion (moment about local axis 1
)M2-2 (moment about local axis 2
)M3-3 (moment about local axis 3

123456-

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

(X-Z) plane:
Beams,frames,trusses,Arch girders,etc
-
-1
-2 ).(grid lines

-3
.
-4 .

-5 )(supports

-7

- )(Analysis - run
-
-1 : ) (ton-m-c

new model

file

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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

grids

-2 grids

x y Z

x
y
z
x
y
z
X
Y
Z

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

grids
,
right click Edit grid data
Modify/ show system

:
** spacing
.
** ordinates
.

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

* x-z

-3 Define Materials
4000psi
concrete fc' = 0.8 fcu
Ec=14000 fcu
* 10 fcu=250 kg/cm2

2.5 t/m3
= 0.2

fc' = 0.8 fcu

]
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Modify A992Fy50 Steel

7.849 t/m3
E steel

Fyield
Fultimate
1.1*Fyield
1.1*Fultimate

Rebar Rebar

4000psi
A992Fy50

]
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St. 36/52

7.849 t/m3
E steel=2e7 t/m2

Fyield =36000 t/m2

Fultimate =52000 t/m2

1.1*Fyield
1.1*Fultimate

-4 Frame elements :

section propertiesframe section

Define

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

steel

steel .

]
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-5 )(frame elements grids

.
Draw
.

grid line
bracing
. grid lines
secondary beams
.

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

-6 supports :
Assign joint Restraint

-7 :

Pz

Px

Py
Forces

My Y

Z
Mz

Mx x
Moments

Settlement of supports
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

*
:

displacements

, Assign

P
M

frame element :

Assign

]
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*
*

Axis-2

Axis-1
Axis-2

local axes of frames

Z

Axis-1

Global axis
X

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* ) (gravity )(Z

-8

File Save

-9 Analyze run analysis

F5

]
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-10 :
Display

deformed shape

cancel

ok

frame elements

shear2-2 , shear3-3 scale factor =-ve

Auto
]
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Example:

5 ton
5 t/m

3 ton

t/m
2

5 t/m

5 ton

z
x
3

All sections 30x100 cm , CROSS SECTION AT BOTTOM =30X60

concrete frame
two hinged frame

:
Sap2000 t,m,c
:
Grid only .
:

modify Sapacing
edit grid
x = 6,2,8,3,0 z =4,2,0
ok X-Z .

]
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2
4

(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
Define Materials
fcu=250kg/cm2
:
Define sections frame
100*30
60*30 nonprismatic 60*30 100*30
cubic I33 Linear . I22
:
Draw frame
.

:
hinge
Assign joint restraints

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

local Axis
View set display options :

:

Assign joint loads forces
:

Assign frame loads distributed

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:

double click .

double click

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

distributed concentrated ok
: ) (own weight dead

self weight multiplier =0

display show load assigns ok

:
Analyze Run Analysis
save
F5 Modal Run/Dont Run Case
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Run now
:
deformed shape
x,y,z
Displayshow deformed shape wire

]
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Displayshow forces /stresses frames

Axial force Moment3-3 shear2-2
Show values on diagrams

***
Run .

Home Work:
beams: 1

3t
1t/m

2.5t/m

4t

3t 3 t/m3t

5t
2.5 t/m

2 t.m
2m

4.5 m

1m

6m

4m

1.5m

All beams 25x60 cm

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

frames: 2

4t

)2t/m (H.P
)1t/m (per.

5t

4t/m

6t

1.5 m
4t

3m

5t

2t/m

cols. 30x60 cm
beams,cantilivers 30x80 cm

3m

8m

3m

2m

2t/m

4m

Replicate

-1
-2

Edit Replicate

y

z

]
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......

......

