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Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144

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Materials and Design
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matdes

Characterization of properties in plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels joined by friction welding
Mumin Sahin *
Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Trakya University, 22180 Edirne, Turkey

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Friction welding is widely used as a mass-production method in various industries. Welding is used for joining parts with equal and/or different diameters. Austenitic-stainless steels are preferred over other stainless steels due greater ease in welding. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels. AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steels having equal and different diameters were welded under different process parameters. Strengths of the joints having equal diameter were determined by using a statistical approach as a result of tension tests. Hardness variations and microstructures using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis in the welding zone were obtained and examined. Subsequently, the effects on the welding zone of plastic deformation was analysed. It has been established that plastic deformation of AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steel has neither an effect on the process nor on the strength of the welding joint. Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 18 October 2007 Accepted 16 April 2008 Available online 22 April 2008 Keywords: Materials joining Welding

1. Introduction Stainless steels are iron-based alloys containing 8–25% nickel and 12–30% chromium. Such steels resist both corrosion and high temperature. Generally, stainless steels can be classified as martensitic, ferritic and austenitic. Austenitic-stainless steel is preferred over other stainless steels because of ease in both welding and deformation. However, negative metallurgic changes are also involved in the welding of steels. On the other hand, friction welding is known to eliminate these negative effects due to limited time and rapid cooling in working. Therefore, friction welding is more advantageous than other welding methods. Friction welding involves generation of heat by the conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy at the interface of the work pieces without using electrical energy or heat from other sources during rotation under pressure. Friction welding provides considerable savings in materials, low production time and the possibility of the welding parts made from different metals or alloys. The most important parameters in friction welding are friction time, friction pressure, forging time, forging pressure and rotation speed. Friction welding is classified into two as continuous drive friction welding (1) and inertia friction welding (2) [2,3]. Experimental set-up used in the present study is of the continuous drive type. In this method, one of the components is held stationary while the other is rotated at constant speed (s). The two components are
* Tel.: +90 284 2261217; fax: +90 284 2261225. E-mail address: mumins@trakya.edu.tr 0261-3069/$ - see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2008.04.033

brought together under axial pressure (Pf) for a given friction time (tf). Then, the clutch is separated from the drive, and the rotary component is brought to a stop within the braking time while the axial pressure on the stationary part is increased to a higher forging pressure (Pu) for a predetermined upset time (tu). The parameters of the method are shown in Fig. 1 [15]. In the inertia welding, one of the components is held stationary, while the other is clamped in a spindle chuck, usually attached to fly wheels. The fly wheel and the chuck assembly are rotated at a given speed (s) to store a predetermined amount of energy. Subsequently, the drive to the flywheel is declutched, and the two components are brought together under axial pressure (Pf). The friction between the parts decelerates the flywheel converting stored energy to frictional heat. Vill and Tylecote gave an overview on friction welding. Jenning examined the properties of the dissimilar materials joined by friction welding. Lucas examined the process parameters on friction welding. Kinley studied inertia friction welding [1–5]. Seregin and Sabantsev studied friction welding of the plastically deformed steels [6]. Ellis [7] examined the relation between ‘‘friction timework-piece diameter”, ‘‘loss of length-forging pressure” and ‘‘carbon equivalent-hardness variation”. Dunkerton [8] studied the effects of rotation speed, friction pressure and forging pressure in all friction welding methods used for steels. Murti and Sundaresan [9] directed a study on parameter optimisation in friction welding of dissimilar materials using a statistical approach based on a factorial experiment design technique. Nentwig et al. [10] studied the effect of differences in cross section of the components on the joint quality upon friction welding. Sahin [11] studied the effect of

