This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ
Al-Bƒr€nƒ, B„r€nƒ (€•‚ƒ„…)
An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a 1973 Soviet post stamp Full name Born Ab€ Ray•‚n Mu•ammad ibn A•mad Al-Birunƒ September 4/5, 973 Khwarezm, Samanid Empire (modern-day Uzbekistan) December 13, 1048 (aged„75) Ghazni, Ghaznavid Empire (modern-day Afghanistan) Islamic Golden Age Khwarezm, Central Asia  Ziyarid dynasty (Rey)  Ghaznavid dynasty (Ghazni) Physics, anthropology, comparative sociology, astronomy, astrology, chemistry, history, geography, mathematics, medicine, psychology, philosophy, theology Founder of Indology, anthropology, geodesy Ta'rikh al-Hind, The Mas'udi Canon, Understanding Astrology
Notable ideas Major works
Ab€ al-Rayh‚n Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bƒr€nƒ (born 4/5 September 973 in Kath, Khwarezm, died 13 December 1048 in Ghazni) known as Alberonius in Latin and Al-Biruni in English, was a Persian-Khwarezmian Muslim scholar and polymath from the Khwarezm region. Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, and also knew Greek, Hebrew and Syriac. He spent a large part of his life in Ghazni in modern-day Afghanistan, capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty which was based in what is now central-eastern Afghanistan. In 1017 he traveled to the Indian subcontinent and became the most important interpreter of Indian science to the Islamic world. He is given the titles the "founder of Indology" and the "first anthropologist". He was an impartial writer on custom and creeds of various nations, and was given the title al-Ustadh ("The Master") for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. He also made contributions to
appearing in a cultural vacuum. he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids. There he wrote his first important work. al-Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya (literally: "The remaining traces of past centuries" and translated as "Chronology of ancient nations" or "Vestiges of the Past") on historical and scientific chronology. During this time he wrote the Kitab ta'rikh al-Hind. survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region. though he later made some amendments to the book. were devoted to astronomy. . finishing it around 1030. His endorsement of astrology is limited. 2 Life He was born in the outer district of Kath. In 1017. and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm. The Iranian Khwarezmian language. about 65 percent. probably around 1000 A. Leaving his homeland. including al-Biruni. mathematics. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India. Most scholars. and related subjects like mathematical geography. in so far as he condemns horary astrology as 'sorcery'. and so this became his nisba: "al-Bƒr€nƒ" = "the Birunian". theology. Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir. Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Biruni's major work on astrology is primarily an astronomical and mathematical text. Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India. He was sympathetic to the Afrighids. only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication. the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. mathematics. medics and other sciences. Biruni acknowledged that he could neither An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works. Mathematics and Astronomy Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bƒr€nƒ. astronomy. In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth. he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan. a repository of so much knowledge.D. There he also corresponded with Avicenna and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. along with his significant contributions to geography.. grammar. In 998. the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm (or Chorasmia). The word Biruni means "from the outer-district" in Persian. Their court at Gorganj (also in Khwarezm) was gaining fame for its gathering Al-Biruni's bust at an entrance to National library of Tajikistan of brilliant scientists. for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni.Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ Earth sciences. His first twenty-five years were spent in Khwarezm where he studied fiqh. then under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. He may even have learned some Sanskrit. who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. explains the different phases of the moon. which was the language of Biruni. living there for a few years. and is regarded as the "father of geodesy" for his important contributions to that field. he left for Bukhara. were taken to Ghazna.
 Geography . in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors. He on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina. Biruni utilizes his observational data to disprove Ptolemy's immobile solar apogee. he is "amazed" weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum. Biruni's eclipse data was used by Dunthorne in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon and his observational data has entered the larger astronomical historical record and is still used today in geophysics and astronomy. however. The most Diagram illustrating a method proposed and used by prominent of both modem and ancient astronomers Al-Biruni to estimate the radius and circumference of have deeply studied the question of the moving of the the Earth earth. We.Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ 3 prove nor disprove it. Physics Al-Biruni contributed to the introduction of the experimental scientific method to mechanics. too. if not in the words. the Mas'ud Canon. unified statics and dynamics into the science of mechanics. He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Kitab ta'rikh al-Hind. in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation in a work on astronomy that is no longer extant. More recently. he the immutability of the celestial spheres. and so on. This question is most difficult to solve. as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates. have composed a book on the subject called Miftah-ilm-alhai'a (Key to Astronomy). at all events In the matter. other reasons which make it impossible. and combined the fields of hydrostatics with dynamics to create hydrodynamics. and tried to refute it. in which Biruni repeatedly Aristotle's celestial physics: he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist. carried attacks by the attacks In his major extant astronomical work. There are. In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe's he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a (Key to Astronomy): [T]he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy.