* ) Global Axis (X-Y-Z

view show Axis
* grids
view show grid
* pan
view pan
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

* zoom
zoom

zoom

view zoom

Zoom

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Trusses :

frames
truss

3t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

3t

1.5m
12*2=24 m
Verticals & diagonals are L 7x7x1 cm
Top and bottom members are 2L 5x5x1 cm

grids
define--- frame/cable sections
7x7x1 cm
5x5x1 cm .
pinned

6t

3t

)(0,0,0

]
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X 4 2m
.
:
6t

6t

6t

6t

3t

6t

)(12,0,0
)(0,0,0

Edit -- Replicate-- mirror

X1=12 ,Y1=0
Z
X2=12 ,Y2=1
X

.
3t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

6t

3t

pinned
Assign
frames
frame/cable releases/partial fixity
M33 .

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

self wt multiplier DL

modify load pattern ok

run Axial force & Reactions

]
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Multi story frames

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

5t

4 t/m
5t
4 t/m

6t

5t

6t

4 t/m
5t
4 t/m
5t
4 t/m
5t
4 t/m
5t
4 t/m
5t
4 t/m

8m

6t

8m

6t
4.5t
4.5t
4.5t
6t

8m

columns 30x100
girders 30*80
8.
5 4 .

6 z 4 .
Edit--- Replicate Linear
.

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Space frames

6m

m
/
t
4

4m

m
/
t
6

5m

5t

5t

Z
X

3x8m

Plan
BEAMS =30X80
COLUMNS = 30X100

3x8 m
]
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6m

* X-Y-Z GRIDS .
*
UP DOWN
UP

DOWN
X-Z
Y=10
X-Z
Y=6

X-Z
Y=0

Z
Y

Extrude view Set elements

]
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plan :

View set 3d view xy

Aperture

cross
.

:
Assign frame/cable Local axis

:
M22 ,M33,Shear22 , Shear33, Axial , Torsion

]
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Space trusses

Roller

Hinged

All members one angle 6x6x1 cm

......
5t

10t

10t

3m

3m

3m

3m

3m

3m

10t

10t

5t

5t

5t

2m

3m

ELEVATION

3m

3m

3m

3m

3m

3m

SIDE VIEW

Bottom PLAN
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

: sap2000
ton,m
: file- new model
grid only .

1.5

1.5

1.5

x 4
1.5 y
3 z 2

x-z y=0

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

: 0.06x0.06x0.01 Angle
Define Frame sections Add- Angle

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
pinned :

Edit Replicate-Linear
x 3 5.

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

y
3 :

bracing

x 3 5
.
X-Y z=0 bracing
:
]
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X-Y z=2 bracing

Assign joint-restraint
hinged Roller .

X-Y z=2
Assign joint loads- forces

]
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save Run Axial loads

Reactions .

]
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Inve
rted
B12*
50

Solid Slab floor plan

B 12*50

B12*50

B12*50

structural plan
floor height = 3 m
wall thickness = 12 cm
Assume all beams = 25*60 cm
Except the shown cross sections .
ts= 15 cm ( note solid slab 10 to 15 cm)
This is a residential Building (LL=0.2 t/m2)
Assume floor covering = 0.15 t/m2
]
eng_m_z@yahoo.com - - /

Analysis of Solid Slabs

Solid Slabs ) (10-15 cm
.

:
-1 grids X-Y .
-2 define
Frame sections & Area sections

Define frame section ,

Define Area section ,

membrane
Bending

]
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-3

Draw frame/cable

projected inverted dummy

divide frames continuous
.
grid line
bracing
. grid lines
secondary beams
.

-4 draw- Area Fill

objects View set display objects
Area local axes :

continuous .

. grid lines

]
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-5 hinged

Assign joint restraints

self weight multiplier=1
live live own wt. :

'*h wall*t wall = 1.8*2.6*0.12 = 0.6 t/m

brick

= W wall

:
Assign Frame loads distributed
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

.
: 2 4/'
) (1.2*L /2 4.25
'1.2*4.25/2 = 2.55 t/m

. plan

: 0.001x0.001
uniform '0.25 t/m
-8 ) (live loads= 0.2 t/m2 live dead
) (floor cover = 0.15 t/m2
:

-9
:

Edit Edit Areas Divide Area

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

x ,y

x ,y

grid

.

