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Bhagavad Gita

(English translation)

The knowledge that was given by Lord Krishna to Arjun in the battlefield;

We meditate on that supreme knowledge of the Bhagavad Gita.


Table of contents
Guide to Weekly Reading

Bhagavad Gita is a well known ancient Sanskrit scripture with moral,
psychological, cosmological and spiritual contents. It is part of the great epic,
Mahabharat, that has more than 1,00,000 verses. Bhagavad Gita contains only 701
verses that constitute the essence of profound knowledge given by Lord Krishna to
Arjun at the time of battle between the Paandavas and the Kauravas.
The Hindi Bhagavad Gita was translated into Hindi poetic form and became
very popular due to its musical flow and simple language. All the ideas of the
original Sanskrit text were kept intact in this verse by verse poetic rendering of the
Bhagavad Gita but the complexities such as the multiplicity of names to identify
Lord Krishna and Arjun was avoided.
The simplified Hindi Bhagavad Gita was translated into Spanish and has been
published in several editions. Now, an attempt has been made to translate it into
Most of the Sanskrit/Hindi words have been trasnlated into plain English.
However, a glossary is given after the main text to explain the meaning of non-
English words.
For convenience of those who want to read the Bhagavad Gita on weeky
basis, it has been divided into 52 sections. Each section has limited verses and
coomprises one particular idea or theme. The weekly sequence is indicated on the
relevent verse and also given in table form at the end of the book.
Several people have helped in different ways before finalization of this
English version of the Bhagavad Gita. I would like to express my thanks and
gratitude to Nandita, Patricia, Penny Mataji, Laxmi, and Anne Glazier for their
valuable assistance. My special thanks to Mora, my wife, whose translation of the
Bhagavad Gita into Spanish clarified many ideas and encouraged me to translate it
into English.

Chapter 1
The Despondency of Arjun
Week-1/1.01 Dhritarashtra said:
Tell me Sanjaya, after having assembled at Kurukshetra, the battlefield for
righteousness, what did my own sons and the sons of Paandu do?
1.02 Sanjaya said:
Seeing the army of Pandavas arranged in formation, Duryodhan approached the
preceptor Drona, and said:
Oh preceptor! See the well-ordered army of the sons of Paandu. Your disciple,
Dhrishtadyumna, has placed it in formation.
Gallant and ferocious warriors like Bhim and Arjun; great chariot-warriors such as
Yuyudhan, Virat and Drupad, all are ready to fight.
There are Dhrishtaketu, Chekitan, brave Kashiraj, Kuntibhoj, Purujit, and Sheevya.
All the warrior kings are assembled there.
All the heroes, including Yudhamanyu, Abhimanyu, and Uttamauja are there. The
chariot-warrior sons of Draupadi and Subhadra are also positioned there.
Oh preceptor! Now listen to the description of our own army. It also has many
brave heroes. I will name them.
You, grandfather Bhishma, conqueror Krip, brave warrior Karna, Somadatta‟s son,
Vikarna and Ashvatthama, all are there.
There are many other brave heroes. All are prepared to sacrifice their lives for my
sake. They are carrying weapons and are ready to fight.

Our army is large, and it is commanded by Bhishma. The commander of the limited
army of Pandavas is warrior Bhim
All of you should stay firm in your respective places and do your best to protect
To please the king, Bhishma shouted valiant slogans, blew the conch and made a
thunderous roar like a lion.
Conches, drums, trumpets and cow-horns blared in all directions. All battle
instruments started to make a terrific noise.
Lord Krishna and Arjun, riding a chariot drawn by white horses, advanced and blew
their divine conches.
Pancajanya was the conch of Lord Krishna, and the conch of Arjun was Devadatta.
Paundra, that made a deadly roar, was the conch of great Bhim.
Kunti‟s son, Yudhishthir, had his conch called Anantavijaya. Sahadev had
Manipushpak, and Nakul had the conch Sughosh.
There were the conches of bowmen Kashiraj and Shikhandi. The conches of' chariot
warriors Dhrishtadyumna, Virat and the invincible Satyaki also blew.
Gallant Abhimanyu, the son of Arjun, was standing there along with the sons of
Drupad and Draupadi. Brave soldiers blew their conches and made thunderous
sound in all directions.
The roar of conches reverberated on the earth and in the sky, which shook the
hearts of the Kaurava army.
Amidst the blaring of conches, gallant Arjun took his bow, and seeing the well-
arranged army of the Kauravas, spoke to Lord Krishna.

1.21 Arjun said:

Oh Lord Krishna! Kindly proceed and place immediately my chariot between the two
Take me to the place where all the warriors are ready for the battle, so that I may
see all those with whom I have to fight.
I want to see all those people who are ready for the battle and are adamant at the
instance of the wicked-headed Duryodhan.
1.24 Sanjaya said:
Oh King Dhritrashtra! When Lord Krishna heard those words of Arjun, He placed the
chariot between the two armies.
In the presence of Bhishma, Drona and other kings, Lord Krishna said to Arjun:
Look at all the Kauravas who have assembled here.
Both armies were facing each other, and Arjun saw among them sons, teachers,
uncles, brothers, grandfathers, and grandsons.
In those two armies there were fathers-in-law and friends. Magnificent scenes of
the battlefield were visible to Arjun.
Arjun felt sympathy; he was sad and his mind was confused. Feeling disturbed in
the battlefield, he spoke to Lord Krishna.
1.29 Arjun said :
My limbs are quivering; my mouth is dry; my hair stands on end; and my body is
My bow, Gandiv, is falling from my hand and my body is burning. My mind is
reeling with delusion and I am unable to stand.
Oh Lord Krishna! I see bad omens and negative signs. The policy of killing kinsmen
does not appeal to me.

I have no desire for a kingdom or for pleasure. I have no longing for victory. Not
only I do not care for the kingdom, pleasure or victory, I do not care even for the
People, who should have loved this kingdom and all its pleasures, are standing
here. All of them have given up their desire to live and their attachment to wealth.
Grand-fathers, fathers, sons, maternal uncles along with great teachers, dear ones,
brothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, and other relatives are standing here.
Even if I gain the kingdom of the three worlds, I would not kill them. What to say of
this world? I will die myself, but never kill them.
Oh Lord Krishna! By killing them, we will only be getting sorrow, and we will
certainly be committing a sin.
These Kauravas are our relatives and killing them is not proper. Tell me Krishna,
will we ever gain happiness by killing them?
They are blind and greedy; they are incapable of seeing themselves; they cannot
see the sin of destroying the family and of being cruel towards loved ones and
When we can see the consequences of the destruction of the family, we should
refrain from doing such a deed. We should keep ourselves away from committing
such a sin.
With the destruction of the family, all traditional values disappear. This leads to an
increase of vice.
With the increase of vice, women of the family become corrupt. When women are
corrupt, there is cross-breeding in the society.

Cross-breeding leads the family to hell and the spirit of the ancestors is deprived of
food and water.
Increased cross-breeding destroys the family. This leads to the distortion of caste
virtue and family virtue and this results in the disappearance of family traditions.
Oh Lord Krishna! It is said that the members of the family that destroy all virtues,
are found only in hell.
Look, what a grave sin we are ready to commit! For the sake of greed for the
kingdom, we are ready to kill our own relatives.
If the Kauravas take a weapon and kill me, I will bear it. I will not mind even if I am
killed without fighting.
1.47 Sanjaya said:
Saying this at the time of battle, Arjun dropped his bow and arrow. He sat on his
chariot. He was steeped in sorrow.

Chapter 2
The Reality of Mind and Spirit
Week-4/2.01 Sanjaya said:
The condition of Arjun was pitiable and tears were visible in his eyes. When he
appeared very sad, Lord Krishna said these words to him.
2.02 Lord Krishna said:
Arjun, how come, you have developed delusion at the time of war? You will not
attain heaven and you will also gain infamy in this world.
It does not grace you to talk like an impotent person. It is better that you give up
your weakness and fight the enemy.
2.04 Arjun said:
Oh Lord Krishna! How can I shoot arrows at Bhishma and Drona? They are worthy
of worship. How can I attack them?
It is better that I live as a beggar, rather than kill a preceptor. All pleasures, that I
will get after victory, will be stained with blood.
I do not know what is proper. Should they conquer us, or should we conquer them?
After their death, I will have no desire to live.
Due to my weakness, I am losing my understanding and am helpless. Tell me, Lord
Krishna, what is appropriate? I am now a disciple dependent on you.
All the wealth of the entire world, even the kingdom of heaven, will not remove the
sorrow in me that is destroying my senses.
2.09 Sanjaya said:
Saying these words, brave Arjun, sitting on the chariot, became sad and was silent,
saying, „I will not fight‟.

