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Annotated Bibliography

Secondary Sources

Billman, Andrew. "The Tuskegee Airmen and the Struggle for Civil Rights." Www.lajes.af.mil. a!es "ield A"B, #$ "eb. %#&&. 'eb. &( "eb. %#&$. )http*++www.la!es.af.mil+news+story.asp, id-&%.%$&%/.0.

This sour1e was an Air "or1e history arti1le regarding the Tuskegee Airmen and their role in the struggle for 1ivil rights. 2n addition to dis1ussing the events of the "reeman "ield 3utiny, the arti1le also gives des1riptions of the 1ommunity4s rea1tion to the airmen5 perhaps one of the most thought6provoking rea1tions was that the Seymour aundry would refuse to give the airmen servi1e be1ause they were bla1k, while simultaneously 1leaning the 7erman 89'4s 1lothing. This e:ample of the 1omplete la1k of respe1t that the average white held for bla1ks, even for those who would die in their defense, shows !ust how ingrained pre!udi1e and ra1ism was within Ameri1an so1iety. Additionally, this sour1e spoke of how the Tuskegee Airmen were one of the progenitors of the non6violent 1ivil rights movements5 thus, this sour1e was used in the ega1y se1tion.

Butler, Bethonie. "Tuskegee Airman Re1alls ;is Career and an Aviation 8ioneer ;onored on a <ew Stamp." The Washington Post. The 'ashington 8ost, %& 3ar. %#&$. 'eb. %. 3ar. %#&$. )http*++www.washingtonpost.1om+politi1s+tuskegee6airman6re1alls6his61areer6and6an6aviation6 pioneer6honored6in6a6new6stamp+%#&$+#.+%#+fa(aa1d(6aed$6&&e.6=/%>6 1/?#%&d/d?>%@story.html0.

This news arti1le was primarily an interview with Colonel ARet.B 317ee, one of the few surviving Tuskegee Airmen. The interview was 1hiefly 1on1erned with Chief Anderson Aan important figure in the training of the initial airmenB, as well as the effe1ts of the Tuskegee Airmen on the integration of the armed for1es. 2nside, 317ee says that the Tuskegee Airmen4s su11ess had helped dispel the attitudes that 1onsidered bla1ks to be inferior. Coupled with Truman4s order for the military to integrate in &=$(, the Air "or1e was given an opportunity to 1hange their stan1e and determine to do away with segregation5 in the following years, the Air "or1e would remain a leader in integration. ConseCuently, we used this sour1e in the Air "or1e 2ntegrates se1tion.

7ropman, Alan ., Col. "Tuskegee Airmen." Airforcemag.com. <.p., 3ar. &==/. 'eb. "eb &/ %#&$. )http*++www.airfor1emag.1om+3agaDineAr1hive+8ages+&==/+3ar1h E%#&==/+#.=/tuskegee.asp:0

This arti1le was a summary of the Tuskegee AirmenFs history, as well as the pro1ess by whi1h the Air "or1e integrated. Thus, the sour1e aided in establishing a foundation of knowledge about the Tuskegee Airmen for us. 3ore importantly, however, the sour1e showed that the Air "or1e was the first to integrate, doing so before G:e1utive 9rder ==(&, even while the other bran1hes of the armed for1es were still advo1ating segregation. This was due to the impe11able re1ord of the ..%nd and the other bla1k air units, as well as the personnel diffi1ulties fa1ed by these units following the war due to segregation. ConseCuently, the sour1e was used in the Air "or1e 2ntegrates se1tion, as well as in the Road to 'ar se1tion.

;aulman, Haniel . "Tuskegee Airmen ;istory." Http://tuskegeeairmen.org/. Tuskegee

Airmen 2n1., n.d. 'eb. %? <ov. %#&.. )http*++newsite.tuskegeeairmen.org+wp6 1ontent+uploads+Summary@of@Tuskegee@Airmen@;istory.pdf0.

This sour1e is a short and 1on1ise history of the Tuskegee Airmen, as well as a sour1e of a few lesser6known ane1dotes 1on1erning these pioneers in military aviation. 2t was the first sour1e that we read, providing us with a basi1 overview of the topi1 at hand. Additionally, this sour1e provided several spe1ifi1 events and people to resear1h5 for e:ample, the lone Afri1an6 Ameri1an bombing sCuadron Athe $>>thB, the "reeman "ield in1ident, and Ben!amin 9. Havis Ir. The information found in this sour1e was used throughout all of the se1tions of the website, although the details were obtained from other, more spe1ifi1 sour1es.