Therefore austenitic-stainless steel parts can be obtained using different amounts of plastic deformation using the forge method..6/15 Thus emax ¼ 1:02. emax = ln 41. Hardness variations in the welding zone and microstructures were examined using EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analysis so as to have an insight into the phases occurring during welding at the interface. for Wmin = 15 mm and H0 min = 15 mm. Ho After Upset Rotation Speed (s) Friction Pressure (Pf) Torque (T) Starting Time Upset Pressure (Pu) D Shortening Finishing Fig. For Wmin = 15 mm. (1). 2. . Friction time and friction pressure have a direct effect on the tensile strength of joints. Material and geometry of specimens used in the friction welding experiments Chemical composition of the materials used is given in Table 1 [17]. optimal estimates of the regression coefficients are obtained for the significant factors. Therefore. In simple terms. emin = ln 15/15 Thus emin ¼ 0. The aim of the present study is to find out whether plastic deformation has an influence on friction welding of austeniticstainless steels. each coefficient represents the influence of the corresponding factor on the quality of the weld expressed by the optimisation parameter. . Subsequently. where y is the response function and the bs are the ‘estimated’ values of the bs. A drive motor with 4 kW power and 1410 rpm was found to provide adequate torque capacity for friction welding of steel bars with respect to friction and upset pressures. . etc..5 Tensile strength (MPa) 825 . the minimum value for H0 can be calculated as ðp Á 152 =4Þ Â 15 ¼ ðp Á 152 =4Þ Â H0 min and H0 min = 15 mm is found.030 %Mn <2. From the results of an experiment comprising a finite number of trials. 4. 1. Amount of plastic deformation (e) is [18]. linear statistical analysis was used in order to discover the effect of factors that have a significant role on the experimental results of previous studies [9. Then.19]. Sahin [14–16] also studies friction welding of medium-carbon steel and austeniticstainless steel components.19]. Fig. For Wmax = 15 mm and H0 max = 41. 2 and 3 in austenitic-stainless steel materials can be expressed as   2 ðp Á D2 =4Þ Â W ¼ p Á d0 =4 Â H0 ð1Þ For Wmin = 15 mm. The specimen sizes used in the experiments are shown in Fig. (1). 4.6 mm. b1. where x1. Experiment set-up The set-up was designed is of a continuous drive friction welding type.136 M. one can arrive at the sample estimates of the coefficients. Table 1 The chemical composition of the material used in the experiments [17] Material AISI 304(X5CrNi1810) %C <0. Parameters on continuous drive friction welding.13. b. . Sahin [13] investigated joining of plastically deformed carburizing steel by friction welding. .6 mm is found..0 % Si <1. Volume-stability for plastic deformations in Figs. which are then usually fitted into a linear regression equation of the type y = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2 + . . Plastically deformed parts having equal and/or different diameters were welded under different process parameters. The statistical analysis used in the present study is given in Section 4.045 %S <0. Strengths of joints were determined by means of a statistical approach using the results of tension tests.15.13. are the factors on which g depends and b0.0 % Cr 17–19 % Ni 8. Statistical approach The basis of this approach is the assumption of a simplified linear model for the optimisation parameter g given by g = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2 + . .. which can be used to confirm if the terms in the assumed linear function are statistically significant.. 2. the maximum value for H0 can be calculated as ðp Á 252 =4Þ Â 15 ¼ ðp Á 152 =4Þ Â H0 max and H0 max = 41. while dimensions of the parts and the amount of plastic deformation used are given in Figs. . the effects of plastic deformation on the welding zone were investigated. .07 %P <0. represent the ‘true’ values of the corresponding unknowns.5–10. D = 15 mm and d0 = 15 mm in Eq. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 Friction Time (tf) Braking Waiting Upset (tu) Before Upset d0=15mm. D = 15 mm and d0 = 15 mm in Eq. Akata et al. The set-up provides automatic transition from the friction to the forging stage. which may be done using the method of least squares [9. Plastic deformation in forge parts. e ¼ ln H0 W ð2Þ Therefore. etc. x2.16. A suitable method is based on the Fischer or ‘F’ ratio. 3. workpiece dimensions and plastic deformation on the accomplishment of friction welding. [12] directed a study on the effect of differences in dimensions in friction welding of AISI 1040 specimens. 2 and 3. b2.