The condition of Arjun was pitiable, but Lord Krishna was smiling. Standing between
the armies, He said these words to Arjun:
2.11 Lord Krishna said:
You are grieving for that which is not worthy of your grief. Wise people are never
afraid either of life or of death.
I, you and all the other rulers present here, existed in the past and will continue to
exist in the future. None will ever be destroyed.
Just as childhood, youth, and old age come in life, similarly, after death, the spirit
changes the body. Why should anyone be afraid of these changes?
Feelings of cold and heat, pleasure and pain, are due to sense experience. They
come, stay for a few moments only, and disappear.
The best person is the one who is never disturbed by pleasure or pain. A person for
whom both pleasure and pain are equal, has the strength to attain liberation.
Untruth has no existence and the truth exists for ever. A wise person comprehends
the true nature of both of them.
That which is all pervasive should be known as indestructible. It is not true that the
indestructible can ever be destroyed.
The spirit is indestructible. The body dies but not the spirit. Oh Arjun! When it is
only the body that dies, why should you not fight?
A person, who thinks that the spirit dies, or the spirit kills, he is ignorant. The spirit
neither dies nor kills anyone.
There is neither birth nor death for the spirit. It exists forever. It is unborn and
eternal. It is only the body which dies.

How can a person kill others or be killed by anyone if he knows that the spirit exists
for ever and never dies?
Just as the body puts on new garments after taking off the old ones, the human
spirit leaves the old body and takes a new one.
Weapons cannot cut the spirit; fire cannot burn it; air cannot dry it; and water
cannot rot it.
The spirit can neither be cut nor burnt nor dried nor does it get rotten. It is infinite
and all pervasive; it stays here forever undisturbed.
It is known as invisible, inconceivable and immutable. Those who understand this
correctly, never lament.
If you believe that the spirit is born and dies, even then, Arjun, it is not proper for
you to grieve.
Whoever is born, dies and is reborn somewhere else. A person, who knows that this
is certain, is not worried.
A living being is not visible until it takes birth. Having become visible after birth, it
again disappears after death.
Everyone is puzzled and perplexed by the spirit. Some stray; some are far away;
and some do not understand it.
The spirit lives in all bodies and is indestructible. You should not lament, because
the spirit is protected by itself.

If you pay attention to your duties, you have no need to feel perturbed. For a
warrior, there is no duty greater than fighting for righteousness.
Preparation for a war is like opening of the gates of heaven. This is the way a
warrior gets the opportunity to attain his liberation.
If you withdraw from the battlefield at the time of a battle for righteousness, your
disrepute will spread in the world and you will be considered a sinner.
Your infamy will spread around and will remain here for ever. Infamy, for an
honorable person, is worse than death.
All warriors will think that you withdrew from the battle because of fear. Those
people who had respected you, will taunt you.
Your enemies will speak ill of your valor and use words that they should never
utter. What can be more painful for you than this?
If you win, you will get the kingdom. If you are killed, you will go to heaven. Arjun,
get ready to fight and do not delay any longer.
Pleasure and pain, profit and loss, victory and defeat, they are all of equal
significance. If you fight understanding this, you will not commit any sin.
This was the knowledge of Sankhya. Arjun, now listen to the knowledge of yoga. It
will break all your bonds of action or Karma.
Efforts made on this path result in success. All obstacles are removed and even a
small advancement results in the disappearance of great fears.
Oh Arjun! On this path, the intellect has one fixed goal. Without a determined
objective, the intellect gets scattered.

Unwise people desire to attain heaven by reading the Vedas. They always say:
“There is nothing beyond them.”
They perform rituals only to enjoy pleasures. They talk sweetly, but they always
hanker after power.
They always engage themselves in consuming material things or in gaining glory.
They are of weak intellect and have no knowledge of spiritual illumination
The Vedas are based on the three modes. Liberate yourself from the modes. Give
up the desire to gain and engage yourself in attaining the Supreme Being.
Just as, after someone has reached the ocean, there is no desire left for a pond,
similarly, a wise person, who is immersed in the Supreme Being, does not care for
the Vedas.
You have the right to perform an action, but you have no right to the fruits of
action. Desire for the fruits of action is like not performing any action.
Do not be attached to perfection or imperfection, success or failure. Always perform
balanced actions because yoga is an attitude of equanimity.
If a person occupies himself in action only to gain the fruits of action, yoga of
intellect is better. By desiring the fruits of action, he makes his own condition
There is no virtue or vice if you perform action with intelligence. Always perform
action with intelligence because yoga is excellence in the performance of action.
A wise person, who renounces the fruits of action through intelligence, is liberated
from the bondage of life and attains a blissful state.

When your intellect crosses the dirty pond of attachment, it will become indifferent
to all that has been heard and all that is yet to be heard.
The intellect that is confused by what has been heard, will attain stability and
tranquility when it attains the blissful state of spiritual illumination (Samadhi)
through immersion in yoga.
Week-8/2.54 Arjun said:
Who are the people considered to be of stable intellect? Who are considered to have
attained Samadhi? How do such people sit, walk, talk and live?
2.55 Lord Krishna said:
Oh Arjun! Whoever renounces all the desires of the mind and is content in himself,
has a stable intellect.
A person, who has no desire for pleasure and does not feel sad when he has pain
and is free from infatuation, anger and fear, consider him to be a savant immersed
in wisdom.
He is happy with whatever he gains, whether it is auspicious or inauspicious.
Stability of the intellect obliterates the distinction between joy and sorrow.
Just as a tortoise withdraws his limbs inside the shell, similarly, an intelligent
person draws his senses inside himself.
When a person renounces food, only the sense object is kept at a distance. After
attaining the Supreme Being, even the desire to taste it disappears.
People of intellect make efforts to control their senses, but the senses are powerful
and attract the mind.
A person, who has faith in Me and is absorbed in Me controls his senses. Whoever
has controlled the senses, has stable intellect.

Senses augment the attachment to objects and the objects increase the desire for
them. When desire increases too much, a person is prone to anger.
Anger creates delusion; delusion corrupts memory; corrupt memory causes
defective intelligence; and defective intelligence destroys a person.
A person, who controls the senses, attains divine grace even when he is moving
among sense objects. He stays away from infatuation and enmity
After attaining divine grace, a person removes the chains of miseries. In the state
of happiness, the intellect attains stability very quickly.
A restive mind is not receptive of knowledge. Without knowledge, there is no
meditation. Without meditation, there is no peace. Without peace, there is no bliss.
The intellect of a person, whose mind is entangled in the senses and who has a
fickle disposition, floats like a boat drifting on the water at the mercy of the wind.
Oh Arjun! A person, who keeps the senses away from their objects, keeps his
intellect stable by exercising control over himself.
When the world sleeps, the yogi is awake. When the world is awake, the yogi
Just as the rivers flow into the ocean but do not cause a flood, actions do not
disturb the peace of mind of a wise person.
A person, who has renounced all his desires and has transcended the ego, is free
from desires and always attains peace and happiness.
After attaining divine consciousness, a person is not bewildered. After achieving
this, he gains supreme bliss.Top

Chapter 3
Yoga of Action
Week-9/3.01 Arjun said:
Krishna, if you say that knowledge is better than action, then why do you ask me to
get involved in these terrible actions?
Through double meaning in your words, you have increased my confusion. Tell me,
which one of these two should I follow?
3.03 Lord Krishna said:
Oh Arjun! In this world, two paths are available so that a person of intellect may
follow the path of knowledge and a yogi may follow the path of action.
Does a person become free from action (karma) by avoiding them? Can any person
attain perfection by renouncing action?
No being can exist even for a moment without action. Actions are based on modes
of nature and can never be stopped.
A person, who controls his senses but continues longing for sense objects, is stupid
and there is hypocrisy in that evil person.
If a person controls the senses and then makes them perform actions, consider him
to be the best person. He is a true yogi.
The performance of routine activities is better than doing nothing. Without action,
even the body cannot be sustained.
Excepting the actions for holy rituals, all other actions cause bondage. Therefore,
you should perform, without attachment, benevolent actions as holy rituals.

In the beginning, the Supreme Being created the universe through holy rituals. He
said: “Increase your progeny and fulfill your desires through holy rituals.”
“You feed the gods and the gods will feed you through holy rituals. Attain well-
being by gaining strength, and nurture each other through holy rituals.”
By pleasing the gods, a person will get everything from them. He, who feeds only
himself, without making an offering to the Supreme Being, will be considered a
Those who eat the leftovers from holy rituals, are saints and are without sin.
Wicked people, who cook only for themselves, are sinful.
Beings are sustained by food; food is produced by rain; rain is caused by holy
rituals; and holy rituals are performed through actions.
The Indestructible creates the world where all actions take place. The Supreme
Being is all pervading, and is projected in all holy rituals.
A person, who does not move according to this wheel of universal motion, has a
wicked nature. He is attached to sense satisfaction and his life is purposeless.
For a person who is happy in himself, who is satisfied and self-contented, there is
no necessity of performing any action.
There is nothing in this world which he has to attain through actions. He keeps
himself away from a situation in which he has to be dependent on others.
Therefore, be detached and do whatever you consider worthy of your action.
Through such actions, you will attain the highest state of life.
People like Janak performed actions to attain perfection. By observing other people,
it is necessary that you perform actions.