]
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continous
-10

EditEdit lines divide frames

Break at intersections with selected joints and frames

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Automatic sub-divisions
sap

Assign frame Automatic subdivisions

torsion .
-11
:
Assign frameReleases/partial fixity

-12

save run

:
** local axis .
** local Axis 3 .

Assign Area Reverse local 3

:
Assign Area local Axis
ok
]
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ultimate ) 1.5 *( Dead+live

0.75 :

* reactions .
* Displayshow force/stresses
shells

]
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M11 local axis 1 ) (1

M22 local axis 2 ) (2

solid slab )
( 610/m 1/5
1/10 .

1
2
M11

M22

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
Display show force/stresses frame/cable Moment 33 & Shear22

Ultimate

frame elements

reactions display- tables

output joints .

]
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File Export to Excel

]
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Analysis of Flat Slabs

Flat Slabs
. Marginal beams ) (15 cm
.

Flat Slabs

90

5m

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Floor height = 3 m
wall thickness = 12 cm
ts= 20 cm
LL=0.4 t/m2
Assume floor covering = 0.15 t/m2
Equivalent wall loads on slab = 0.2 t/m2

:
-8 grids X-Y .
-9 define
Frame sections & Area sections
S20

Define frame section ,

Define Area section ,

membrane
Bending

0.2

0.2

Draw frame/cable
projected inverted dummy
divide frames continuous
.

grid line
bracing
. grid lines
secondary beams

-10

draw- Area
]

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Fill objects View set display options

Area local axes :

. grid lines

Edit ExtrudeExtrude line to Area

continuous .
:

]
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Assign joint Restraints

-11 hinged
shear wall hinge
Assign joint constraint body

flat slab Body

constraint Add new constraint .
self weight multiplier=1
live live own wt. :

-13
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

'*h wall*t wall = 1.8*2.5*0.12 = 0.6 t/m

brick

= W wall

:
Assign Frame loads distributed

.
: 2 4/'
) (1.2*L /2 5.25
'1.2*5.25/2 = 3.15 t/m

plan
simple beam '. 3.15 t/m
-8 ) (live loads= 0.4 t/m2 live dead
) (floor cover + walls = 0.15+ 0.2= 0.35 t/m2
:

0.35

0.4

-13
:

Edit Divide Area

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

x ,y

x ,y

grid

.

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

torsion .
-14
:
Assign frame/cable Releases/partial fixity

TORSION
Assign Frame/cable property modifier
0.0001 torsion constant :

-15

save run

:
** local axis .
** local Axis 3 .

Assign Area Reverse local 3

:
Assign Area local Axis
ok
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
ultimate ) 1.5 *( Dead+live
0.75

* reactions .
* Display show force/stresses
shells

]
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M11 local axis 1 ) (1

M22 local axis 2 ) (2

1
2
M11

M22

]
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reactions Display tables

output joints .

]
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Asmin=0.2*20=4 cm2 = 6 10/m'

using 6 10/m' bottom in both directions
5

Mur +VE=As*fy*d*j =6*0.785*3600*17.5*0.81/10=2.4 t.m/m'

using 6 12/m' top in both directions
5

Mur -VE=As*fy*d*j =6*1.13*3600*17.5*0.81/10=3.5 t.m/m'

Mur=3.5 t.m

combo ultimate

Ultimate

]
eng_m_z@yahoo.com - - /

(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Range
- 1 Range
-2 Range .
-3 Range .
.
.

.