Al-Biruni was disgusted by scholars who failed to engage primary sources in their treatment of Hindu religion. Pakistan.„ (Rosenthal. 2005) . He treated religions objectively. and other religions. in India. History of Religions Bƒr€nƒ is one of the most important Muslim authorities on the history of religion. p. Islam. striving to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshipped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims (such as the Jabiriyya) have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God.Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ 4 Bƒr€nƒ also devised his own method of determining the radius of the earth by means of the observation of the height of a mountain and carried it out at Nandana in Pind Dadan Khan. He found existing sources on Hinduism to be both insufficient and dishonest. and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. Judaism. Kit‚b al-mus‚mara fƒ a…b‚r †€‚razm (Book of nightly conversation concerning the affairs of †€‚razm) is now known only from quotations in Bayhaqƒ•s T‚rƒkh-e mas‚€dƒ. Pharmacology and Mineralogy Due to an apparatus he constructed himself. however foreign they might seem to one another. ƒWhat al-Biruni seems to be arguing is that there is a common human element in every culture that makes all cultures distant relatives. His underlying concept was that all cultures are at least distant relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs. he succeeded in determining the specific gravity of a certain number of metals and minerals with remarkable precision. he sought to explain the religious behavior of different groups. In addition to this various discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-‡th‚r al-b‚qiya and in the Q‚n€n as well as elsewhere in the ‡th‚r.„10). He studied Zoroastrianism. (Ataman. and scattered throughout his other works. believing that God is one. Buddhism. Christianity. 1976. Four directions and Political divisions of Iran by Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ History and Chronology Biruni's main essay on political history. Al-Biruni was a pioneer in the study of comparative religion. He describes the educated as monotheistic. Al-Biruni divides Hindus into an educated and an uneducated class. Guided by a sense of ethics and a desire to learn. Hinduism. eternal.
astronomy and other fields of arts as practiced in 11th century India. He explores religion within a rich cultural context. discover and translate into Arabic the mathematics. and I shall mention in connection with them similar theories of the Greeks in order to show the relationship existing between them. ƒThe Indica is like a magic island of quiet. 1. Bƒr€nƒ•s catalogue of his own literary production up to his 65th lunar/63rd solar year (the end of 427/1036) lists 103 titles divided into 12 categories: astronomy. mathematics. and earth's rotation around the sun is the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude.„7. and books of which he no longer possesses copies. and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia. Al-Biruni was also critical of Indian scribes who he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents. While others were killing each other over religious differences. Moreover. Al-Biruni wrote an encyclopedic work on India called ƒTarikh Al-Hind„ (History of India) in which he explored nearly every aspect of Indian life. I shall place The statue of Biruni in Laleh Park. impartial research in the midst of a world of clashing swords. Hindus in 11th century India had suffered through waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities. His extant works include: . history. astronomical instruments. chronology. the Kitab al-Tafhim apparently in both Persian and Arabic. anecdotes. seasons and earth's relative positions with moon and stars. astrology. geography. Iran before the reader the theories of the Hindus exactly as they are. mathematical geography.(1910. science. Al-Biruni had a remarkable ability to engage Hindus in peaceful dialogue. comets. Vol. p. p. Works Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he wrote one of his masterpieces.„212).„5) An example of Al-Biruni•s analysis is his summary of why many Hindus hate Muslims.„ (Indica is another name for Al-Biruni•s history of India). including religion. Over time. Hindus considered Muslims violent and impure. not just Muslims. He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be ellipsoid shape. and did not want to share anything with him. Al-Biruni's translations as well as his own original contributions reached Europe in 12th and 13th century. Tehran. and burned temples. He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. which claimed Al-Biruni contributed to Hindus becoming suspicious of all foreigners. 1975. where they were actively sought. Al-Biruni collected books and studied with these Hindu scholars to become fluent in Sanskrit. religion. (Yasin. p.Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ 5 Indology Bƒr€nƒ•s fame as an Indologist rests primarily on two texts.1958. My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. as I believe to be in the wrong. He expresses his objective with simple eloquence: I shall not produce the arguments of our antagonists in order to refute such of them. with yet to be discovered continent at earth's south pole. burning towns. Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars. medicine. geology. astrological aspects and transits. science. and mathematics. showing his mastery over both languages. an untitled category. Mohammad Yasin puts this dramatically when he says.