Actions performed by wise people are imitated by others. Everyone follows the path
shown by great people.
There is no action which is necessary for Me in any of the three worlds. I have
everything and still I am engaged in actions.
If I do not engage Myself in actions, everyone will follow my path and stay idle
without doing anything.
If I give up action, all worlds will be destroyed. I will create disorder and people will
become corrupt.
Just as an unwise person performs actions through attachment, so a wise person
should perform actions for the welfare of others.
A wise person never disturbs the mind of an unwise person. By devoting himself to
actions, the wise person motivates others to perform actions.
All actions that are performed here are based on the modes of nature. Only a
foolish person says: “I am the doer of the action.”
Whosoever understands the significance of modes and action in nature, accepts
with detachment that both objects and senses have modes.
A wise person does not disturb an ignorant person who is attached to actions and
has no knowledge of the modes of nature.
You should purify your mind by offering your actions to Me. Give up desire, egoism
and fear and engage yourself in the battle.
People who stay away from malice, who are immersed in Me with faithful reverence
and follow My teaching, will be liberated from the bondage of karma.

Those people who are filled with malice and do not accept the wisdom imparted by
Me, are stupid and lost in the darkness. They will be destroyed very soon.
Wise people mould their behavior in conformity with their own nature. Suppression
is useless. All people have to perform actions according to their nature.
All senses have infatuation and aversion towards objects. Even after knowing that
infatuation and aversion are the enemies, why are people controlled by them?
It is preferable to perform the duty according to one‟s own nature-even if the
performance is imperfect-rather than perform the duties of others. The actions
suitable for the nature of others should be feared. Death is preferable to preforming
actions not compatible with one‟s nature.
Week-11/3.36 Arjun said:
Oh Lord Krishna! Why does a person do something even when he does not desire to
do it? Who controls him and who forces him to commit a sin?
3.37 Lord Krishna said:
Lust and anger are produced by the mode of passion (Rajoguna), which is never
satisfied. Consider it to be the sinner and the enemy.
Just as fire is covered by the smoke, a fetus is covered by the placenta and a mirror
is covered by dirt, similarly, the wisdom is covered by lust.
Lust is the enemy of wise people and is insatiable like fire. Understand this, Arjun,
that lust covers the intelligence of everyone.
Lust resides in the senses, in the cognitive mind and also in the intellect. It covers
wisdom and deludes the Self.
It is proper that you should control the senses first and then suppress lust, so that
you may destroy the destroyer of knowledge and wisdom.

The senses are superior to the body; the cognitive mind is superior to the senses;
the intellect is superior to the cognitive mind and the Self is superior to the
Knowing that beyond the intellect is the Self, you should conquer yourself.
Conquering lust is, no doubt, difficult. Yet, since it is a big enemy, it should be

Chapter 4
The Yoga of Knowledge
Week-12/4.01 Lord Krishna said:
I taught the imperishable yoga to Vivasvan; Vivasvan taught it to Manu; and Manu
taught it to Ikshavaku.
The royal sages learnt this yoga traditionally among themselves. Then, for a long
period, this yoga disappeared and was no more in practice.
I have taught to you that very ancient yoga which contains all the deep mysteries,
because you are my devotee and also my friend.
4.04 Arjun said:
Vivasvan was born earlier and he appeared on this earth prior to You. How can I
understand that You taught this yoga to him?
4.05 Lord Krishna said:
Oh Arjun! Both of us were born here several times. I know everything, but you
know nothing.
I am Immortal, Unborn, and the Lord of all beings. Yet I reincarnate because I
follow the laws of nature.
Oh Arjun! Whenever this world suffers from decay, I reincarnate to restore
I am always ready to protect the virtuous. I reincarnate in order to destroy the
Whosoever knows my divine birth and actions, he comes to Me and is not born
again in this world of mortals.

Whosoever takes shelter in Me; whoever frees himself from lust, anger and fear;
whoever gets purified by wisdom and penance; joins Me.
By whatever path anyone comes to Me, I accept him accordingly. Arjun, I welcome
people coming from different paths.
Those people, who long for fruits of actions on earth, offer sacrifices to gods and
attain the fruits very soon.
I created the four social classes (Varnas), regulated by the modes and actions but I
am not bound by the actions and have never desired their fruits.
Action does not pollute Me and I desire no fruits. Whoever knows this, is never
bound by any action.
In ancient times, everyone performed actions to attain liberation. Like them, you
should also perform actions to become liberated.
Even the wise are confused by seeing the difference between action and inaction. I
will explain this to you so that you may be free from faults.
You will know from me the reality of right action, wrong action and inaction. You
should understand this, Arjun, because the differences among actions are very
Whosoever sees inaction in action and action in inaction, even though he performs
all actions, is a wise person, and is immersed in yoga.
A person, whose actions are free from the desire for the fruits of action and who
has tested the actions in the fire of knowledge, is called a learned person (Pandit).
A person, who renounces the fruits of action, remains contented and is not
dependent on anyone. His Self is free even when he is involved in actions.

A person, who has controlled his cognitive mind and ego, who has no desires, and
who has renounced all material wealth, does no do any wrong when he performs
actions with his body.
A person, who is content, who is beyond the dualities, who has no envy in his mind,
who remains unaffected by the victory or defeat, is not in the bondage of actions.
A person, who is unattached, who is immersed in knowledge, whose mind is stable,
who performs actions as holy rituals, he transcends actions.
For such a person, action is the Supreme Being and the offering is also the
Supreme Being. He experiences the Supreme Being in actions and attains the
Supreme Being through actions.
Some yogis offer everything to their gods. Others offer the holy ritual in the fire of
the Supreme Being.
Some people burn all their desires of senses, such as hearing, in the fire of self-
control. Others offer the sense objects to the fire of senses.
Some people offer their senses and the actions of their breathing power in the fire
of their self-control so that knowledge may burn them.
Some people offer wealth, some offer penance, some offer the practice of yoga and
some offer knowledge through the control of the mind.
Some people regulate their life force through breath control (Pranayam). They
channel the pure and impure air in their proper paths.
Some people offer regulated food in the fire of their life force. They comprehend the
holy ritual, through which all their sins are destroyed.

Those people, who eat the leftover of holy rituals, attain the Eternal and Supreme
Being. Without holy rituals, one attains no virtue either in this world or in the other
There are many holy rituals which lead to the source of the Supreme Being. All of
them have originated through action. This knowledge will lead you to liberation.
The holy rituals of knowledge are better than the holy rituals of worldly objects. All
actions are finally dissolved in the knowledge.
Attain that knowledge through humility, through respecting others, through
questioning and through service. This higher knowledge can be gained through a
wise man who is a great philosopher also.
By attaining that knowledge, you will never get confused. You will first discover the
entire power in your own Self and thereafter, you will find it in Me.
Even if you are a sinner, bigger than all other sinners, you will reach the other side
of the river by sailing on the boat of knowledge.
Just as fire (physical) converts wood into ash, so the fire of knowledge converts
action into dust.
On this earth, there is nothing which is more pure than knowledge. Anyone who
attains perfection through yoga, also gains wisdom automatically.
A person, with faithful reverence attains knowledge through the control of the
senses. Soon after attaining knowledge, that person acquires the ultimate peace.
A person, who is ignorant, irreverent and suspicious, gets himself destroyed. He
finds only suffering in this world and in the other world.

Whosoever has attained self-control, has renounced actions by yoga, has removed
his doubt through knowledge, gets himself liberated from action (Karma).
Arjun, attack the doubts of your mind with the sword of knowledge. Through the
yoga of knowledge, all your doubts will be destroyed.

Chapter 5
True Renunciation
Week-16/5.01 Arjun said:
Sometimes You praise renunciation of action, and sometimes You praise the yoga of
action. Tell me, Lord Krishna, which is the better of the two?
5.02 Lord Krishna said:
Renunciation of action and yoga of action, both of them lead to liberation. However,
wise people say that the yoga of action is better.
An ascetic is one who keeps away from desire and malice. After liberating himself
from all dualities, he is liberated from bondage.
Only unwise people say that there is difference between the path of renunciation
and the yoga of action. Those who follow either of them attain the fruit of both.
Whatever fruits are obtained by the path of renunciation, are also attained through
the yoga of action. Those who consider both of them as one path, they have true
Oh Arjun! It is most difficult to attain renunciation without yoga. Those who are
engaged in action with dedication can attain the Supreme Being.
A person, who is immersed in yoga, has a clean mind, has self-control, has
conquered his senses and sees his own spirit in everyone, transcends Karma.
Being immersed in the Supreme Being, a person who knows what are the deep
realities of the elements, performs action with the senses but knows that his Self
has done nothing.
When he is touching, eating, opening the eyes, inhaling or exhaling, he knows that
all objects are attached only to the senses.