-5.25

-3.5

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

M11 +ve

M22 +ve

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

M11 ve

M22 ve

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

solid dashed

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Circular tanks

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
sap2000 .
:
new model grid only x , z
:
5.00

8.00
1.00

2.00 2.00
2.00

2.00

z
4.00

2.00
2.00

5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

XZ

]
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define frame section

Rectangular horizontal beam 35*80 cm -1
Angle 80*80*35*35 cm -2
Rectangular tie ring beam 50x25cm -3
Rectangular column 80x30 cm -4

define Area sections Asec1

Dome 12 cm -1
Cylinder 30 cm -2
Shaft 20 cm -3
Cone 30 cm -4
Lower dome 30 cm -5
: edit
extrude extrude point to lines radial
number
angle

:
X-Z edit extrude line to Areas
number : angle
24 360
. 360/24
Assign Area section

fill objects
local axis 3
..

]
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: Z edit replicate radial

Z 7 . 360/8
ring beams edit
extrude extrude point to lines radial
Z 24 = number . 360/24= angle
: Assign joint pattern
:
Pressure = c Z+D
= D

c=-1,

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

pattern :
Assign Area loads Surface pressure
scale =1

Bottom
by pattern

modal F11 , F22 M11 , M22

normal force .
Axial ,Shear22 , M33 :

]
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F22- axial vertical tension or compression in slabs

]
eng_m_z@yahoo.com - - /

)Axial forces in frame elements ( beams , columns

]
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)M33 in frame elements ( beams , columns

]
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0.07m
1.00m
0.32

0.50
0.25

Internal Beam
8.0m

0.07m
0.5m
0.32

0.50
0.50

0.25

External Beam
2

Live loads = 0.3 t/m

2
Covering =0.15 t/m
walls exist on beams = 0.6 t/m'
ts = 7 cm
t = span /25 =800/25 =32 cm
Rib width = 10 cm

1.00

0.50

5.0m

0.50

Rib spacing = 50 cm
2
Hollow blocks weight =0.15 t/m

8.0m

]
eng_m_z@yahoo.com - - /

Raft Foundation
200 ton

120 ton

200 ton

200 ton

200 ton

130 ton

230 ton

500 ton

230 ton

230 ton

200 ton
130 ton

130 ton

TOTAL LOADS FOR COLUMNS = Ri *No. Floors * 1.1

]
eng_m_z@yahoo.com - - /

(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

2/3
). (Mat foundation ) =( Raft Foundation

10

-1 2000 Grids
.
-2 Define Area --Section 1 )
10( 10 .
-3 Quick Area Grids
-4 1/2 :
Edit Divide Area

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

continuous .
-5 concentrated loads .
assign joint loads forces :
shear walls
.

P total

]
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ton

= P total = Ri * no. floors *1.1

-6 soil
springs stiffness
stiffness : springs
: area springs stiffness
:

stiffness : spring
t /m2

K =B.c *1000

/ 2 1.2/2

]
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Assign Area Area springs

stiffness

Bottom

spring

run

]
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combo define load combination

Ultimate .

factor

factor

M11 , M22
.

. As min
As min =0.0015*B*t
As min =0.0015*100*100 = 15 cm2
'= 6 18 /m
:
bar
diameter
)(mm

)As(cm2

c/d

c1

Mu
)(t.m

)t(cm

B
)(cm

22

22.41

0.826

0.125

5.809

60

100

100

18

14.94

0.826

0.125

7.11

40

100

100

no.
Bars

' 6 18 /m Mu = 40 t.m
'6 22 /m
Mu = 60 t.m

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
range x y
x y .
M11 -1

1.5

:
x

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

-2

M22 Y

1.5

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

-3

M11 x

1.5

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

-4

M22 Y

1.5

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

** .
** 60
0.7 .
**
.

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

RAFT Reinforcement

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Stairs

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

Helical Stairs

]
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Analysis of buildings due to Lateral loads

)(Wind and Earthquakes

) (
:
3-D
.
Moments axial forces
.
.

:
5 8 .
.
)
)(Zone 3
B/C= 1.5 kg/cm2

shear walls .

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

90

Flat slabs .

