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The Right to Fight

:

Flight of the Red Tails

James Zhang, Chelsea Yang Senior Division Group We site

!nnotated "i liograph#

Secondary Sources

"illman, !ndre$% &The Tus'egee !irmen and the Struggle for Civil Rights%& Www.lajes.af.mil% (a)es Field !F", *+ Fe % ,*--% We % -. Fe % ,*-+% /http:00$$$%la)es%af%mil0ne$s0stor#%asp1 id2-,3,+-,435%

This sour6e $as an !ir For6e histor# arti6le regarding the Tus'egee !irmen and their role in the struggle for 6ivil rights% 7n addition to dis6ussing the events of the Freeman Field 8utin#, the arti6le also gives des6riptions of the 6ommunit#9s rea6tion to the airmen: perhaps one of the most thought;provo'ing rea6tions $as that the Se#mour (aundr# $ould refuse to give the airmen servi6e e6ause the# $ere la6', $hile simultaneousl# 6leaning the German <=W9s 6lothing% This e>ample of the 6omplete la6' of respe6t that the average $hite held for la6's, even for those $ho $ould die in their defense, sho$s )ust ho$ ingrained pre)udi6e and ra6ism $as $ithin !meri6an so6iet#% !dditionall#, this sour6e spo'e of ho$ the Tus'egee !irmen $ere one of the progenitors of the non;violent 6ivil rights movements: thus, this sour6e $as used in the (ega6# se6tion%

"utler, "ethonie% &Tus'egee !irman Re6alls ?is Career and an !viation <ioneer ?onored on a @e$ Stamp%& The Washington Post% The Washington <ost, ,- 8ar% ,*-+% We % ,3 8ar% ,*-+% /http:00$$$%$ashingtonpost%6om0politi6s0tus'egee;airman;re6alls;his;6areer;and;an;aviation; pioneer;honored;in;a;ne$;stamp0,*-+0*30,*0fa.aa6d.;aed+;--e3;A4,B; 64C*,-d4dCB,Dstor#%html5%

This ne$s arti6le $as primaril# an intervie$ $ith Colonel ERet%F 86Gee, one of the fe$ surviving Tus'egee !irmen% The intervie$ $as 6hiefl# 6on6erned $ith Chief !nderson Ean important figure in the training of the initial airmenF, as $ell as the effe6ts of the Tus'egee !irmen on the integration of the armed for6es% 7nside, 86Gee sa#s that the Tus'egee !irmen9s su66ess had helped dispel the attitudes that 6onsidered la6's to e inferior% Coupled $ith Truman9s order for the militar# to integrate in -A+., the !ir For6e $as given an opportunit# to 6hange their stan6e and determine to do a$a# $ith segregation: in the follo$ing #ears, the !ir For6e $ould remain a leader in integration% ConseGuentl#, $e used this sour6e in the !ir For6e 7ntegrates se6tion%

Gropman, !lan (%, Col% &Tus'egee !irmen%& Airforcemag.com% @%p%, 8ar% -AA4% We % Fe -4 ,*-+% /http:00$$$%airfor6emag%6om08agaHine!r6hive0<ages0-AA408ar6h I,*-AA40*3A4tus'egee%asp>5

This arti6le $as a summar# of the Tus'egee !irmenJs histor#, as $ell as the pro6ess # $hi6h the !ir For6e integrated% Thus, the sour6e aided in esta lishing a foundation of 'no$ledge a out the Tus'egee !irmen for us% 8ore importantl#, ho$ever, the sour6e sho$ed that the !ir For6e $as the first to integrate, doing so efore K>e6utive =rder AA.-, even $hile the other ran6hes of the armed for6es $ere still advo6ating segregation% This $as due to the impe66a le re6ord of the 33,nd and the other la6' air units, as $ell as the personnel diffi6ulties fa6ed # these units follo$ing the $ar due to segregation% ConseGuentl#, the sour6e $as used in the !ir For6e 7ntegrates se6tion, as $ell as in the Road to War se6tion%