M. Tensile strength of the joints decreases as the diameter ratio increases in the plastically deformed parts (Fig. 6. friction pressure. friction pressure = 60 MPa. In consequence. Experimental results are given Table 2. This result can be attributed to an increase in heat capacity due to heat loss by the rotation. Other parameters such as upset time. However. were joined using the obtained optimum welding parameters. Tensile strength of the joints was estimated dividing the ultimate load by the area of the 10 mm diameter specimen. which have various widths. many parts were machined and welded using these optimum parameters. 226x2 ð3Þ Diameter of Friction Friction Upset Upset Width of Diameter of pressure time pressure rotating work rotating work axially work time Pf (MPa) tu (s) Pu (MPa) piece (D) mm piece (W) mm piece d (mm) tf (s) 10 15 17 18 25 15 10 9 60 20 110 The correlation coefficient using Eq. The optimum welding conditions are given in Tables 3 and 4. 696 þ 15. 5). s d Pf . 5. Therefore. The strength of joints was determined by tensile tests. and the results were compared with those of fully machined specimens. 1 2 3 4 5 Friction pressure (MPa) x1 20 45 60 60 60 Friction time (s) x2 9 9 9 3 11 Tensile strength (MPa) y 80 700 795. Decrease in strength is related to the hardness variation within heat affected zone (HAZ). The resulting equation is: y ¼ À581. 465x1 þ 46. the optimum parameters were found as: friction time = 9 s. Measuring locations are shown in Fig. 4. stainless steel . upset pressure and rotational speed were maintained constant. the parameters having the least error using the method of least squares were taken as the optimum welding parameters. Diameter of Rotating Work piece Obtained Plastically Deformed (Part I) D Diameter of Axially Sliding Work piece Obtained Machined (Part II) T. Parts. 3. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 137 Upset Part D Machined Part 10 15 W=15 Fig. Results and discussion Optimal estimates of regression coefficients were obtained using the Fisher method ratio.93 with respect to tensile strength.8 450 750 Table 3 Optimum welding conditions Material Friction pressure (MPa) 60 Friction time (s) 9 Upset pressure (MPa) 110 Upset time (s) 20 Rotational speed (rpm) 1440 Austenitic-stainless steel Table 4 Parameters used in the friction welding experiments Parameter optimisation was carried out using two factors: friction time. Part dimensions used in the experiments. and then these specimens were further tested. The relation between the tensile strength and specimen width is shown graphically in Fig. it is quantitatively shown that the effects of friction time and friction pressure on the tensile strength are very significant as expected. Hardness in the horizontal direction decreases slightly at the central zone compared to the base metals. Table 2 Experimental results Trial no. The hardness variation was obtained by the Vickers micro-hardness test under a load of 1 kg. 7 and 8. The hardness variations are shown in Figs. upset time = 20 s and upset pressure = 110 MPa. As a result. (3) is about 0. Application of friction welding in upset parts. tf Chuck W Width of Rotating Work piece Fig. 5. Later.

6. W=15mm. d=10mm.5 150 D/d=1. thus removing the effect of plastic deformation. 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Vertical Distance (mm) Fig.8 100 D/d=2. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 Austenitic-Stainless Steel (Pf=60MPa. 850 800 Tensile strength (MPa) 750 700 650 600 550 500 1 1. Austenitic-Stainless Steel (AISI 304) 300 250 Vickers Hardness (HV) 200 D/d=1 D/d=1. Fig. 8. Hardness test orientation.8 2.5 2 2.7 D/d=1.7 D/d=1. Pu=110MPa. 150 D/d=1. .15.5 Fig.5 50 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Horizontal Distance (mm) Fig. Hardness variation diagram in horizontal direction. 7. Grains will recrystallize at the interface of the joint due to the heat generated.8 100 D/d=2. the interface cools later than HAZ. . Relationship between the tensile strength and the width for austenitic-stainless steel. This is why no increase in hardness at the interface is observed though the hardness of the central zone decreases slightly. 5.17. tf=9sec. The hardness variations in the vertical distance of the joints are nearly the same as the sides of the parts compared to their centres. increasing heat is not removed from the interface. tu=20sec).5 has lower thermal diffusivity.5 1. and thus. 1 1.25mm.5 Diameter ratio (D/d) D=10.138 M. Hardness variation diagram in vertical direction. Therefore.5 Part I Joint Centre (Midaxis) Part II Vertical Distance to the centre y Austenitic-Stainless Steel (AISI 304) 300 Vickers Hardness (HV) Horizontal Distance to the centre x 250 200 D/d=1 D/d=1.18.7 1.

scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were performed so as to have an insight into the phases occurring during welding at the interface. and the macro and microstructure of the joints were analysed. Fig. Then. Fig. 11. the microphotographs of both HAZ in the joints having the equal diameter and the machined parts in the joints having the equal and different diameter are shown in Figs. respectively. respectively.M. 11 and 12. 9. SEM microstructure of welding metal and transition zone in the friction welded equal diameter specimens and EDX analysis results are given in Fig. The weld flash and the contact zone can easily be observed in Figs. for the different diameter joints. friction welded joint cross-sections after etched in picral were subjected to a standard metallographic sample preparation technique in order to examine the microstructure using optical microscope. The macro photograph (x5) of the equal diameter joint is shown in Fig. Fig. The microphotograph of the plastic deformed part (D = 25 mm) in different diameter joints (D = 25 mm–d = 10 mm). 12. 9 and 10. Observations were carried out using a 200 kV field effect scanning electron microscope (SEM–JEOL JSM 5410 LV microscopy) coupled to EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis. 13. scanning along a surface or a line to obtain X-ray cartography or concentration profiles by elements. . The software allowed piloting of the beam. However. The microphotograph of the machined part (d = 10 mm). The macro photograph of the equal diameter parts. Fig. The macro photograph of the different diameter parts. 15. 10. respectively. while the macro photograph (x3) of the different diameter joint is shown in Fig. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 139 Subsequently. Then. the microphotographs of the plastic deformed part (D = 25 mm) and the transition zone in the joints having the different diameter are shown in Figs. 13 and 14. 10. EDS point analysis was used in the examinations. while distribution of elements within the Fig. 9. The microphotograph of HAZ in welded part having equal diameter (d = 10 mm).

560 keV 0 cnt ID = b) EDX analysis result taken according to SEM image of welding metal Fig. The microphotograph of the transition zone in different diameter joints (D = 25 mm–d = 10 mm). . 15. SEM microstructure of welding metal and transition zone in the friction welded equal diameter joint and EDX analysis results.140 M. 14. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 Fig. a) SEM microstructure of welding metal in different diameter joint (D=25mm to d=10mm) Spectrum10 Fe Fe Cr Cr Mo Mo Mo 0 B Al Ar Sc Cr Co Zn Mo Mo Mo Mo Mn Fe Mn Fe Ni Ni 10 Ge Se Kr Sr Zr Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo 20 Ru Pd Cd Sn Te I 30 Xe Cs Cursor=22.

Fig. determined location are shown in Table 5. Fig.05 493.316 8.89 16.83 6.110 1. As it can be seen from optical microscope and SEM microstructures.%) 17.340 100.595 1. Region II: The region where the grains are partly deformed by the upset pressure that completes the friction welding process and grain size is larger than region I.24 34.822 100. EDS analysis was carried out for various points of the SEM image.640 71.264 8.22 Total 177.30 39. Region III: The undeformed base material microstructure. This region contains small recrystallized grains.000 Transition zone Then.850 1.23 Total Conclusion (wt.722 0.M. . And. 16b and d illustrate the EDX analysis results taken from various points of the SEM image. the joint microstructure is classified into three distinct regions [20].12 11. 16a and c shows SEM microstructure in welding metal and transition zone of the friction welded different diameter specimens. 15 (continued) Table 5 EDS point analysis results according to SEM microstructure in equal diameter joints Elements Welding metal Cr Mn Fe Ni Mo Cr Mn Fe Ni Mo Line Ka Ka Ka Ka La Ka Ka Ka Ka La Intensity (c/s) 190. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 141 c) SEM microstructure of transition zone in equal diameter joint Spectrum9 Fe Fe Cr Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo 0 B Cursor= Al Ar Sc Mo Mo Cr Mn Mn Fe Fe Ni Ni Ni 10 Cr Co Zn Ge Se Kr Sr Zr Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo 20 Ru Pd Cd Sn Te I 30 Xe Cs d) EDX analysis result taken according to SEM image of transition zone Fig.07 410. Table 6 shows the EDS point analysis results represented to SEM.22 3.000 18. respectively.343 70. Region I: The fully plastically deformed region on either side of the weld interface.