Being detached, he offers all his actions to the Supreme Being. He is not affected
by sin, just as the lotus is not smeared by the water in a pond.
A yogi performs actions without any desire, to purify his Self. He always gets
actions performed through the body, the cognitive mind, the intellect and the
By renouncing the fruits of action and by being immersed in yoga, he attains peace.
If he retains desire for the fruits of action, he gets trapped into the bondage.
, having renounced the fruit of action, gains control over the mind and does not get
anything done by it. The Self resides happily in the magnificent abode of nine
gates-the human body.
The Supreme Spirit does not ask for any actions to be performed and keeps Itself
away from the fruits of actions. A person is attached to the fruits of actions due to
his own disposition.
The Supreme Being is detached from virtue as well as vice. When ignorance covers
wisdom, the mind becomes deluded and perplexed.
When someone destroys ignorance after gaining knowledge, the wisdom illuminates
his mind as the sun illuminates the world.
Those people, who attain the Supreme Being through devotion, thought and
consciousness, do not return to this world because their sins are washed away by
When the wisdom of a learned person becomes ripe through learning with humility,
he sees everyone with equanimity, whether it is a man from high class, a cow, an
elephant, a dog, or an attendant in the cremation ground.

When everything is conquered on the earth after attaining the state of equanimity,
it is like imitating the Supreme Being, Who is faultless and is always in the State of
A person, who is neither happy with good things nor unhappy with bad things, has
a stable intellect; he is dispassionate and wise. Consider him to be immersed in the
Supreme Being.
A person, who stays away from the objects of senses, attains spiritual bliss. When
he is immersed in the Supreme Being, he enjoys unique happiness.
Pleasures that emerge from sense satisfaction produce pain. They have a beginning
and an end too. Wise people do not accept them.
A person, who controls both lust and anger before doing something, is a true yogi
and he lives in this world happily.
Anyone who finds happiness, tranquility and illumination inside himself, he attains
nirvana and becomes one with the Supreme Being.
Those people who are pure, who are without sin, who have removed the doubts
caused by duality, who are disciplined, and who do good to others, are immersed in
the Supreme Being.
Those people who are liberated from lust and anger, whose minds are under their
control, who have the knowledge of the ultimate reality, they attain nirvana in this
Concentrating on the center of the eyebrows, a person should renounce all objects
of senses. In this state, he should inhale and exhale in a controlled manner.

Having controlled the senses, the intellect and the consciousness, a person is ready
to attain liberation. He is above lust, fear and anger. Always consider him to be
A person, who knows that I am the consumer of all holy rituals and austerities, that
I govern all the worlds, that I am a friend of all beings, he certainly attains peace.

Chapter 6
The Path of Meditation
Week-18/6.01 Lord Krishna said:
Whether a person is a yogi or ascetic (Sanyasi) he should perform action without
the desire for fruits of action. One does not become Sanyasi merely by not burning
the sacred fire in a holy ritual.
A person, who is called an ascetic, is also called a yogi. Without renouncing the
determined desires for material gains, nobody can become a yogi.
A person, who wishes to accomplish yoga, for him, action is the means to attain it.
Serenity of mind becomes the means after attaining yoga.
When a person gives up attachment to the sense objects or actions, and renounces
all desires for material gains, he attains yoga.
A person should lift himself up and should not let him fall down. Sometimes his Self
(Atman) is his friend and sometimes it is his enemy.
Whosoever has conquered the ego, his Self is his friend. If he fails in conquering
the ego, his Self becomes his enemy.
A person, who has conquered his ego, attains self-realization and peace. For him,
happiness and unhappiness, heat and cold, honor and dishonor, are equal.
By subjugating the senses, he remains firm and attains the spiritual and scientific
knowledge. He is immersed in yoga and sees the clay, the stone, and the gold as
A wise person has an attitude of equanimity towards every person, whether that
person is a friend, an enemy, a near relative, neutral, indifferent, kind hearted,
proud, sinner, or saint.

Such a person exercises control over himself, he stays in solitude, he is without any
desires, he does not crave for possessions, and his mind is always immersed in the
Supreme Being.
His sitting place is a clean ground that is properly leveled and is covered by soft
grass (Kusha), deer skin and clean cloth.
He practices yoga at such a place for self-purification. His mind is fully concentrated
and his senses and the cognitive mind (Chitta) are under his complete control.
Keeping his body, head and neck firm, he should sit straight in upright position.
Without looking in any other direction, his eyes should gaze over the point of his
He has serenity of mind, he is fearless and he performs actions according to the
path of righteousness. He turns his mind towards Me and concentrates on Me.
That yogi, whose mind is under control, is always engaged in yoga. He attains
nirvana and the peace that is present in Me.
Yoga is not for him who eats too much or eats too little. Yoga is also not for him
who sleeps too much or cannot sleep.
A yogi performs his actions in a regulated way and has the discipline that can
destroy sorrow. His food, his entertainment, his waking and sleeping hours, are all
Keeping himself away from temptations, his cognitive mind is fixed on the Self.
After attaining equanimity, he is considered to be immersed in yoga.
The cognitive mind of a yogi is like a flame in the calm air. It facilitates the union of
mind with the Self after controlling the intellect.

When the intellect is under control, the quick-moving cognitive mind becomes
quiet. The yogi then finds the consciousness within his Self and attains the supreme
The happiness which he attains through his intellect is superior to the pleasure of
sense satisfaction. Having attained that state, he is never disturbed by the physical
After attaining that state, he finds that there is no other achievement higher than
this. In that state, he is never disturbed even by very severe pain.
That pure state is the state of yoga which has no connection with pain. That yoga is
attained by an stable intellect, a strong determination, and regular practice.
The yogi gives up all desires that are born out of pre-determined thoughts
(Sankalpa). He controls the senses with his mind and restrains them from running
into different directions.
Applying his intellect strongly, the yogi absorbs his mind in the Self. Gradually,
after attaining peace, he thinks of nothing else.
When this quick moving and restless mind runs away, the yogi controls it and
brings it back into his Self.
A yogi, whose mind is calmed, who is sinless, who has attained the Supreme Being,
and whose mode of passion is quiet, obtains the supreme bliss.
Liberated from sins, he engages his Self in yoga. After getting close to the Supreme
Being easily, he quickly attains the supreme bliss.
A yogi sees all beings in his Self and his Self in all beings. He has an attitude of
equanimity and his Self is impartial.

A person, who sees everything in Me and sees only Me in everything, is not far from
Me, and I do not forget him.
I am in all beings. When a yogi worships Me, in whatever situation he may be, he
always resides in Me.
Oh Arjun! A person, who has an attitude of equanimity and considers everyone
equal, whether he is himself happy or unhappy, he is called yogi.
6.33 Arjun said:
Oh Lord Krishna! The yoga of equanimity, which you have explained to me, appears
to be without foundation due to the quick-moving nature of the mind.
The mind moves very quickly, it is unsteady and very powerful. It always tries to be
obstinate. Controlling such a mind is as difficult as controlling the wind.
6.35 Lord Krishna said:
No doubt, it is difficult to control the quick-moving mind. However, through ascetic
discipline and practice, it is possible to control the mind.
Attaining yoga is difficult for a person who cannot control his mind. However, A
person, who is self-controlled and has spiritual strength, can attain yoga.
6.37 Arjun said:
If a person cannot control his mind, even though he has faithful reverence, what
happens to him when he does not attain perfection in yoga?
What happens to a person who has wavered on the way and has failed on the path
to attain the Supreme Being? Is he destroyed like the scattered cloud? Does he
attain nothing?
Oh Lord Krishna! Remove my doubt completely. Apart from You, there is no one
who can remove this doubt.
6.40 Lord Krishna said:
Arjun, a yogi is never destroyed either in this world or in the other world. A person,
who performs virtuous actions, is never degraded.

After being unsuccessful on the path of yoga, a person goes to the world of virtues.
He is then born again in the family of a purified and well-to-do person.
Or he can take birth in the family of a yogi who is full of wisdom, but this type of
birth is very difficult in this world.
There, he regains those latent impressions (Samskar) which were developed in his
previous lives. He makes efforts to improve them so that they may be perfected in
this life.
Compelled by the practices of the previous life, he makes steady progress. Through
curiosity and yoga, he even transcends the limitations of the scriptures.
Liberated from the sins, he attains perfection in several lives. If he makes diligent
efforts, he attains the highest goal of liberation.
The yogi is superior to an ascetic; the yogi is superior to a an intellectual; and the
yogi is superior to those who perform rituals alone. Therefore, Arjun, you should
become a yogi.
Among the yogis, I consider that one to be the best who, with faithful reverence,
unites his mind with Me and who worships Me.