J. "Al-Biruni's discovery of India: an interpretative study". also known as the Indica . and is a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography. index: Vol. ˆ A historical summary book. 2000. David C.  Arabic spelling.+ and+ spoke+ the+ Khwarizmian+ dialect. Saleem Khan. . geography. 1000…1217)„. ˆ Gems (Arabic –ª„ˆ¦ƒ„ ‡†–‚‰ …† –ª•«¦ƒ„) about geology. com/ eb/ article-9015394) (2007). preferring Arabic instead as the only adequate medium of ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ . 1951). Cambridge History of Iran. p. must be mentioned since he was one of the greatest scientists in World History"(R. (CRVP. minerals. dedicated to Mawdud son of Mas'ud.N. Cambridge University Press: 1-202. The intermediate form Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ is often used in academic literature. named after Mas'ud. 58.Kennedy. (Brill. "Al-Biruni et la valuer internationale de la science arabe" in Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume. iAcademicBooks. son of Mahmud of Ghazni..The name of Abu Raihan Al-Biruni. Encyclop‰dia Britannica. ˆ History of Mahmud of Ghazni and his father.A. whether accepted by reason or refused (Arabic €•‚ƒ„ …† ‡ƒˆ•‚‰ ‡ƒˆ•‰ Š‰ ‹Œ•Žƒ •‰ •‘•’“ ‡ƒ”•–‰ —˜). (1968). Levi-Provencal.. J.). Boyle (ed. interlaced with mathematical. E. ˆ Understanding Astrology (Arabic ¥‘¦Œ§ƒ„ ‡›•Œ¨ƒ ¥‘•©§ƒ„) . 18: L.an extensive encyclopedia on astronomy.  Al-Biruni. Massignon.a compendium of India's religion and philosophy ˆ The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology (Kitab al-tafhim li-awa€il sina•at al-tanjim). The Cambridge History of Iran: The period from the Arab invasion to the Saljuqs. 1986). 2008). 2006. vol.A. Schacht. ƒThe Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A. 1 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Frye. 1999). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K. ˆ Bosworth.Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ ˆ Critical study of what India says. com/ search?tbm=bks& tbo=1& q=he+ was+ Persian+ by+ origin. Gibb. pg 162) M.R. 1236. I.S.D. excerpt from page 112: "Although his native Khwarezmian was also an Iranian language. Notes and references Notes  The Exact Sciences. E. Lindberg. he rejected the emerging neo-Persian literature of his time (Firdawsi). ˆ Astrolabe.a question and answer style book about mathematics and astronomy. pg 11: "It is generally accepted that he was Persian by origin. Legacy The crater Al-Biruni on the Moon is named after him.a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations. Ed. Richard Nelson Frye. ˆ Pharmacy . ed. Science in the Middle Ages. google. 6 Persian work Although he preferred Arabic to Persian in scientific writing. britannica. Bacharach. Taylor & Francis. A. this date being placed in the early 13th-century BC) " Richard Frye: "The contribution of Iranians to Islamic mathematics is overwhelming.H. astronomical. University of Chicago Press.+ scholar) Biruni (http:/ / www. 394. H. Jere L. Phoenix Press. Understanding other religions: al-Biruni's and Gadamer's "fusion of horizons". Meri. J. ˆ The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries (Arabic ‡‘ƒ•™ƒ„ š”–•ƒ„ Š› ‡‘œ••ƒ„ ž•Ÿ „) . (Calcutta. Excerpt from page 7:"The Iranian scholar al-BIruni says that the Khwarazmian era began when the region was first settled and cultivated. Retrieved 22 April 2007. "The Golden age of Persia". and engineering. C. Vol. and spoke the Khwarizmian dialect" (http:/ / www. to whom he dedicated. and gems. The Encyclopaedia of Islam. his Persian version of the Al-Tafhim is one of the most important of the early works of science in the Persian language.about drugs and medicines. . J. . 5: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods.  Kemal Ataman. in Arabic and Persian. pp 217-219. D. Boilet. (Cambridge University Press. Gotthard Strohmaier. ˆ The Mas'udi Canon (Persian ¡¢ˆ‚£‰ šˆ¤•œ) . E. and historical information. ˆ History of Khawarezm. from Khwarazm. The book covers the Quadrivium in a detailed and skilled fashion. ˆ ˆ . "Biruni" in Josef W. Kramers. 2001.