?aulman, Daniel (% &Tus'egee !irmen ?istor#%& Http://tuskegeeairmen.org/% Tus'egee

!irmen 7n6%, n%d% We % ,C @ov% ,*-3% /http:00ne$site%tus'egeeairmen%org0$p; 6ontent0uploads0Summar#DofDTus'egeeD!irmenD?istor#%pdf5%

This sour6e is a short and 6on6ise histor# of the Tus'egee !irmen, as $ell as a sour6e of a fe$ lesser;'no$n ane6dotes 6on6erning these pioneers in militar# aviation% 7t $as the first sour6e that $e read, providing us $ith a asi6 overvie$ of the topi6 at hand% !dditionall#, this sour6e provided several spe6ifi6 events and people to resear6h: for e>ample, the lone !fri6an; !meri6an om ing sGuadron Ethe +BBthF, the Freeman Field in6ident, and "en)amin =% Davis Jr% The information found in this sour6e $as used throughout all of the se6tions of the $e site, although the details $ere o tained from other, more spe6ifi6 sour6es%

?aulman, Daniel (% &8is6on6eptions ! out The Tus'egee !irmen%& Tuskegeeairmen.org% Tus'egee !irmen 7n6, ,3 Jul# ,*-3% We % -4 Fe % ,*-+% /http:00tus'egeeairmen%org0$p 6ontent0uploads08is6on6eptions;! out;the;Tus'egee;!irmen%pdf5% ;

7n this sour6e, the 6ommon mis6on6eptions surrounding the famous Tus'egee !irmen $ere provided, as $ell as e>planations regarding the true 6ourse of events% !s a result, $e used this arti6le to e>amine the validit# of the 'no$ledge 6ontained in our previous sour6es: for e>ample, $e learned that the Tus'egee !irmen did lose om ers, despite popular elief, and that Captain !r6her $as not a6tuall# a deprived a6e% ConseGuentl#, $e removed these falsehoods from the information in our $e site% !dditionall#, this sour6e provided additional information, su6h as the mutin# at Freeman Field, $hi6h helped end ra6ial segregation on militar# ases%

LruHel, John J% &<resident, Congress ?onor Tus'egee !irmen%& Http://www.army.mil/% MS !rm#, 3*

8ar% ,**B% We % -. Fe % ,*-+% /http:00$$$%arm#%mil0arti6le0,+B40<residentDDCongressD?onorDTus'egeeD!irmen05

This arm# arti6le re6orded the presentation of the Congressional Gold 8edal to the Tus'egee !irmen for their instrumental role in ending segregation and eing on the forefront of the struggle for freedom and )usti6e in !meri6a% 7nside, there $ere also man# memora le Guotes from oth the presenters and the airmen themselves: these Guotes $ere used in the (ega6# se6tion of this $e site% ConseGuentl#, this sour6e $as used in the NTus'egee !irmen Toda#O se6tion of our $e site, as it dis6ussed one of the fa6ets of their lega6#%

Fran6is, Charles K%, and !dolph Caso% The Tuskegee Airmen: The Men Who Change a !ation% "oston: "randen <u %, -AAB% <rint%

This oo' $as a detailed histor# of the Tus'egee !irmen from their in6eption to the end of the $ar in Kurope: thus, it provided the ma)orit# of our preliminar# resear6h, and provided a relia le sour6e to 6ross;referen6e other sour6es $ith% =ther than providing asi6 'no$ledge on all of the events surrounding the Tus'egee !irmen, the oo' also 6ontained several primar# do6uments in the appendi6es: for e>ample, the testimon# of Colonel ?unt follo$ing the Freeman Field 8utin#, as $ell as several distinguished unit 6itations and other government do6uments from the era% 8an# of these do6uments $ere then used in the site as pi6tures or as Guotes, $hile the information from the oo' $as used to help $rite almost all of the se6tions of the site, $ith the e>6eption of NTus'egee !irmen Toda#O%