Chapter 7
The Cosmic Being
Week-21/7.01 Lord Krishna said:
Your mind fixed on Me, being immersed in yoga, and considering Me to be your
shelter, Arjun, now you will understand how to know Me completely.
I will explain fully to you this knowledge and science, after which nothing further
will be left to be known.
One in thousands makes an effort to attain Me, and among them, very rarely does
someone realize My true form.
Earth, water, fire, air, space, intellect, cognitive mind and ego, these are the eight
elements inherent in nature and they constitute the world.
This is My lower nature. I will also tell you about the higher nature, which is the
conscious life form that supports this world.
You should also understand that all beings are born through the union of these two.
I am the cause of their birth and I am also the cause of their death.
Arjun, there is nothing here which is separate from Me. Everything is connected to
Me, just as pearls are beaded on a thread.
I am the taste in water; I am the light in the moon and the sun; I am Om in the
Vedas; I am the sound in space; and I am manliness in men.
I am the brightness in fire; I am the fragrance of the earth; I am life in all beings;
and I am the penance of a great ascetic.

Consider Me to be the eternal seed of all existing things and know Me to be the
intelligence of the intelligent and the glory of the glorious.
I am the strength of strong men who have renounced lust and desire. I am the
righteous aspiration present in all beings.
All the three modes, namely, the mode of harmony, the mode of passion, and the
mode of inertia, have originated from Me. You should understand properly that the
modes emanate from Me. I do not emanate from them.
Deluded by the modes of nature, the world does not recognize Me. It does not
realize that I am Imperishable and beyond the modes.
It is very difficult to overcome the illusion (Maya) of the three modes. However, for
those who worship Me, it is easy to escape the illusion.
The foolish and the irresponsible, who perform bad actions, are deluded. They are
demonic by disposition, and they do not take shelter in Me.
Oh Arjun! I am worshiped by four types of people, namely, those who are suffering
from pain, those who are lovers of truth, those who are desirous of wealth, and the
wise people.
Among them, the wise person, who meditates and is immersed in the Supreme
Being, is the best. He loves Me and I always love him immensely.
Although all are good, yet I consider the wise person to be the best because I am
also the same (wise person). Being fully dedicated to yoga, whatever his goal is,
that is Me.
After many lives, the wise person understands that everything is the Supreme
Being. He ultimately attains Me, but such a wise person is found rarely.

People, whose intelligence is distorted due to their following the desires of the
mind, go to other gods according to their natural disposition.
In whatever form a devotee worships Me with faithful reverence, I reinforce his
faithful reverence and make it steady in that form.
If a person worships, with full faithful reverence, any of My Form, he attains the
desired fruit of his worship and it is I who gives him that fruit.
People with small intelligence attain only temporary fruits. By worshiping gods, they
attain gods; My devotees attain Me.
Unwise people, who do not know My true nature, consider Me to be manifest; but I
am non-manifest. They do not know the higher knowledge.
I am covered by my own yogic illusion and I am never visible. Fools do not know
that I am not bound either by birth or changes.
Arjun, those who have been in the past, those who are at the present, and those
who will be in the future, I know them all, but, they would not know Me.
All beings are born out of desire and aversion. Entangled in the cycle of duality,
they are lost in delusion.
But those virtuous souls, whose sins have been destroyed, who have been liberated
from the duality, and who have become stable, they worship Me.
Whosoever comes to take shelter under Me to liberate himself from old age and
death, will get the full understanding of the Self, of the Supreme Being, and of
action (Karma).

I am Unique and I am the Ruler of the earth, the gods and the holy rituals. Anyone
who knows this, he receives from Me the divine consciousness at the time of death.

Chapter 8
Knowledge of the Eternal
Week-24/8.01 Arjun said:
Oh Lord Krishna! What is Self (Atman)? What is the Supreme Being (Brahma)?
What is action (Karma)? What is the field of elements in the world? What is the field
of gods?
Which of the holy rituals is best here? How do we recognize it? How should we
know You at the time of death by controling our selves?
8.03 Lord Krishna said:
The Imperishable Supreme Being (Brahma) is above everything. Consider Self to be
the natural disposition (Svabhav) of a person. You should know that the creative
power, that is the cause behind everything, is action (Karma).
The physical elements are the foundation of the perishable in nature and the
foundation of immortality is the Supreme Being. Oh Arjun! I am present in all
bodies and I am the foundation of all holy rituals.
There is no doubt that at the time of death whoever leaves the body meditating on
Me, he attains My state.
Whatever thought a person has at the time of death, if he continues to be
immersed in that thought, he attains the state of that thought.
Therefore, you should always remember Me and engage yourself in battle here.
With your intellect and cognitive mind fixed on Me, you will attain Me.
Any person who fixes his intellect in yoga and meditates upon the Absolute Being,
his mind does not go astray, and he attains the Divine Being.

The Absolute Being, Who is the Ruler, the Supporter, the Knower of all and Infinite,
is present in all atoms. We cannot imagine His Form. That dispels darkness and is
present in the rays of light.
At the time of death, immersed in the yoga of devotion, if a person concentrates on
the life-force between his eyebrows, he attains the Divine Being.
Now hear from Me the description of the Imperishable. People with self-control
enter into Him. Desiring Him, the followers of the path of righteousness
(Brahmacharis) purify their life and conduct.
Whosoever controls the openings of the body after making the mind stable and
being immersed in yoga, he controls the passage of life force through his breath;
utters the word Om, and remembers Me at the time of leaving the body and the
world, he attains divine consciousness.
If a person concentrates always on Me, without thinking of anyone else, he
becomes a disciplined yogi and attains Me easily.
After reaching Me, great souls attain perfection. The world is a temporary abode of
sorrow where they do not take birth again.
Prior to reaching the world of the Supreme Being, there is rebirth in all other
worlds. When someone attains Me, he is not born again.
The day of the Creator (Brahmaa) has a thousand ages (Yugas) and His night also
has a thousand ages. A person, who knows this, knows the nights and days
When the day starts, all things that were non-manifest, make their appearance.
When the night descends, they disappear into some non-manifest state.

The condition of things that are manifest, is helplessly pitiable. Their manifest form
disappears in the night and reappears in the day.
Beyond that state of appearance and disappearance, there is another state of
eternal and indescribable existence. While the manifest state is impermanent, the
eternal state is permanent.
That indescribable state is imperishable also and is called the highest state. It is
also My Ultimate Abode from where no one returns.
Oh Arjun! That Ultimate Supreme Person, Who is the cause of the creation of this
entire universe, and in Whom all the elements reside, can be attained through
unwavering devotion.
Now I will describe to you about the time when a person leaves the world, either he
does not return to the world or he does return.
Whosoever leaves the world during the bright half of the lunar month, in the light,
at day time, in fire, and during the six months of the northern course of the sun, he
reaches the Supreme Being.
Whosoever leaves the world in the dark half of the lunar month, in the darkness, at
night, in smoke and during the six months of the southern course of the sun, he
returns after contacting the lunar light.
There are two eternal paths: The path that leads to light and the path that leads to
darkness. From the light nobody returns, but from the darkness, everyone returns.
A person, who knows the right path, removes his delusion. Arjun, it is proper for
you to engage yourself in the path of yoga.

For a yogi, who reaches the Abode of the Supreme Being, the fruits of the study of
the Vedas, the fruits of charity, the fruits of austerity, the fruits of virtue and the
fruits of holy rituals, all become very small.

Chapter 9
The Royal and the Secret Path
Week-26/9.01 Lord Krishna said:
Arjun, you are without envy; you should understand this secret knowledge. When
you will comprehend this teaching, you will be liberated from evil.
This is the purest teaching; this ultimate knowledge comes through experience; this
teaching is according to the principles of righteousness; its practice is simple; and it
never perishes.
Arjun, those people who do not have faithful reverence according to the principles
of righteousness, they do not attain Me and return back to this world of mortals.
I am without attributes but I pervade the whole universe. All things are supported
by Me but I am not visible in those things.
You should understand this mystery that I do not reside in the living beings. My
Spirit supports everyone, but does not live at any one place.
Just as the wind moves forcefully in the space, similarly, everything that is
manifest, moves in Me. You should fully understand this.
After the end of a time-cycle (Kalpa), everything gets absorbed in the nature. That
nature is part of Me. After another time-cycle, everything reappears again.
I produce things continuously, and always keep the nature under control. Everyone
is helpless after being born since everyone is bound by the nature.
No action ever ties or confines Me in any bondage. I am present in the actions but I
am detached and indifferent to them.