Springer.brillonline. Vol.  S. Rafik Berjak. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0QYQ/ is_1_3/ ai_n15947590/ pg_2/ ?tag=content.The earliest examples have been left by the great Chorasmian scholar Ab€ Ray•‚n Bƒr€nƒ.". Th. (Brill. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N i. qst?docId=5007384244)'. N.210)  Al-Biruni. iranicaonline. Chronology. 135R& db_key=AST& page_ind=0& data_type=GIF& type=SCREEN_VIEW& classic=YES)'. Hodgson."BŠR‹NŠ. and medicine in non-western cultures ". ˆ  Bosworth.. Journal for the History of Astronomy. apparently in both Arabic and Persian. Edited by: P. 2010).488-499  David Pingree. astronomic. Indology" in Encyclopaedia Iranica  Al Biruni's India (Columbia University Archives) (http:/ / www. N. Bosworth . harvard. 111. and literature (http:/ / books. 2006.1027  George C. 5. . Sachau (1888). excerpt from page 112: "Although his native Khwarezmian was also an Iranian language. "BŠR‹NŠ. The Chorasmian Language" (http:/ / www. (Ataman. Geography" in Encyclopaedia Iranica  Georges C. Taylor & Francis. Brill. com/ books?id=VbPna7GOoIEC& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage& q& f=false)'. Encyclopaedia Iranica. iranicaonline. Beyond death: the mystical teachings of ‚Ayn al-Qu„‚t al-Hamadh‚nƒ. 5. Pharmacology and Mineralogy.135  M.f. "the Master". Revised. Accessed at 10 November 2007 <http://www.P. 2nd edition. (Oxford University Press. ' Ibn Sina•Al-Biruni correspondence pt. 2005). Meri.III (http:/ / findarticles. 2007. preferring Arabic instead as the only adequate medium of science. "Al-Biruni (Beruni). . . the original Iranian language of Chorasmia. he rejected the emerging neo-Persian literature of his time (Firdawsi).  Marshall G. Bacharach.3. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0QYQ/ is_1_2/ ai_n6160528/ )'. technology. google. Muzaffar Iqbal ' Ibn Sina•al-Biruni correspondence pt. p. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N iii. physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian. "CHORASMIA iii. pg 157: "his native language was the Khwarizmian dialect"  D. 1. adsabs. 1999). 1993. The Kitab al-Tafhim is 7 .J. google. com/ books?id=p5U3AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA681)'. questions six and seven. edu/ cgi-bin/ nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1974JHA. Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Bianquis . He was equally well versed in the mathematical. S. index: Vol.45. "Al-Biruni".col1)'. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N vi. questia.V (http:/ / findarticles. Houtsma.. van Donzel and W. Th. chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds.  D. google.Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ science. com/ books?id=xEcVAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA277)'. p. org/ articles/ chorasmia-iii) "Chorasmian.277  c. New Ed.  Jean Jacques Waardenburg. Sachau.E. com/ books?id=bTEhqlkRn9UC& lpg=PR45)'. Vol. Access date April 2011 at (http:/ / www. Anawati. "BŠR‹NŠ. the original Iranian language of Chorasmia. Mathematics and Astronomy" in Encyclopaedia Iranica  Biruni. and Ibn Sƒn‚". "BŠR‹NŠ.1:1236-1238.  George Saliba. trans.E.H. History and Chronology" in Encyclopaedia Iranica  FranŽois de Blois. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936 (http:/ / books." Encyclopaedia of Islam. p.The earliest examples have been left by the great Chorasmian scholar Ab€ Ray•‚n Bƒr€nƒ. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization. Excerpt 2:"was one of the greatest scholars of mediaeval Islam. com/ books?id=Hp-H4KhAvoUC& lpg=PR3& pg=PA32#v=onepage& q& f=false)'  Douglas (1973. J. edu/ cu/ lweb/ digital/ collections/ cul/ texts/ ldpd_5949073_001/ ) (Biruni. Nasr. Islam & Science / Summer. B. ' Classical Scientific Astrology (http:/ / books. MacKenzie. by Edward C. google. 1958). ' E. BŠR‹NŠ.  C.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-4205>  Firoozeh Papan-Matin. He is known as al-Ustdadh. 27. Islam and Science. Jere L. . on 3 Dhu'l-Hididja/ 4 September † see E. p. and certainly the most original and profound. ' Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology (http:/ / books.. see also Vol 2 of Al-Biruni's India. Life" in Encyclopedia Iranica. Brill Online. ' Historical eclipses and earth's rotation (http:/ / books. columbia.  Jean Jacques Waardenburg. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N vii. org/ articles/ biruni-abu-rayhan-i-life)  Gotthard Strohmaier. Edmund Bosworth.III (http:/ / www. The Chorasmian Language". Review of Zhizn' i trudy Beruni. Excerpt: "Chorasmian. 2003  Rosenfeld. in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden).". Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K. C. Encyclopaedia Iranica."BŠR‹NŠ. ' Biruni (http:/ / articles. "CHORASMIA iii. Islam & Science / Summer. MacKenzie. ˆ Helaine Selin. p. Muslim Perceptions of other Religions: A Historical Survey. pp. Bearman . (1974). AB‹ RAYŒ‡N viii. Boilot. 2004  Rafik Berjak & Muzaffar Iqbal. "An introduction to Islamic cosmological doctrines: conceptions of nature and methods used for its study by the Ikhw‚n al-•af‚ˆ. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N v. 168. Summer. Heinrichs. (University of Chicago Press. c. "BŠR‹NŠ.". Noonan. 