;aulman, Haniel . "3is1on1eptions About The Tuskegee Airmen." Tuskegeeairmen.org. Tuskegee Airmen 2n1, %. Iuly %#&.. 'eb. &/ "eb. %#&$. )http*++tuskegeeairmen.org+wp 1ontent+uploads+3is1on1eptions6About6the6Tuskegee6Airmen.pdf0. 6

2n this sour1e, the 1ommon mis1on1eptions surrounding the famous Tuskegee Airmen were provided, as well as e:planations regarding the true 1ourse of events. As a result, we used this arti1le to e:amine the validity of the knowledge 1ontained in our previous sour1es5 for e:ample, we learned that the Tuskegee Airmen did lose bombers, despite popular belief, and that Captain Ar1her was not a1tually a deprived a1e. ConseCuently, we removed these falsehoods from the information in our website. Additionally, this sour1e provided additional information, su1h as the mutiny at "reeman "ield, whi1h helped end ra1ial segregation on military bases.

JruDel, Iohn I. "8resident, Congress ;onor Tuskegee Airmen." Http://www.army.mil/. KS Army, .#

3ar. %##>. 'eb. &( "eb. %#&$. )http*++www.army.mil+arti1le+%$>/+8resident@@Congress@;onor@Tuskegee@Airmen+0

This army arti1le re1orded the presentation of the Congressional 7old 3edal to the Tuskegee Airmen for their instrumental role in ending segregation and being on the forefront of the struggle for freedom and !usti1e in Ameri1a. 2nside, there were also many memorable Cuotes from both the presenters and the airmen themselves5 these Cuotes were used in the ega1y se1tion of this website. ConseCuently, this sour1e was used in the LTuskegee Airmen TodayM se1tion of our website, as it dis1ussed one of the fa1ets of their lega1y.

"ran1is, Charles G., and Adolph Caso. The Tuskegee Airmen: The Men Who Change a !ation. Boston* Branden 8ub., &==>. 8rint.

This book was a detailed history of the Tuskegee Airmen from their in1eption to the end of the war in Gurope5 thus, it provided the ma!ority of our preliminary resear1h, and provided a reliable sour1e to 1ross6referen1e other sour1es with. 9ther than providing basi1 knowledge on all of the events surrounding the Tuskegee Airmen, the book also 1ontained several primary do1uments in the appendi1es5 for e:ample, the testimony of Colonel ;unt following the "reeman "ield 3utiny, as well as several distinguished unit 1itations and other government do1uments from the era. 3any of these do1uments were then used in the site as pi1tures or as Cuotes, while the information from the book was used to help write almost all of the se1tions of the site, with the e:1eption of LTuskegee Airmen TodayM.

Sandler, Stanley. "egregate "kies: All#$lack Com%at "&ua rons of WW''. 'ashington, H.C.*

Smithsonian 2nstitution, &==%. 8rint.

This book portrays the initial 1onditions that led to the formation of the first bla1k AA" sCuadrons, as well as the history of these sCuadrons throughout ''22. As a result, the book aided in providing a 1onfirmation of the general information on the Tuskegee Airmen provided by previous sour1es. ;owever, this te:t was primarily used for its analysis of the aftermath and lega1y of these airmen. "rom the analysis provided, we learned of the effe1ts of this e:periment on postwar Army poli1y, as well as the pro1urement of respe1t for the ability of the Afri1an6 Ameri1an to serve in the armed for1es, among other things. Thus, this sour1e served to provide us ba1kground information on our topi1.

S1ott, awren1e 8., and 'illiam 3. 'oma1k. (ou%le ): The Ci*il +ights "truggle of the Tuskegee Airmen. Gast ansing* 3i1higan State K8, &==$. 8rint.