Sandler, Stanle#% "egregate "kies: All#$lack Com%at "&ua rons of WW''% Washington, D%C%:

Smithsonian 7nstitution, -AA,% <rint%

This oo' portra#s the initial 6onditions that led to the formation of the first la6' !!F sGuadrons, as $ell as the histor# of these sGuadrons throughout WW77% !s a result, the oo' aided in providing a 6onfirmation of the general information on the Tus'egee !irmen provided # previous sour6es% ?o$ever, this te>t $as primaril# used for its anal#sis of the aftermath and lega6# of these airmen% From the anal#sis provided, $e learned of the effe6ts of this e>periment on post$ar !rm# poli6#, as $ell as the pro6urement of respe6t for the a ilit# of the !fri6an; !meri6an to serve in the armed for6es, among other things% Thus, this sour6e served to provide us a6'ground information on our topi6%

S6ott, (a$ren6e <%, and William 8% Woma6'% (ou%le ): The Ci*il +ights "truggle of the Tuskegee Airmen% Kast (ansing: 8i6higan State M<, -AA+% <rint%

This sour6e $as a oo' detailing the role that the Tus'egee !irmen pla#ed in the Dou le P 6ampaign, $hi6h $as at most onl# riefl# dis6ussed in our other sour6es% 7nside the sour6e, the author tal's of ho$ the Tus'egee !irmen fought against t#rann# a road, $hile simultaneousl# fighting against pre)udi6e at home% 8ore importantl#, the oo' gives a detailed a66ount of the Freeman Field 7n6ident, and anal#Hes the su seGuent trials, $hi6h 6onstituted some of the most signifi6ant )udi6ial pro6eeds in MS militar# histor#: in this 6ase, these pro6eedings led to the War Department offi6iall# stating that the segregation of re6reational fa6ilities on arm# ases $as illegal, foreshado$ing the result of the 8ontgomer# "us "o#6ott a de6ade later% 7n order to portra# this, the oo' uses oral a66ounts and government do6uments, giving us further leads for resear6h and memora le Guotes for the $e site% Thus, this sour6e $as used for the Struggle at

?ome and Dou le P Campaign se6tions%

&The Tus'egee K>periment ; =ral ?istories%& ,ouTu%e% @ational WW77 8useum, -3 Jan% ,*-,% We % -. Fe % ,*-+% /http:00$$$%#outu e%6om0$at6h1v2?Cm6eCQQW-Q5%

This sour6e $as a 6ompilation of oral histories 6olle6ted # the @ational World War 77 8useum, en6ompassing all of the aspe6ts of the Tus'egee !irmen, from the events leading up to their formation all the $a# up to their lega6#% The stories told # ea6h of the airmen give insights into the a6tions and responses of these airmen, and mu6h of the information told here $ere not found in other sour6es% Kspe6iall# 6ompelling $ere their stories regarding the pu li69s rea6tions to these !fri6an;!meri6an offi6ers: for e>ample, near "irmingham, a poli6eman threatened to shoot John (eahr after he dared to sa# that he $as an offi6er of the Mnited States !rm# !ir Core% Thus, $e used this oral histor# as a sour6e of memora le Guotes and spe6ifi6 events to tal' a out during presentations%

West, James D% &Freeman Field 8utin#%& Www.in ianamilitary.org% 7ndiana 8ilitar# =rganiHation, ,**C% We % -+ Fe % ,*-+% /http:00$$$%indianamilitar#%org0!TTKR"MRY!!F0Tus'ege e I,*!irmen0Tus'egge!irmen%htm5%