1997. pp 111: "Al-Biruni wrote one of the masterpieces of medieval science. philosophy. . "Biruni" in Josef W. capital of Khwarizm". C. in the suburb (birun) of Kath. 1910. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N iv. demonstrating how conversant he was in both tongues.681  Francis Stephenson (1995). 27.457. Excerpt 1: "He was born of an Iranian family in 362/973 (according to al-Ghadanfar. is attested at two stages of its development. ' Ibn Sina•Al-Biruni correspondence pt. "†h‡ W ‡razm. 2005  Rafik Berjak & Muzaffar Iqbal. 1 of Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. ' Alberuni's India: an account of the religion. Kitab al-Tafhim.„17). google. com/ googleScholar. al-Bƒr€nƒ. xivxvi). in Encyclopaedia Iranica  David Pingree. Ahmad". "Encyclopaedia of the history of science. History of Religions" in Encyclopaedia Iranica  Bruce B. is attested at two stages of its development. vol. E. Lawerence. D. SUNY press. Vol.
L. Pharmacology and Mineralogy" in Encycloapedia Iranica (http://www.org/ articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-i-life) (accessed April 2011) ˆ David Pingree. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N iii. Lawerence. and Medicine: An Encyclopedia.htm). Missing or empty |title= (help) ˆ Kiple. in Encyclopaedia Iranica. "BŠR‹NŠ.encyclopedia..Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ without doubt the most important of the early works of science in Persian and serves as a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography as well as for the knowledge of the Quadrivium whose subjects it covers in a masterly fashion"  David Pingree. Anawati. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science.org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-vii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ Douglas. ISBN„978-0-387-31022-0| ( PDF version (http://islamsci.org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-viii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ Yano. University of Islamabad Press ˆ Samian..org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-iii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ David Pingree.mcgill. ISBN„0-415-12410-7 ˆ Saliba. Kriemhild Cone‘ (2001). org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-iv) (accessed April 2011) ˆ Georges C. ISBN„0-8147-8023-7 ˆ Dani.iranicaonline. 1 & 3. "BŠR‹NŠ. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N viii. Spirit and the Sacral in the New Enlightenment.. "BŠR‹NŠ. "Al-Biruni. Medieval Science. Bibliography". Faith (2005). in Encyclop‰dia Iranica (http://www. ISBN„0-415-96930-1 ˆ Abulfadl naba•I (1986). Thomas F. in Tymieniecka. R’gis (1996). Cambridge University Press.. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N vi. Life" in Encyclop‰dia Iranica (http://www. in Encyclop‰dia Iranica (http://www. iranicaonline. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography (Encyclopedia.. Bibliography. A. (2008) [1970-80]. Roshdi. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N iv.com/doc/1G2-2830900460. New York University Press. The Cambridge World History of Food. Routledge.ca/RASI/BEA/ Biruni_BEA. Vibert (1973). in Thomas Hockey et al. 209D) ˆ Bruce B. George (1994). ISBN„964-01-0756-5 Unknown parameter |unused_data= ignored (help). iranicaonline.E. E.harvard.iranicaonline. A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N ii.org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-vi) (accessed April 2011) ˆ FranŽois de Blois. Alberuni's Indica: A record of the cultural history of South Asia about AD 1030. Ab€ Ray•‚n (or Abu'l-Ray•‚n) Mu•ammad Ibn A•mad (http://www. Steven John. S. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N vii. 973-1048". Wallis. iranicaonline. Calendar-making in the History.mcgill. in Encyclop‰dia Iranica (http://www. Ornelas.html)". 1995. Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology in .. "BŠR‹NŠ. Morelon. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 67: 209…211. Astan Ghods Razavi Publishing Co ˆ . Technology. Reason. org/ articles/ biruni-abu-rayhan-ii) 8 Citations Bibliography ˆ C. "BŠR‹NŠ. iranicaonline.209D (http://adsabs. A.org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-ii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ George Saliba. Kenneth F.67. ISBN„0-521-40216-6 ˆ Rashed. Livesey. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (New York: Springer): 131…3. Persian Scholar.org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-v) (accessed April 2011) ˆ David Pingree. History of Religions". Geography" in Encycloapedia Iranica (http://www.iranicaonline. Ahmed Hasan (1973). Bosworth. Mathematics and Astronomy" in Encyclop‰dia Iranica (http:// www. " Al-Bƒr€nƒ (or B•r€nƒ). ""BŠR‹NŠ.ca/ RASI/BEA/Biruni_BEA. Bibcode: 1973JRASC. A-T. "BŠR‹NŠ. Routledge.edu/abs/1973JRASC. Michio (2007). (2011).. History and Chronology" in Encyclpaedia Iranica (http://www. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N v. "Reason and Spirit in Al-Biruni•s Philosophy of Mathematics".67. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N ii. BŠR‹NŠ. AB‹ RAYŒ‡N i.iranicaonline. (http:/ / www.pdf)) ˆ Kennedy. iranicaonline. Indology".com) ˆ Glick. "Bƒr€nƒ: Ab€ al‰Ray•‚n Mu•ammad ibn A•mad al‰Bƒr€nƒ" (http://islamsci. "BŠR‹NŠ.