Oh Arjun! You should know that this nature is under My care. This is the cause of
the cycle of the universe and gives birth to the animate and the inanimate things.
Foolish people, even after getting the human bodies, ignore Me. They do not know
the real form of the Master that is My Higher Nature.
They live here adopting always the disposition of devils and demons. Their hopes,
actions and knowledge are useless. They live without having the capacity to
Arjun, those people who have great souls and have the divine nature, worship Me
and know Me as Imperishable and as the Source of everything,
Bowing themselves in front of me, they sing songs in My praise. They worship Me
and demonstrate a stable feeling of devotion towards Me.
Other people worship me through the holy ritual of knowledge. They worship Me
knowing that I have one or several forms.
I am the display of ritualistic activities; I am the oblation to the ancestors; I am the
holy ritual; I am the medicine; I am the mantra; I am the melted butter or ghee; I
am the fire; and I am the offering to the fire.
I am the Mother; I am the Father; I am the Grandfather; I am the Supporter; I am
Virtue; I am the object of knowledge; I am the three Vedas, (Rigved, Samved, and
Yajurved); and I am the sound of Om.
I am the Feeder, the Friend, the Shelter, the Refuge, the Master, the Witness, the
Goal, the Origin, the Destruction, the Store, the Resting Place and the
Indestructible Seed.
I give heat; I give rain; I give death and immortality both. Arjun, I am the real and,
along with that, I am also the unreal.

The experts of the Vedas, liberated from sin, drinking the nectar (Soma Ras),
perform holy rituals. They reach heaven and enjoy all the pleasures available to the
From the heaven, they return back to the world of mortals. While performing the
duties of Vedic religion, they come and go according to their desire for happiness.
For those people who make strenuous efforts to attain Me and meditate on Me, I
take care of their yoga and their welfare as well.
Some people worship other gods with faithful reverence. Although their practice is
not perfect, yet, in fact, they worship Me.
I am the Beneficiary of all the holy rituals and I am the Maintainer of all beings. A
person, who does not know My Real Form, always falls down.
Devotees of gods attain the gods; devotees of ancestors attain the ancestors;
devotees of ghosts attain ghosts; and My devotees attain Me.
Offer to me, with faithful reverence, any leaf, water, flower or fruit. All offerings
given to Me with a pure heart are accepted by Me with love.
Arjun, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever holy rituals you perform,
whatever charity you give and whatever austerity you carry out, consider all of
them as offerings to Me.
By following the path of renunciation, you will attain Me and be liberated from all
bondage. You will also be liberated from all the consequences of auspicious and
inauspicious actions.
All people are equal to Me. I have no enmity or attachment to anyone. All those
who worship Me with a feeling of devotion, find that I am in them and they are in

Even a person who is used to evil actions should be considered virtuous if, with
strong determination, he gives up sin and worships Me.
Oh Arjun! It is true that my devotee is never destroyed. He attains permanent
peace and becomes a virtuous soul.
Every person attains the highest goal after coming under My shelter, even if that
person is a woman, a Vaishya, a Shudra, or someone born in a low class family.
What to say of the pure Brahmins and the sages in the royal families! In this
impermanent world full of sorrow, the true religion is to worship Me.
Perform the holy rituals for Me; worship Me in your mind; come under My shelter
get yourself fully immersed in Me; you will attain Me.

Chapter 10
Attributes of the Supreme Being
Week-28/10.01 Lord Krishna said:
Arjun, now listen to My highest words. I will convey them to you so that you may
attain the supreme bliss.
Even the sages and the gods make mistakes about My root form. I am, in every
way, the root of all the sages and the gods.
Whosoever knows Me as Unborn, Eternal and the Lord of all, he is liberated from
delusions and sins in the world of mortals.
Intelligence, forgiveness, absence of delusion, control over the senses, knowledge,
truth, happiness, unhappiness, unreal, real, self-control, fear, fearlessness;
fame, infamy, contentment, non-violence, austerity, equanimity and charity; these
are the states of beings created by Me.
All the seven sages and four Manus originate from Me. They are created out of My
nature, and all beings are created through them.
There is no doubt that whoever knows My Power and My Glory in their real form,
attains Me through yoga.
I am the birthplace of everything and the entire universe is moved by Me. Knowing
this, wise people believe in Me and worship Me.
Offering their life to Me, concentrating their intellect on Me, they talk among
themselves about Me and attain bliss in Me.

They are constantly devoted to Me and worship Me with love. They attain
concentrated intellect and come to take My shelter.
Showing mercy to all, I stay in My Real Form and remove the darkness of their
minds by lighting the lamp of wisdom.
Week-29/10.12 Arjun said:
You are the Supreme Being; You are the Ultimate Abode; You are Pure; You are the
Ultimate Divinity; You are the First among gods; You are Unborn; and You are All-
Narad, Asit, Vyaas, Deval and other sages have said earlier the same thing about
You. Now You have said the same thing about Yourself.
Oh Lord Krishna! Whatever you say, I believe to be true. Neither the gods nor the
demons nor anyone else knows Your Real Form.
You are the Supreme Person. You are the Lord of all gods. You are the Father of the
universe. You are the Root of everything and You know everything.
Now, You explain to me all Your divine Forms, through which, I may understand
that You are pervading in the entire universe.
Meditating on You regularly, how can I gain full knowledge about You? Oh Lord
Krishna! What are the different Forms in which You can be recognized?
Tell me, Lord Krishna, about Your Power and describe to me all Your Attributes. I
am never tired of listening to Your words which are like nectar to me.
Week-30/10.19 Lord Krishna said:
Arjun, I will tell you about My Divine Attributes. There is no end to them and I will
convey to you only a fraction of them.
I am the spirit residing in the hearts of all beings; I am the beginning, the middle
and the end of all things.

I am Vishnu among Adityas; I am the glowing sun among lights; I am Marichi
among Maruts; I am the moon among the stars.
I am the Samved among the Vedas; I am Indra among the gods; I am
consciousness in all beings; I am the mind in the senses.
I am Kuber among the devils and demons; I am Shankar among the Rudras; I am
Meru among the mountains; I am fire among the Vasus.
Arjun, I am the chief priest Brahaspati among the priests; I am Skanda among the
commanders of the armies; I am the ocean among water reservoirs.
Among the great sages, I am Bhrigu; among the spoken words, I am the
imperishable Om; among the holy rituals, I am the Japa and among the non-
moving things, I am the Himalayas.
I am the Pipal among the trees; I am Narad among the sages of heaven; I am Kapil
among the perfect savants (Siddhas); and I am Chetrarath among the great
Born of nectar (Amrit), I am Uccheshrava among the horses; I am Airavat among
the elephants; and I am King among the human beings.
I am thunderbolt (Vajra) among the weapons; I am Kamadhenu among the cows; I
am the Lord of sex (Kamadev) in procreation; and I am Vasuki among the serpents.
I am Sheshanag among the snake gods; I am water among liquids; I am Aryamma
among the ancestors; and I am self-control in the disciplined ones.
I am Prahalad among the demons; I am Time for the counting;, I am the eagle
among the birds; and I am the lion among the animals.

Among the purifiers, I am the air; among the brave, I am Ram; among the water
animals, I am the crocodile; and among the rivers I am the Ganges.
I am the beginning, the middle and the end of all created things; among the
knowledges, I am the spiritual knowledge; and I am logic in the arguments.
I am the Indestructible Time. Among letters, I am A; among the tricks of words, I
am double meaning (Dvandva); and I am the Creator who has mouths in all
I am all-devouring Death and I am the origin of the future. In a woman, I am
grace, glory, memory, fortitude, intelligence, voice and forgiveness.
Among the songs, I am Big Samved; among the verses (mantras) I am Gayatri; I
am Magh among the months; and I am blossoming spring among the seasons.
For the cheats, I am gambling; I am glory of the glorious; I am victory; I am
endeavor; and among good people, I am goodness.
I am Arjun among the sons of Paandu; among the Vrashniyas, I am Vasudev;
among the savants, I am Vyaas; and among the poets, I am Ushana.
I am the ethics of the victorious; I am the scepter of the rulers; I am the silence of
secret things; and I am the wisdom of the wise.
Arjun, the seed of everything is inside Me. There is no moving or non-moving
object which can exist without Me.
My divine attributes are so numerous that there will be no end of them. Arjun, I
have conveyed to you only a fraction of that Glory.
Whosoever is born with dignity, charm and energy, should be considered to be born
from My glorious particles.

Arjun, it is not necessary that you should learn such a profound knowledge. Just a
fraction of My particle is enough to support this great universe.