Excel
. Dead , Live
30x80
Shear walls 25*250

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
plan X-y supports
Dead , Live .
Excel
.
Sap2000 V. 14
.
combination ) (Dead + 0.25 live

1/4 .

joint reactions force Z Display tables

joint output :

]
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Dead + 0.25 live

ok reactions Z 188.6

1.1 * reaction
.
Weight of floor = 1.1*188.6 = 207 ton

: Excel
X Y
.

]
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EARTHQUAKE FORCES ACCORDING TO EGYPTIAN CODE 2008

BY Eng. Mahmoud Zaghlal Jan. 2010

SOIL TYPE A,B,C or D =

ZONE 1,2,3,4,5A or 5B =

2008

INPUTS:

1656

26

OUR SOIL

TB

TC

TD

1.5

0.1

0.25

1.2

TYPES OF SOIL

TB

TC

TD

0.05

0.25

1.2

1.35

0.05

0.25

1.2

1.5

0.1

0.25

1.2

1.8

0.1

0.3

1.2

ZONE
ag

1
0.1

2
0.125

3
0.15

4
0.2

WEIGHT (TON)=

1656

ag=

0.15

H=

26

T1=Ct(H)^3/4=

0.575705

seconds

IMPORTANCE=

CASE1

Sd(T)=

-0.065889

CASE2

Sd(T)=

0.1125

CASE3

Sd(T)=

0.048853

CASE4

Sd(T)=

0.10183

FINAL Sd(T)=

0.048853

Total base shear

Fb =

80.9008

5A
0.25

5B
0.3

.
ton

]
eng_m_z@yahoo.com - - /

(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

DISTRIBUTION OF EQ FORCES

hi.Wi

)Wi (TON

hi (m) from base level

For X or Y directions

)Fi (TON

3.262129273

1035

207

5.219406837

1656

207

7.1766844

2277

207

11

9.133961964

2898

207

14

11.09123953

3519

207

17

13.04851709

4140

207

20

15.00579466

4761

207

23

16.96307222

5382

207

26

Sap2000

80.90080597

25668

...

......

1656

SUMMATION

.
]

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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
X Y
X Y .

Wx

Wy

Wy

Wx

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
sap2000 v14 constraints
plan X-Y :
Assign Joint constraints Null ok

:
z 5 ,
.
Edit Move

x
0
y
0
z
5

:
Z
click Edit grid modify grid
Spacing Z
Spacing
5
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0

Grid ID

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
X-Y plan Z=5
Extrude z 5 .
Edit Extrude point to line Linear

x
0
y
0
z
-5
Number
1
property .

:
previous Extrude z
3 .
Edit Extrude point to line Linear
:
x
0
y
0
z
3
Number
7
property .

:
X-Y plan Z=0 Fixed
Assign joint restraints

:
X-Y plan Z=5 ) (
Z 3 7 .
Edit Replicate Linear
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
0
0
3
7

x
y
z
Number

:
Extrude :

3-D X-y :
View set 3-D view X-y
Aperture

:

.
Assign frame section :
Add new property X
Y
Y

X
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
)
( :
Assign frame local axes
.

stiffness
I eff = 0.5 Ig :
I eff = 0.25 Ig :
I eff = 0.7 Ig :

:
Assign Frame property modifier

0.5 0.25

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
select All diaphragms
:
Assign joint constraints
diaphragms Add new constraint . Z constant
:
Assign different diaphragms to each (Z) level.
OK

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
Define load patterns :
:

:
Modify Lateral Load Patterns
]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

center of Mass
0.05
e = 0.05
e = -0.05 X . Y
EQx2
Mass center

e = -0.05
e = 0.05
EQx1

. sap2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

:
Save Run Dead ,live , Modal

:
combination
Shear walls :
Max Envelope
:

1.4
Ultimate 1.4 Working .

]
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Frames Combo MAX

M22
M33
Axial forces
.

M33

M22

shear walls
Dead , Live ...

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

2008

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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(Sap 2000 ver. 14) 2000

]
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