Life in Encyclopaedia Iranica (http://www. A.org/articles/ biruni-abu-rayhan-index) ˆ C. Geography in Encycloapedia Iranica (http://www. Al-Biruni between Greece and India. A.iranicaonline.. org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-ii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ George Saliba. Laws and Astrology of Indiae. AB† RAY‡ˆN iii.geogebratube.(1910). AB† RAY‡ˆN ii.org/stable/226430) External links ˆ B…R†N….org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-vi) (accessed April 2011) ˆ FranŽois de Blois. com/issue/200703/rediscovering. AB† RAY‡ˆN i. Yarshter.pdf?CFID=28892612& CFTOKEN=aab599a7b5b8a815-6DA1919B-F3A2-8EAA-9D079D13776D7B6A& jsessionid=8430d665d0e8ba04107d60284e573336a5f3 ˆ Gomez.Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ Dialogue 5. 1007/978-90-481-9612-8_9)..org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-v) (accessed April 2011) ˆ Gomez. B…R†N…. doi: 10. Netherlands: Springer. AB† RAY‡ˆN vi. iranicaonline. pp.) . Wilczynski Isis Vol. http://www.org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-vii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ Bruce B. iranicaonline. ˆ David Pingree.iranicaonline. Bibliography in Encyclopaedia Iranica (http://www.org/10.htm.iranicaonline. Trench. AB† RAY‡ˆN v. B…R†N…. Mathematics and Astronomy in Encyclopaedia Iranica (http://www. iranicaonline. pp.science. Lawerence. No. org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-iv) (accessed April 2011) ˆ Georges C. London: Kegan Paul. 4 (Dec. (2012) Biruni's Measurement of the Earth (http://www. Geography. Trubner & Co. Indology in Encyclopaedia Iranica (http://www. K.jscimath. (2005).org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-viii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ Richard Covington. E. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 9 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Further reading ˆ On the Presumed Darwinism of Alberuni Eight Hundred Years before Darwin Jan Z.org/student/m7159) Geogebra interactive illustration.org/articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-iii) (accessed April 2011) ˆ David Pingree. Saudi Aramco World (http://www.org/uploads/ J2011172AG.„459…466 (article consists of 8 pages) Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society Stable URL: (http://www.1007/978-90-481-9612-8_9 (http://dx. Re-Reading al-Biruni's India: a Case for Intercultural Understanding. M. Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al. F. AB† RAY‡ˆN viii. Astronomy.jstor.iranicaonline. B…R†N…. AB† RAY‡ˆN vii.E. Al-Beruni's India: an Account of the Religion. (1976). Anawati. B…R†N…..saudiaramcoworld.iranicaonline. Pharmacology and Mineralogy in Encycloapedia Iranica (http:// www. New York: Iran Center. ISBN„978-90-481-9612-8 Biruni. (2010) Biruni's Measurement of the Earth [online]. ed. Literature. Customs. Islamic Culture Ataman. Rosenthal. History of Religions in Encyclopaedia Iranica (http://www. 2007.„137…146. Sachau. B…R†N….org/ articles/biruni-abu-rayhan-i-life) (accessed April 2011) ˆ David Pingree. E. (1975).arabic. iranicaonline. B…R†N…. Bosworth. ed. 1959). History and Chronology in Encyclpaedia Iranica (http://www. Al-Biruni in India. Columbia University Yasin. G. G. B…R†N…. B…R†N…. Rediscovering Arabic Science. AB† RAY‡ˆN in Encyclopaedia Iranica (http://www.doi. 50. Philosophy. AB† RAY‡ˆN iv. Chronology.