Chapter 11
The Vision of the Cosmic Form
Week-32/11.01 Arjun said:
Oh Lord Krishna! You have told me the supreme mystery of the spirit which has
removed all the doubts from my mind.
I have heard from You the knowledge of the origin and growth of everything. I have
also heard fully about Your imperishable and infinite Glory.
Oh Lord Krishna! If what You have told me is true, then reveal to me Your Divine
Oh Lord Krishna! If You think that I can visualize That, then show me Your Eternal
11.05 Lord Krishna said:
Oh Arjun! You can see hundreds and thousands of My Forms. Those innumerable
divine Forms have different colors and different compositions.
You will see the Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Ashvinis and Maruts. You will see the
numerous wonders that you have never seen before.
Oh Arjun! You will see today all living and non-living beings to your complete
satisfaction. Whatever you want to see, you will see that in My Body.
However, you will not be able to see the Real Me with these human eyes. I will
bestow upon you the divine sight, so that you may see My Divine Form.
11.09 Sanjaya said:
Saying these words, Lord Krishna explained to Arjun and then showed His highest
Divine Form.

In front of Arjun there was the wonderful Form having beings with numerous eyes
and numerous mouths. There were numerous divine weapons, and they were
decorated with divine ornaments.
There were clothes and garlands, scents and powders fixed over the Body. Large,
wonderful and divine faces were visible in every direction.
The Glorious Form of that marvelous splendor illuminated as if a thousand suns
were shining together in the sky.
Bodies of gods were also visible in numerous forms. All the divided worlds were
seen concentrated in one place.
The hair on the body of brave Arjun was standing on end, and he was astounded.
With bowed head and folded hands, he saluted Lord Krishna.
Week-33/11.15 Arjun said:
I see all the gods and numerous clusters of beings. I see Brahmma sitting on a
lotus throne. I also see sages and snake gods.
The arms, stomach, face and eyes have appeared in numerous forms but nowhere
are their beginnings, their middle parts or their ends visible.
The crown, the scepter (Gada) and the divine wheel (Sudarshan-Chakra) are visible
in glowing form. I see the fire burning like the bright sun.
You are the Resting Place of the universe; You are the Knowledge and You are the
Supreme Being. You are the Protector of immortal righteousness and You are the
Eternal Human Being.
Your Form has unlimited power; it has numerous arms. Your Mouth is full of fire.
The sun and the moon are Your eyes. Your Form is without beginning, middle or

In the sky, on the earth and in every direction, it is only Your Form that pervades.
All the three worlds tremble, seeing Your terrifying Form.
The crowd of gods praise you while entering into You. Sages and savants also
glorify You by reciting Mantras and saying Svasti in your praise.
Rudra, Aditya, Sadhya, Vasu, Ashvini, Gandharva, Marut, Pitar, crowds of devils,
demons and perfect ones also gaze at you in wonder.
You have several mouths, several eyes, several arms, several thighs, several feet,
and several stomachs. I tremble seeing this Form of Yours with big teeth.
You have a broad face and huge eyes. Your colorful brightness shines all over the
sky. My patience and peace are troubled and my inner spirit trembles in fear.
Seeing Your big teeth and the fire in Your mouth, I am very frightened. Oh Lord
Krishna! Lord of the universe! Grant me Your shelter and have mercy upon me!
I see all the sons of Dhritrashtra, along with Bhishma, Karna and Drona, and
groups of kings along with the chief warriors.
They enter helplessly into Your long-toothed Mouth. They are either getting
entangled in the teeth, or being pulverized by them.
Just as the fast flowing rivers flow into the ocean, so, groups of brave soldiers enter
into Your Mouth which is full of flames.
Just as moths hasten towards burning fire, so, soldiers enter into Your Mouth for
their destruction.
In Your Mouth of flames, You swallow all the worlds. The entire universe is scorched
by Your burning rays full of fire.

Tell me, who are You in this frightening Form? Best among gods, I salute You. Be
kind, and tell me about Yourself because I know nothing about You.
Week-34/11.32 Lord Krishna said:
I am Time, the Destroyer. I destroy all the worlds. The fighters of the two armies
will also be destroyed, even without you.
Get up and conquer the enemies, so that you may attain glory and rule the
kingdom. Arjun, they have already been killed by Me, you simply become the
instrument of that killing.
Kill Bhishma, kill Jayadrath, kill Drona, kill Karna, kill all these warriors. They are
already destroyed. Do not be afraid; you will not be defeated in the battle.
11.35 Sanjaya said:
Having heard these words, with folded hands, with astonishment, trembling in fear,
and in a hoarse voice, Arjun spoke to Lord Krishna in this way:
11.36 Arjun said:
People who sing songs in praise of Your Glory, they experience bliss. Demons run
away in fear but enlightened ones respect you.
You are the Lord of infinite gods. You are even greater than the Supreme Being.
You are the Real as well as the Unreal and whatever is beyond that, That is You.
You are the Primordial Person. You are the Omniscient. You are the Knowable. You
are the Goal. You have numerous Forms and whatever pervades the universe, that
is You.
You are the Air, You are the Fire; You are the Water; You are the Destroyer; and
You are the Moon. I salute You. You are the Father; and You are the Lord of all. My
salutations to You!
Salutations from the front! Salutations from behind, and from every direction!
Everywhere, it is You alone. Your Power is unlimited; You are existing in
everything; and You are everything.

Without realizing Your greatness, I considered You to be my equal and due to
ignorance, due to love and due to carelessness, I called You my friend.
I did not give You all the respect while we were eating, while we were sleeping and
while we were playing. Oh Lord Krishna! For this reason, I beg You to forgive me.
You are the Father of the universe; You are the respected Guru; You are worthy of
being worshiped by all. There is no one like You in the three worlds. You are
I bow myself to salute You. Oh my Lord! Kindly forgive me just as a father, a friend
and a lover forgive the son, the friend and the beloved respectively.
I feel blissful seeing the Form that I have never seen before but I tremble in fear.
Now show to me the form that You had earlier.
I want to see you with your crown, with your spectre, and with your discus
(Sudarshan-Chakra) and with four arms instead of a thousand arms.
Week-35/11.47 Lord Krishna said:
With the Divine Power, I have shown to you, for the first time, the vision of the
Ultimate Supreme Being that no one has ever seen before.
In the world of human beings, no one except you has seen It. No one can realize It
even through the Vedas, holy rituals, austerities, actions, charities and teachings.
Do not be frightened and bewildered by seeing My terrible Form. Give up fear and,
joyfully, now see My other form.
11.50 Sanjaya said:
Saying this, Lord Krishna transformed Himself into his earlier form. In that graceful
form, He pacified the frightened Arjun.
11.51 Arjun said:
Seeing You as a human being, Krishna, I have just recovered my senses and
brought myself back to a normal condition.

11.52 Lord Krishna said:

You have seen the Form that can be seen with a great difficulty. Even the gods are
always longing to see this Form.
The Form you have seen just now, cannot be seen by anyone. It cannot be seen
even through the Vedas, through austerity, through charity, and through holy
If a person becomes My dedicated devotee, he can see That, and I tell you Arjun,
he can also enter into Me.
Whosoever worships Me by offering the actions to Me, whosoever is free of
attachment and free of enemies, he attains Me.

Chapter 12
The Path of Devotion
Week-36/12.01 Arjun said:
Some people worship You as the Manifest Being and some have faith in the Non-
Manifest. Lord Krishna, explain to me, who knows better between these two?
12.02 Lord Krishna said:
Those people who fix their mind on Me, those who trust Me, those who have faithful
reverence, and those who worship Me, they are the most complete in yoga.
Those people who worship the Indestructible, the Immutable, the Non-moving,
Formless, All Pervading, Beyond Thought, Indescribable and Stable;
Those who control their senses, those who see everyone with equanimity, and
those who are happy in the welfare of all, they also attain Me.
Worship is difficult for those who concentrate their thoughts on the Non-Manifest.
Attaining the goal of something which is without attributes is very difficult for the
embodied beings.
But those people who offer all their actions to Me and meditate on Me with
devotion, they worship Me.
Those who concentrate on Me, and have pure thoughts in their minds, I liberate
them immediately from the sins of the world of mortals.
First of all, control your body with your cognitive mind (chitta) and fix your intellect
on Me. If you practice this regularly, it is certain that you will enter and reside in
Arjun, if you cannot enter me through practicing control of your body, then make
an effort to gain knowledge, so that you may attain Me.