The welding process was investigated by statistical analysis. Heat that is adequate to provide the necessary welding strength in joining the parts with different diameters should be obtained by using different parameters. Conclusions In the present study. it can be observed that the grains in the microstructure are elongated in the direction of deformation. This zone contains recrystallized grains due to recrystallization upon heat dissipation during welding of the plastic deformed parts.720 keV 0 cnt ID = R h kb1 C m lg1 R h kb3 b) EDX analysis result taken according to SEM image of welding metal Fig. However. As a result: – Statistical analysis is an economical and reliable method for optimising welding parameters. SEM microstructure of welding metal and transition zone in the friction welded different diameter joint (D = 25 mm–d = 10 mm) and EDX analysis results. tensile testing. plastic deformation in the friction welding process is greater than the degree of the prior plastic deformation. – Friction welding improves the grains in the microstructure. However. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 a) SEM microstructure of welding metal in different diameter joint (D=25mm to d=10mm) S pectrum6 Fe Fe Cr Cr Mo Mo Mo 0 B Al Ar Sc Cr Co Zn Mo Mo Mo M o Mn Fe Mn Fe Ni Ni Ni 10 Ge Se Kr Sr Zr Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo 20 Ru Pd Cd Sn Te I 30 Xe Cs C ursor=22. Tensile strength decreases as the diameter ratio of the joints increases. microstructure of the welding metal has the austenitic grain structure. the effect of prior plastic deformation is removed as a result of recrystallization of the layers of metal in the welding zone. welding strength of the joints was not affected prior to plastic deformation. Then. Firstly.142 M. – Hardness variations in the vertical distance of the joints are nearly the same as the sides compared to the centre. When the microstructure of the plastically deformed parts is examined. reduction in hardness (HAZ softening) takes place in HAZ due to coarsening of grain within heat affected zone (HAZ). – Hardness variations in the horizontal direction of plastically deformed AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steels have no hardening effects. plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels (AISI 304) were welded successfully. 16. Secondly. The base metals (the machined part and the plastic deformed part) and the metal in the heat affected zone consist of austenitic grain structure. – Maximum strength in the joints having equal diameters has about 96% that of base austenitic-stainless steel parts. microstructural observation. the refinement of the grains occurred at the welding region due to the combined effect of thermal and mechanical stresses. 6. . However. EDS measurements and hardness testing.

1962.090 1. Cambridge: Abington Hall. 1968.32 Total Conclusion (wt. [7] Ellis CRG. Eng.160 keV 0 cnt ID = Ag ka1 d) EDX analysis result taken according to SEM image of transition zone Fig. [6] Seregin SA.498 71. Weld Prod 1975:34–5. References [1] Vill VI. [2] Tylecote RY. AWS. Weld Metal Fab 1977.%) 18.10:585–9. In: Proceeding of the conference. New York. Erol AKATA. The friction welding of plastically deformed steel. 1–150. [5] Kinley W. and Mater. 1971.13 478. Hema Industry/Çerkezköy and Metall.93 4.72 3. Inertia welding: simple in principle and application. H. The Welding Institute.161 0.059 70.209 0. Process parameters and friction welds.53 Total 242. Friction welding: some recent applications of friction welding.864 9.840 1.5:207–13.000 17. [3] Jenning P.779 100. Trakya University/Edirne.23 45. Some properties of dissimilar metal joints made by friction welding.M. London: Edward Arnold (Publisher) Ltd. 16 (continued) Table 6 EDS point analysis results according to SEM microstructure in different diameter joints (D = 25 mm–d = 10 mm) Elements Welding metal Cr Mn Fe Ni Mo Cr Mn Fe Ni Mo Line Ka Ka Ka Ka La Ka Ka Ka Ka La Intensity (c/s) 197.. p. p. Advances in welding processes. Turkey for the help provided in this research.29 17. Friction Welding of Metals.736 8. The solid phase welding of metals. Transition zone – It has been established that plastic deformation of AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steel does not have an influence on the process variables of friction welding or on the welding joint strength. Met Const Br Weld J 1971:293–7.000 Acknowledgement Author would like to thank Prof. of Yildiz University/Istanbul. solid phase joining processes. Dr. [4] Lucas W.03 10. Dept.765 100. Sabantsev VP. Sahin / Materials and Design 30 (2009) 135–144 143 c) SEM microstructure of transition zone in different diameter joint (D=25mm to d=10mm) Spectrum4 Fe Fe Cr Cr Mo Mo Mo 0 B Al Ar Sc Cr Co Zn Mo Mo Mo Mo Mn Mn Fe Fe Ni Ni Ni 10 Ge Se Kr Sr Zr Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo Mo 20 Ru Pd Cd Sn Te I 30 Xe Cs Cursor=22.86 602. . Weld Met Fab 1979. 147–52.69 41.

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