This sour1e was a book detailing the role that the Tuskegee Airmen played in the Houble N 1ampaign, whi1h was at most only briefly dis1ussed in our other sour1es. 2nside the sour1e, the author talks of how the Tuskegee Airmen fought against tyranny abroad, while simultaneously fighting against pre!udi1e at home. 3ore importantly, the book gives a detailed a11ount of the "reeman "ield 2n1ident, and analyDes the subseCuent trials, whi1h 1onstituted some of the most signifi1ant !udi1ial pro1eeds in KS military history5 in this 1ase, these pro1eedings led to the 'ar Hepartment offi1ially stating that the segregation of re1reational fa1ilities on army bases was illegal, foreshadowing the result of the 3ontgomery Bus Boy1ott a de1ade later. 2n order to portray this, the book uses oral a11ounts and government do1uments, giving us further leads for resear1h and memorable Cuotes for the website. Thus, this sour1e was used for the Struggle at

;ome and Houble N Campaign se1tions.

"The Tuskegee G:periment 6 9ral ;istories." ,ouTu%e. <ational ''22 3useum, &. Ian. %#&%. 'eb. &( "eb. %#&$. )http*++www.youtube.1om+wat1h,v-;Cm1eCOO'&O0.

This sour1e was a 1ompilation of oral histories 1olle1ted by the <ational 'orld 'ar 22 3useum, en1ompassing all of the aspe1ts of the Tuskegee Airmen, from the events leading up to their formation all the way up to their lega1y. The stories told by ea1h of the airmen give insights into the a1tions and responses of these airmen, and mu1h of the information told here were not found in other sour1es. Gspe1ially 1ompelling were their stories regarding the publi14s rea1tions to these Afri1an6Ameri1an offi1ers5 for e:ample, near Birmingham, a poli1eman threatened to shoot Iohn eahr after he dared to say that he was an offi1er of the Knited States Army Air Core. Thus, we used this oral history as a sour1e of memorable Cuotes and spe1ifi1 events to talk about during presentations.

'est, Iames H. ""reeman "ield 3utiny." Www.in ianamilitary.org. 2ndiana 3ilitary 9rganiDation, %##?. 'eb. &$ "eb. %#&$. )http*++www.indianamilitary.org+ATTGRBKRPAA"+Tuskege e E%#Airmen+TuskeggeAirmen.htm0.

This sour1e was an arti1le regarding the mutiny at "reeman "ield, and hen1e was used to e:amine how bla1k airmen were fighting ra1ism at home. 2n addition, the sour1e provided us with the link between the $>>th and the men we most 1ommonly asso1iate with the Tuskegee Airmen5 after the deba1le, Ben!amin Havis Ir, the 1ommander of the Tuskegee Airmen. 3ore

importantly, this sour1e showed how the mutiny was a pivotal point in the fight for integration of the Air "or1e, as it led to the 'ar Hepartment stating that offi1er4s 1lubs and other re1reational fa1ilities on military bases 1annot be segregated..

Primary Sources

"Crews "eted By ..%ndQ" $om%s Away > Ian. &=$$* &. Tuskegeeairmen.org. Tuskegee Airmen 2n1. 'eb. = "eb. %#&$. )http*++newsite.tuskegeeairmen.org+wp61ontent+uploads+$(?6B76newsletter6 about6..%6"7###&.pdf0.

This sour1e was an arti1le from Bombs Away, the military paper of the $(?th, a sCuadron whose pilots were for1ed to land at the ..%ndFs base following a bout of bad weather. This sour1e was used to learn of the respe1t that the white flying sCuadrons held for their bla1k 1ompatriots after dis1overing their a1tual skill and professionalism, as the newspaper does not 1all the Tuskegee Airmen anything derogatory, and instead praising them for their hospitality. 2n addition, it showed how the Tuskegee Airmen realiDed the politi1al ramifi1ations of their a1tions, as they used the opportunity to show the whites that they were organiDed, friendly, and intelligent.

G:e1. 9rder <o. ==(&, . C.".R. A&=$(B. 8rint.

This was used for the ega1y se1tion of our website, as TrumanFs e:e1utive order 1alling for the integration of the armed for1es was 1aused by the su11ess of the Tuskegee Airmen and other bla1k for1es during 'orld 'ar 22, as well as by the need for the liberal and bla1k votes, as the ele1tion 1ampaign had begun. Although for many of the bran1hes of the armed for1es, integration would only truly 1ome years after this order was issued, due to resistan1e in the

upper hierar1hy, the Air "or1e would use the order as an opportunity to speed up integration. Knlike the other bran1hes of the armed for1es, the Air "or1e had already learned that integration was the logi1al solution from their e:perien1es with the Tuskegee Airmen. ConseCuently, one of the lega1ies of the Tuskegee Airmen was the 1omplete desegregation of the Knited States Air "or1e, as well as the other bran1hes of the armed for1es.