farlang.archive. Sir.columbia.An account of .com/gemstones/ biruni-book-gemstones/page_001) full text version + comments .html) ˆ "On Stones": Biruni's work on geology. as Told by Its Own Historians. India about A. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 2..An account of . Trench Trubner & Co. (Henry Miers). London : Tr–bner & Co. Ltd. Trench Trubner & Co..archive. India about A. "1.. Dr. in English (http://www. M.Edward C. (1910).org/ persian/pf?file=80201012&ct=3)) ˆ Sachau. Dr.. 1030 (Vol 2.D.packhum. ( At Packard Institute (http://persian. Kegan Paul.archive.Edward C.. (1910).edu/cu/lweb/digital/collections/cul/texts/ ldpd_5949073_001/index.org/ stream/cu31924073036729#page/n15/mode/2up). T“r”khu-l Hind of B”r•n”" (http://www. 1) (http:// www.). medical properties of gemstones (http://www.) (http:// www.D. London ˆ Sachau.. London ˆ Alberuni's India. ALBERUNI'S INDIA .Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ 10 Works of Al-Biruni online ˆ Elliot. ALBERUNI'S INDIA . John Dowson (1871). H.Ltd. Kegan Paul. 1030 (Vol.org/stream/alberunisindiaac01biru#page/n5/mode/2up). The History of India.org/stream/alberunisindiaac00biruiala#page/n5/mode/2up).
BillLoney. AXRL. Jaredwf. Hut 6. MatthewVanitas. BhaiSaab. Lotse. Solarra.aliabbas.wikipedia. Jahongard. Erdmanjoelee. Babakexorramdin.jpg „License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.php?title=File:Biruni-russian. Heshamdiab116. Thnidu. Nevit. Righteousskills. Anne Bauval. J8079s. T. Spasage. Falcongj. Harryboyles. Mughal Lohar. Eliyak. Wiqi55. Mani1. HistoryofIran.wikipedia. Bidabadi. Olivier. Jgtl2. Raayen. Magioladitis. Leivick. Leone. Farmond885.0/ . Bartledan. Farhansher. The Anome. CommonsDelinker.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Alborz Fallah.org/w/index.vakilian. YASSER.org/w/index.JPG „Source: http://en. Abrar47. Tony Sidaway. Oleg Alexandrov. Omerlives.svg „Source: http://en. David J Wilson. Olly150. CALR. Reyk. Hinio. Lovelyartin. 405 anonymous edits Image Sources. Ling. Ruud Koot. SarahStierch. Kurdo777. Inuit18. Nono64. Grenavitar.5. Zerokitsune. Faridun2500. Lambyte. ManiF. Ekabhishek. Mel Etitis. ±²-” ±Ž›. Pouya. Scohoust.JPG „License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Gem-fanat. Dr. Mav. Al-Andalusi. CatherineMunro.org/w/index. Ibnsina786. Smoothhenry. Bahramm 2.org/w/index. Jiang. Languagehat. Akanak. TokunagaM. Mardavich. Wikih101. Khateeb88. Azraq. Khoikhoi. DerDoc. The Noodle Incident. Fazalhussein. Chochopk. Laurascudder. Hassanfarooqi. Pseudomonas. Alefbe.Kamenicek. Danieliness.JPG „License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Proofreader.jpg „Source: http://en. L Kensington. ZxxZxxZ File:Abu Reyhan Biruni-Earth Circumference. Msanta20 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Rajeevmass. Maadal.Nut.TC.php?oldid=598116027 „Contributors: 123levi123. John Reid. Canis Lupus. Carticus. Khestwol. Prodego. Hanberke. Quadratic. Mitso Bel. 1982vdven.0 „Contributors: Ebrahimi-amir. Cekli829. Chewings72. Tuluat. Athenean. In fact. Headbomb.wikipedia File:…†‡-ˆ‰Š‹Œ‰.wikipedia.php?title=File:˜™š-›œ•žŸœ. Tpbradbury. Coelacan. Islescape. CRGreathouse. JaGa. Polylerus. Mandsford. Dhulqarnain. Silver Maple. Ragesoss. Anthony. GlobeGores. Kashk. Rjwilmsi. Srleffler. Ckatz. Liz. Ogress.php?title=File:Lunar_eclipse_al-Biruni. Hibernian. WMC. TestPilot. Flewis. YSSYguy. Vastu. Roozbeh. Xashaiar.JPG „Source: http://en. Racconish. Meghaduta. Kosoni. Napmor. Ooshimmeroo. Mbahrami. Bhola. The stuart. Sharkface217. Selfworm. Daraheni. Re444. Muslimsson.jpg „Source: http://en. Meursault2004. Jeff3000. YasserTurkistani. AlphaEta. Lambiam. Vwady. MacAuslan. Chronicler. Dsp13. Biglovinb. Abbasmtz.php?title=File:AzerbazkanBiruni.0 „Contributors: FlickreviewR. Good Olfactory. Kanowini. Enforcing Neutrality. Laurascudder. Tide rolls. 