This sour6e $as an arti6le regarding the mutin# at Freeman Field, and hen6e $as used to e>amine ho$ la6' airmen $ere fighting ra6ism at home% 7n addition, the sour6e provided us $ith the lin' et$een the +BBth and the men $e most 6ommonl# asso6iate $ith the Tus'egee !irmen: after the de a6le, "en)amin Davis Jr, the 6ommander of the Tus'egee !irmen% 8ore

importantl#, this sour6e sho$ed ho$ the mutin# $as a pivotal point in the fight for integration of the !ir For6e, as it led to the War Department stating that offi6er9s 6lu s and other re6reational fa6ilities on militar# ases 6annot e segregated%%

Primary Sources

&Cre$s Feted "# 33,ndR& $om%s Away B Jan% -A++: -% Tuskegeeairmen.org% Tus'egee !irmen 7n6% We % A Fe % ,*-+% /http:00ne$site%tus'egeeairmen%org0$p;6ontent0uploads0+.C;"G;ne$sletter; a out;33,;FG***-%pdf5%

This sour6e $as an arti6le from "om s !$a#, the militar# paper of the +.Cth, a sGuadron $hose pilots $ere for6ed to land at the 33,ndJs ase follo$ing a out of ad $eather% This sour6e $as used to learn of the respe6t that the $hite fl#ing sGuadrons held for their la6' 6ompatriots after dis6overing their a6tual s'ill and professionalism, as the ne$spaper does not 6all the Tus'egee !irmen an#thing derogator#, and instead praising them for their hospitalit#% 7n addition, it sho$ed ho$ the Tus'egee !irmen realiHed the politi6al ramifi6ations of their a6tions, as the# used the opportunit# to sho$ the $hites that the# $ere organiHed, friendl#, and intelligent%

K>e6% =rder @o% AA.-, 3 C%F%R% E-A+.F% <rint%

This $as used for the (ega6# se6tion of our $e site, as TrumanJs e>e6utive order 6alling for the integration of the armed for6es $as 6aused # the su66ess of the Tus'egee !irmen and other la6' for6es during World War 77, as $ell as # the need for the li eral and la6' votes, as the ele6tion 6ampaign had egun% !lthough for man# of the ran6hes of the armed for6es, integration $ould onl# trul# 6ome #ears after this order $as issued, due to resistan6e in the

upper hierar6h#, the !ir For6e $ould use the order as an opportunit# to speed up integration% Mnli'e the other ran6hes of the armed for6es, the !ir For6e had alread# learned that integration $as the logi6al solution from their e>perien6es $ith the Tus'egee !irmen% ConseGuentl#, one of the lega6ies of the Tus'egee !irmen $as the 6omplete desegregation of the Mnited States !ir For6e, as $ell as the other ran6hes of the armed for6es%

&K>periment <roved1& T'M- ,* Sept% -A+3: n% pag% Time% Time 7n6% We % -. Fe % ,*-+% /http:006ontent%time%6om0time0su s6ri er0arti6le0*I,C33**AI,CBB+C.4I,C**%html5%

This primar# sour6e $as a Time 8agaHine arti6le dating from -A+3, dis6ussing the War Department9s NTus'egee K>perimentO and its apparent su66esses and failures% Through the magaHine, $e 6an see the general attitude that the !meri6an pu li6 and press felt to$ard these la6' pioneers% 7n this 6ase, although Time $ent so far as to deign the Tus'egee !irmen to e doing fairl# $ell, it also hinted at the War Department9s dissatisfa6tion, and its possi le transfer of the AAth to routine 6onvo# 6over: these Nfa6tsO $ere later proved to e nothing more than unsu stantiated rumors% Thus, it 6an e seen that the pu li6 and the press dis elieved in the a ilit# of the Tus'egee !irmen, simpl# e6ause of the 6olor of their s'in% =n6e again, the sour6e served to sho$ )ust ho$ mu6h of an up$ard struggle the Tus'egee !irmen fa6ed: in addition, the arti6le $as used in the NStruggle at ?omeO se6tion%