"G:periment 8roved," T'M- %# Sept. &=$.* n. pag. Time. Time 2n1. 'eb. &( "eb. %#&$. )http*++1ontent.time.1om+time+subs1riber+arti1le+#E%C..##=E%C>>$?(/E%C##.html0.

This primary sour1e was a Time 3agaDine arti1le dating from &=$., dis1ussing the 'ar Hepartment4s LTuskegee G:perimentM and its apparent su11esses and failures. Through the magaDine, we 1an see the general attitude that the Ameri1an publi1 and press felt toward these bla1k pioneers. 2n this 1ase, although Time went so far as to deign the Tuskegee Airmen to be doing fairly well, it also hinted at the 'ar Hepartment4s dissatisfa1tion, and its possible transfer of the ==th to routine 1onvoy 1over5 these Lfa1tsM were later proved to be nothing more than unsubstantiated rumors. Thus, it 1an be seen that the publi1 and the press disbelieved in the ability of the Tuskegee Airmen, simply be1ause of the 1olor of their skin. 9n1e again, the sour1e served to show !ust how mu1h of an upward struggle the Tuskegee Airmen fa1ed5 in addition, the arti1le was used in the LStruggle at ;omeM se1tion.

"ogleman, Ronald R. "Tuskegee Airmen4s ega1y of Servi1e for Pouth Today." Spee1h. Tuskegee Airmen Convention BanCuet. Atlanta. &$ "eb. %#&$. Http://www. efense.go*/. KS Hepartment of Hefense, &% Aug. %#&$. 'eb. &$ "eb. %#&$. )http*++www.defense.gov+spee1hes+spee1h.asp: ,spee1hid-=?$0.

This spee1h was given in order to honor the Tuskegee Airmen, remarking on all of their amaDing a1hievements, and more importantly, their pivotal role in shattering the 1on1eption that segregation had any legitima1y in the armed for1es. SubseCuently, this sour1e outlined how the Tuskegee Airmen led to the integration of the Air "or1e, and the eventual integration of the other bran1hes, giving bla1ks the right to fight for their 1ountry as eCuals, instead of as subhuman servants. Additionally, the spee1h related the Tuskegee Airmen to 1urrent events, as it advo1ated for the Tuskegee Airmen to help renew the Afri1an6Ameri1an interest in the armed for1es, whi1h had been waning after a peak during the &=>#s, when integration had finally be1ome ingrained in the air for1e.

;.R. &%?=, &#= Cong., K.S. 7.8.9. A%##/B Aena1tedB. 8rint.

;ere, Congress awards the Tuskegee Airmen a 1ongressional gold medal for their role in the revolutionary reform and integration of the armed for1es. This primary sour1e speaks of how the airmen proved that bla1k Ameri1ans were !ust as 1apable as whites, over1oming every 1hallenge, despite the hurdles of dis1rimination and pre!udi1e blo1king their way5 thus, in order to atone for the la1k of respe1t shown to these airmen over ?# years prior, Congress was awarding them a gold medal. Additionally, the bill speaks of how the Tuskegee Airmen were relatively unknown until the founding of Tuskegee Airmen 2n1. in &=>%. Thus, this sour1e was used for the Tuskegee Airmen Today se1tion of the website5 in addition, this sour1e 1onfirmed the validity of the sour1es provided by Tuskegee Airmen 2n1.

"<egro 8ilots 7et 'ings." .ife Maga/ine %. 3ar. &=$%* .#6.&. 0oogle $ooks/T'M-. 7oogle. 'eb. &= "eb. %#&$.

)http*++books.google.1om+booksid-:&GGAAAA3BAIRsour1e-gbs@all@issues@rR1ad-&0.

This sour1e was a ife 3agaDine arti1le from &=$% dis1ussing the graduation of the first 1lass from Tuskegee, as well as the abilities of these pilots. Knlike other ma!or magaDines of the era, this arti1le appears to be rather positive towards these bla1k airmen, predi1ting that they would be1ome 1ra1k 1ombat pilots. Gven more surprising, the magaDine said that these Afri1an6 Ameri1ans had e:1eptional eyesight, 1ourage and 1o6ordination, during a time in whi1h the &=%? study LThe Kse of <egro 3anpower of 'arM had still not been rendered obsolete by postwar studies. 'e used this arti1le in order to write the Struggle at ;ome se1tion.