570ad. Homer Landskirty. VivaEmilyDavies. TJSwoboda. Alyoshenka. UsmanKhanDiri. Tylerni7. Amir85. Khodabandeh14. Yasharafif. Artacoana. ZooFari. BrokenMirror. Ivan —tambuk.org/w/index. Sunrise. Jahangard. Ashrf1979. Eren10.wikipedia. Siafu. Tassedethe. Skeptic2. Koavf. SamuelTheGhost. Jamshid H. Nosang515. Prince. Iranianson. Giftlite. Theodore7.php?title=File:Abu_Reyhan_Biruni-Earth_Circumference. ZxxZxxZ. Albert Nestar. Charles Matthews. John Hill. Tajik. R'n'B. Trainra. DocWatson42. John Carter. Paranomia. Randomblue. David Eppstein. Zyma. Aaron Schulz. WebHamster. Afghana. Mdd. ¬-–® ž¯°ªž. BD2412. Chrono1084. Pasitbank. Teeena789. Kbh3rd. MB. Carlossuarez46. Vonaurum.svg „License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Massagetae.jpg „Source: http://en.jpg „License: Public Domain „Contributors: Original uploader was Romanm at sl. Niemin2. Kaka Mughal. SteveMcCluskey. Jagged 85. Alex Bakharev. Knight1993. MartinRe. Michael Devore. Michael Hardy. Coolg49964. Mike Rosoft. Vargavandnick. John. BrokenMirror2. Syrthiss. Davshul. Trappist the monk. Jprschaefer. Gun Powder Ma. Persia2099. PericlesofAthens. Dbachmann. Tahmasp. Arash the Bowman. Kbahey.php?title=File:Statue_of_Abu_Rayhan_al-Biruni. Svick. Legotech. Petri Krohn. Torebay. Pejman47. TutterMouse. TheLoneRanger. Moocow121.wikipedia. Lyrl. Kansas Bear. Zmmz. K8hh. Rtghgf. Anomie. Fkehar. Icairns. LilHelpa.org/w/index. Ferran Mir. Polysynaptic.0 „Contributors: User:AryanSogd File:Lunar eclipse al-Biruni. Licenses and Contributors File:Biruni-russian. Bobathon71. Sara Qamar. Connolley.jpg „License: Public Domain „Contributors: ComputerHotline. Japanese Searobin. TenOfAllTrades. Arad. Daniel J. Mhussain1857. Ahmad2099. Sun Creator. ESkog. Ghazne. YusuF. Beh-nam. Assianir. Pahlavannariman. Temp07. Elian. Peruvianllama. TimBentley. MehrdadNY. Ilvon. SteinbDJ.Article Sources and Contributors 11 Article Sources and Contributors Ab€ Ray•‚n al-Bƒr€nƒ „Source: http://en. Nepaheshgar. Zereshk. Ulugbek Mansurov. Winter Gaze. Sa. Maksud. Gol. Buermann. ±©¤•‰. Stevertigo.wikipedia. Leinad-Z.org/w/index. Poikins. Edward321. FayssalF. Rgulerdem. Deville. RainbowOfLight. Epbr123. Yozer1. Syncategoremata. Yosri. Hispalois. Ketiltrout. Jan. Sbrools. Johnbod. EgyptianWikipedian. LloydKame. Mathiasrex. Makafaat. Vortexion. Delirium. Anoshirawan. Da enlightened one. MacStep. Waacstats. Behnamnaderi. AnnaP. Aparhizi. Yurik. Civillisation. Persi. XJaM. Hamkor. Dogg187. Woohookitty. AxelBoldt. Seahorseruler. Math920. ZxxZxxZ File:Statue of Abu Rayhan al-Biruni. Ebrahimi-amir. Marcok. Mahmudmasri. Dialectric. Vincent Pace. Mdann52. Wik. Rizan. Fratrep. William M. Arslan-San.0 //creativecommons.wikipedia. Hmains.0 „Contributors: Nevit Dilmen (talk) File:AzerbazkanBiruni. Shreevatsa. Shaded0. Mootros. Msanta20. Stevenmitchell. Wayiran. € •. Grafen. AryanSogd. Oajo. Slashme. MelbourneStar. Davecrosby uk.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.