Fogleman, Ronald R% &Tus'egee !irmen9s (ega6# of Servi6e for Youth Toda#%& Spee6h% Tus'egee !irmen Convention "anGuet% !tlanta% -+ Fe % ,*-+% Http://www. efense.go*/% MS Department of Defense, -, !ug% ,*-+% We % -+ Fe % ,*-+% /http:00$$$%defense%gov0spee6hes0spee6h%asp> 1spee6hid2AC+5%

This spee6h $as given in order to honor the Tus'egee !irmen, remar'ing on all of their amaHing a6hievements, and more importantl#, their pivotal role in shattering the 6on6eption that segregation had an# legitima6# in the armed for6es% Su seGuentl#, this sour6e outlined ho$ the Tus'egee !irmen led to the integration of the !ir For6e, and the eventual integration of the other ran6hes, giving la6's the right to fight for their 6ountr# as eGuals, instead of as su human servants% !dditionall#, the spee6h related the Tus'egee !irmen to 6urrent events, as it advo6ated for the Tus'egee !irmen to help rene$ the !fri6an;!meri6an interest in the armed for6es, $hi6h had een $aning after a pea' during the -AB*s, $hen integration had finall# e6ome ingrained in the air for6e%

?%R% -,CA, -*A Cong%, M%S% G%<%=% E,**4F Eena6tedF% <rint%

?ere, Congress a$ards the Tus'egee !irmen a 6ongressional gold medal for their role in the revolutionar# reform and integration of the armed for6es% This primar# sour6e spea's of ho$ the airmen proved that la6' !meri6ans $ere )ust as 6apa le as $hites, over6oming ever# 6hallenge, despite the hurdles of dis6rimination and pre)udi6e lo6'ing their $a#: thus, in order to atone for the la6' of respe6t sho$n to these airmen over C* #ears prior, Congress $as a$arding them a gold medal% !dditionall#, the ill spea's of ho$ the Tus'egee !irmen $ere relativel# un'no$n until the founding of Tus'egee !irmen 7n6% in -AB,% Thus, this sour6e $as used for the Tus'egee !irmen Toda# se6tion of the $e site: in addition, this sour6e 6onfirmed the validit# of the sour6es provided # Tus'egee !irmen 7n6%

&@egro <ilots Get Wings%& .ife Maga/ine ,3 8ar% -A+,: 3*;3-% 0oogle $ooks/T'M-% Google% We % -A Fe % ,*-+%

/http:00 oo's%google%6om0 oo'sid2>-KK!!!!8"!JSsour6e2g sDallDissuesDrS6ad2-5%

This sour6e $as a (ife 8agaHine arti6le from -A+, dis6ussing the graduation of the first 6lass from Tus'egee, as $ell as the a ilities of these pilots% Mnli'e other ma)or magaHines of the era, this arti6le appears to e rather positive to$ards these la6' airmen, predi6ting that the# $ould e6ome 6ra6' 6om at pilots% Kven more surprising, the magaHine said that these !fri6an; !meri6ans had e>6eptional e#esight, 6ourage and 6o;ordination, during a time in $hi6h the -A,C stud# NThe Mse of @egro 8anpo$er of WarO had still not een rendered o solete # post$ar studies% We used this arti6le in order to $rite the Struggle at ?ome se6tion%

<itts urgh Courier% &Dou le P Campaign%& Http://www.nypl.org/% @e$ Yor' <u li6 (i raries, n%d% We % ,B De6% ,*-3% /http:00$$$%n#pl%org0sites0default0files0dou leDvD6ampaignD%pdf5%