8ittsburgh Courier. "Houble N Campaign." Http://www.nypl.org/. <ew Pork 8ubli1 ibraries, n.d. 'eb. %> He1. %#&.. )http*++www.nypl.org+sites+default+files+double@v@1ampaign@.pdf0.

This page from the 8ittsburgh Courier was published in &=$%, during the heyday of the Houble N Campaign. This 1ampaign helped unify bla1ks under the 1ause of ra1ial eCuality, while also giving them the opportunity to feel part of a bigger struggle for freedom everywhere. 2n the sour1e itself, this sense of patriotism 1an be seen Cuite 1learly through the Pankee Hoodle Tan Contest, servi1e pins, and other items on the front page of the newspaper. At the same time, however, one 1an see the se1ond N, vi1tory at home against pre!udi1e and ra1ism through the top headline and some of the te:t within the stories. ConseCuently, we used the sour1e in order to understand how the Afri1an6Ameri1an 1ommunity supported the 1ountry that oppressed them fight for freedom abroad, while also attempting to fight for their own freedoms at home.

Knited States. Army 'ar College. The 1se of !egro Manpower in War. By ;. G. "ly. n.p., n.d.

2(+ Presi ential .i%rary. 'eb. &/ He1. %#&.. )http*++www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu+edu1ation+resour1es+pdfs+tusk@do1@a.pdf0.

2n order to 1omprehend the pre6war stan1e of the KS Army Air "or1e, we read LThe Kse of <egro 3anpower in 'ar,M a study 1ondu1ted by the 'ar Hepartment in &=%?. Although it was ostensibly fair and s1ientifi1, with eviden1e supposed drawn from the use of bla1k men in 'orld 'ar 2, the study was in truth a 1ompilation of biased assumptions and pseudos1ientifi1 ra1ism. Throughout the study, it is stated that the Afri1an6Ameri1an has no natural ability to lead, and 1an not be e:pe1ted to serve 1ompetently as any type of offi1er, let alone as an air1raft pilot. Gven worse, the study e:plained how due to natural differen1es in anatomy and personality, the bla1k ra1e simply 1ould not perform on the same level as whites. As a result, we learned !ust how mu1h of an uphill struggle the Tuskegee Airmen fa1ed, and how amaDing in 1ontrast to these hardships that their triumphs were.

Knited States. 7illem Board. 'ar Hepartment. Policy for 1tili/ation of !egro Manpower in the Post#war Army. By Alvan Cullom 7illem. 'ashington, H.C.* 'ar Hept., &=$/. 8rint.

This sour1e was essential in determining the effe1t that the Tuskegee Airmen and other bla1k units had on the 'ar HepartmentFs stan1e on the use of bla1ks in the armed for1es, as it was the offi1ial report 1ompiled by the 7illem Board following the events of 'orld 'ar 22. Although the 1ir1ular 1ontinued to support segregation, it was also revolutionary in the fa1t that it re1ogniDed the ability of bla1ks, and advo1ated that bla1ks be given eCual opportunity Aprior to this, they had been limited to demeaning support rolesB. This was due to the e:emplary performan1e of the Tuskegee Airmen and other e:perimental bla1k 1ombat groups5

1onseCuently, we used this sour1e for the ega1y se1tion of the website.

Wings for This Man. 8erf. Ronald Reagan. KSA" "irst 3otion 8i1ture Knit, &=$?. 2e 2li3. 'eb. &( "eb. %#&$. )https*++ar1hive.org+details+gov.ntis.ava#(//.vnb&0.

'ings for this 3an was a film released by the Air "or1e "irst 3otion 8i1ture Knit in &=$?, shortly before the end of the war. This primary sour1e allowed us to see how the e:periment had su11eeded, as the Air "or1e showered praise upon these men, 1alling them the trailblaDers for their ra1e, finally opening up the servi1e to Afri1an6Ameri1ans. Although these words were said prematurely, the Air "or1e was still the first bran1h of the armed servi1es to integrate, first announ1ing their planned desegregation prior to the issuan1e of G:e1utive 9rder ==(&. 2n addition to showing us the military4s rea1tion to their e:periment4s performan1e, an e:1erpt of this film was also used in the Air "or1e 2ntegrates se1tion of this website.