This page from the <itts urgh Courier $as pu lished in -A+,, during the he#da# of the Dou le P Campaign% This 6ampaign helped unif# la6's under the 6ause of ra6ial eGualit#, $hile also giving them the opportunit# to feel part of a igger struggle for freedom ever#$here% 7n the sour6e itself, this sense of patriotism 6an e seen Guite 6learl# through the Yan'ee Doodle Tan Contest, servi6e pins, and other items on the front page of the ne$spaper% !t the same time, ho$ever, one 6an see the se6ond P, vi6tor# at home against pre)udi6e and ra6ism through the top headline and some of the te>t $ithin the stories% ConseGuentl#, $e used the sour6e in order to understand ho$ the !fri6an;!meri6an 6ommunit# supported the 6ountr# that oppressed them fight for freedom a road, $hile also attempting to fight for their o$n freedoms at home%

Mnited States% !rm# War College% The 1se of !egro Manpower in War% "# ?% K% Fl#% n%p%, n%d%

2(+ Presi ential .i%rary% We % -4 De6% ,*-3% /http:00$$$%fdrli rar#%marist%edu0edu6ation0resour6es0pdfs0tus'Ddo6Da%pdf5%

7n order to 6omprehend the pre;$ar stan6e of the MS !rm# !ir For6e, $e read NThe Mse of @egro 8anpo$er in War,O a stud# 6ondu6ted # the War Department in -A,C% !lthough it $as ostensi l# fair and s6ientifi6, $ith eviden6e supposed dra$n from the use of la6' men in World War 7, the stud# $as in truth a 6ompilation of iased assumptions and pseudos6ientifi6 ra6ism% Throughout the stud#, it is stated that the !fri6an;!meri6an has no natural a ilit# to lead, and 6an not e e>pe6ted to serve 6ompetentl# as an# t#pe of offi6er, let alone as an air6raft pilot% Kven $orse, the stud# e>plained ho$ due to natural differen6es in anatom# and personalit#, the la6' ra6e simpl# 6ould not perform on the same level as $hites% !s a result, $e learned )ust ho$ mu6h of an uphill struggle the Tus'egee !irmen fa6ed, and ho$ amaHing in 6ontrast to these hardships that their triumphs $ere%

Mnited States% Gillem "oard% War Department% Policy for 1tili/ation of !egro Manpower in the Post#war Army% "# !lvan Cullom Gillem% Washington, D%C%: War Dept%, -A+4% <rint%

This sour6e $as essential in determining the effe6t that the Tus'egee !irmen and other la6' units had on the War DepartmentJs stan6e on the use of la6's in the armed for6es, as it $as the offi6ial report 6ompiled # the Gillem "oard follo$ing the events of World War 77% !lthough the 6ir6ular 6ontinued to support segregation, it $as also revolutionar# in the fa6t that it re6ogniHed the a ilit# of la6's, and advo6ated that la6's e given eGual opportunit# Eprior to this, the# had een limited to demeaning support rolesF% This $as due to the e>emplar# performan6e of the Tus'egee !irmen and other e>perimental la6' 6om at groups:

6onseGuentl#, $e used this sour6e for the (ega6# se6tion of the $e site%

Wings for This Man% <erf% Ronald Reagan% MS!F First 8otion <i6ture Mnit, -A+C% 2e 2li3% We % -. Fe % ,*-+% /https:00ar6hive%org0details0gov%ntis%ava*.443vn -5%

Wings for this 8an $as a film released # the !ir For6e First 8otion <i6ture Mnit in -A+C, shortl# efore the end of the $ar% This primar# sour6e allo$ed us to see ho$ the e>periment had su66eeded, as the !ir For6e sho$ered praise upon these men, 6alling them the trail laHers for their ra6e, finall# opening up the servi6e to !fri6an;!meri6ans% !lthough these $ords $ere said prematurel#, the !ir For6e $as still the first ran6h of the armed servi6es to integrate, first announ6ing their planned desegregation prior to the issuan6e of K>e6utive =rder AA.-% 7n addition to sho$ing us the militar#9s rea6tion to their e>periment9s performan6e, an e>6erpt of this film $as also used in the !ir For6e 7ntegrates se6tion of this $e site%