If knowledge is difficult, then make Me the object of your meditation. Concentrate
on Me, so that you may attain perfection.
If you are incapable of doing even this, it is better that you take refuge in yoga. By
controlling yourself, you should give up the desire for the fruits of actions.
Knowledge is better than the practice of physical control, and meditation is better
than knowledge. However, the peace-giving renunciation of the fruits of actions is
even better than meditation.
A yogi is the friend of all. He is kind, patient and without enmity. He is above
egoism and affection and remains serene in pleasure as well as in pain.
A yogi who has strong determination, who is content, who keeps control over
himself, and who surrenders his cognitive mind and intellect to Me, he is loved by
A yogi is not afraid of the world nor is the world afraid of him. Being free from joy,
envy, fear and anxiety, he is loved by Me.
A yogi who is indifferent, who has no expectations, who is away from affliction, who
is expert in his work, who is pure, and who has given up commencing new
activities, he is loved by Me.
A yogi, who is detached from joyfulness, desire, pain, and enmity, who has
renounced all things good and bad, and who is devoted to Me, he is loved by Me.
For a yogi, enemy and friend, honor and dishonor, pleasure and pain, cold and heat
are equal. He has an attitude of equanimity towards all pairs of opposite.
A yogi has the same attitude towards fame and defame; he is quiet and content;
his place of living is uncertain; and his intellect is stable. Such a devotee is loved by

Those devotees who are full of faithful reverence, those who consider Me to be their
highest goal, and those who follow the eternal wisdom, they are loved by Me.

Chapter 13
Nature and Spirit
Week-37/13.01 Arjun said:
Lord Krishna, explain to me what is nature and what is spirit? What is the field and
who cognizes the field? What is the goal of knowledge and what is knowable?
13.02 Lord Krishna said:
Arjun, the physical body of every being is called the field. The wise person, who
knows this, cognizes the field.
Know that the knower of all the fields is only Me. The true knowledge is to know the
field and the Knower of the field.
Now listen, what is the field, what is its form, and what are the changes in it. How
did it originate, what are its dimensions, and what are its powers.
This subject has been sung very much in the verses of the sages. It has also been
described in the books of logic.
Five elements, the intellect, the ego, the indescribable spirit, the ten senses, the
cognitive mind (five cognitive centers), and the five objects of the senses;
pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, consciousness, fortitude, and the body, and in
addition to them, their distortions, are called the field.
Not to call oneself the best, forgiveness, non-violence, politeness, service to the
teacher, purity, simplicity, self-control, firmness;
detachment from objects of senses, renunciation of the ego, knowing what is
wrong, recognizing birth, death, old age, sickness and pain;

remaining unattached; having no infatuation with children, mother, and home;
having the same feeling towards good and bad events;
always being motivated by the unique yoga, having steady devotion to Me, residing
in solitude and not being interested in crowds of people;
staying immersed in the knowledge of the Self, and seeking the Ultimate Reality,
this is the true knowledge and anything different from this is ignorance.
Whosoever gains the eternal knowledge of the Supreme Being from Me, he attains
immortality. The Supreme Being is Eternal; He is True and He cannot be called
He has hands, feet, eyes, heads and mouths everywhere. He has ears in all
directions. The entire universe is contained in Him.
He has the qualities of all the senses but He is without senses. He is not attached to
any thing, but He supports everything. He is without modes but He consumes the
He is outside and inside everything. He is unmoving but moves also. He is so tiny
that we cannot see Him. He is very far and very near also.
He is indivisible but appears to be divided. He maintains and supports everyone. He
destroys all things and creates them again.
Light and darkness, both are in Him. Know Him to be in all hearts. Accept Him to be
the knowledge, the subject of knowledge and the object of knowledge.
The field, the knowledge, the subject of knowledge has been described briefly. A
person, who understands, this is my devotee and he attains Me.

Arjun, you should know that nature and spirit, are both without beginning. Also
understand that forms and qualities originate from nature.
Nature is said to be the cause of all actions and of all the means of actions. The Self
is said to be the cause of experience of pleasure and pain.
The modes, born out of nature, are consumed by the spirit. Modes are also the
cause of good or bad birth in the world.
The Supreme Being, present in the body as witness, grants His permission for
everything. He is the Consumer, the Great Master and the Great Supporter.
Whosoever knows the modes and, along with them, the difference between spirit
and nature, does not take birth again, irrespective of the actions he may perform.
Some people observe, with their mind, the Supreme Being in the Self through
meditation. Others perform actions or acquire knowledge to attain the vision of the
Many people do not have the capacity to understand this and have faith in what
they hear. Those who worship the Supreme Being after listening to others, also
attain transcendence and liberation.
Arjun, you should understand that all existing living and non-living beings are born
through the union of the field and the Knower of the fields.
A person, who perceives that the Supreme Being resides in everything, realizes that
only things perish and not the Supreme Being.
The Supreme Being is present in all forms and resides in all places. The ultimate
goal can be attained only when the mind does not give trouble to the Self.

Whosoever sees that all actions are due to the nature, knows that the spirit does
nothing and only witnesses actions.
Whosoever sees that all multiplicity is centered in the Supreme Being and that He is
the cause of the expansion of the universe, attains the Supreme Being.
Spirit is without the modes, is immortal and is indestructible. Although it is present
in the body, it does not perform any action and is not absorbed in the body.
Just as the space is everywhere but not engrossed with anything, in the same way,
the spirit is situated in the body but not engrossed with it.
Arjun, just as the sun illuminates the entire world, so, the Lord of fields illuminates
the fields.
A person, who can see, with the eyes of wisdom, the difference between the field
and the Knower of the fields and the way to break the bondage of nature, attains
the Ultimate and Supreme Being.

Chapter 14
The Three Modes of Nature
Week-39/14.01 Lord Krishna said:
Arjun, now listen to that knowledge which is said to be supreme. After knowing it,
the sages lift themselves up and attain the ultimate perfection.
With the help of this knowledge, they attain Me and are not reborn. They also do
not feel unhappy and helpless at the arrival of the final devolution of the universe
The Great and Supreme Being (Brahma) is the Ultimate Womb, and I put the seed
in It through which all beings and things are created.
Arjun, wherever a form is created through a womb, the womb of everything is like
the Supreme Being (Brahma), and I sow the seed like the Father.
The modes (Gunas) of harmony (Saatvik), passion (Raajasik) and inertia
(Taamasik), are born through nature. Arjun, they bind the spirit to the body.
Among them, the mode of harmony is the purest and is the cause of enlightenment
and health. It also unites human beings with knowledge and bliss.
The mode of passion tends to produce infatuation, which leads to attachment and
desire. Through attachment, it binds the spirit to action.
There is ignorance in the mode of inertia and all beings are deluded by it. It leads
them to carelessness, laziness and sleep.
The mode of harmony leads to bliss; the mode of passion leads to action; but in the
mode of inertia, the intellect is covered and people remain stupid.

Sometimes the mode of harmony dominates the modes of passion and inertia;
sometimes the mode of passion dominates the modes of harmony and inertia; and
sometimes the mode of inertia dominates the modes of harmony and passion.
When the light of knowledge comes out through the gates (openings) of the body,
it may be said that the mode of harmony is dominating.
When the mode of passion dominates, there is the beginning of greed, desire,
restlessness, activity and commencement of inappropriate actions.
When the mode of inertia dominates, there is preponderance of darkness,
inactivity, carelessness and foolishness.
If the spirit leaves the body when the mode of harmony dominates, it goes straight
to the pure world that is full of wisdom.
If the spirit leaves the body at a time when the mode of passion dominates, it takes
birth among active people. If the spirit leaves the body when the mode of inertia
dominates, it is born again among foolish people.
The fruit of action in the mode of harmony is happiness which gives knowledge; the
fruit of action in the mode of passion is pain; and the fruit of action in the mode of
inertia is ignorance.
Knowledge is the consequence of the mode of harmony; greed is the consequence
of the mode of passion; foolishness and ignorance, that give pain, are the
consequences of the mode of inertia.
The mode of passion keeps people in the middle; the mode of harmony lifts them
up; and the mode of inertia makes them perform despicable actions and pushes
them downwards.

When the seer who performs actions, accepts the reality of three modes and knows
what is beyond these modes, he recognizes My Real Form.
When a person lifts himself up and rises above the modes and then leaves the
body, he is liberated from birth, death, old age and pain.
14.21 Arjun said:
How can we recognize a person who is above the three modes? How does he live?
How does he rise above the modes?
14.22 Lord Krishna said:
Such a person is neither disturbed by the presence of light, activity or infatuation
nor does he desire them.
Being indifferent to the modes, he remains stable and unshaken. Knowing that all
his actions are because of the modes, he remains firm.
His mind is always stable and for him, pleasure and pain; clay, gold and stone;
pleasant and unpleasant; defamation and fame; are the same.
For him honor and dishonor, friends and enemies are alike. Whoever renounces the
fruits of action should be known to have transcended the modes.
A person, who serves Me with unflinching devotion, transcends the three modes,
and qualifies to unite with the Supreme Being.
I am the means of attaining the Immortal and the Indestructible Supreme Being. I
am the Abode of Eternal Righteousness and Supreme Bliss.

Chapter 15
The Eternal Tree of Wisdom
Week-42/15.01 Lord Krishna said:
There is a tree called Ashwattha, whose roots are upwards and the branches are
downwards. The leaves of the tree are the Vedas. Whoever understands this, knows
the Vedas.
Its branches are made of the modes and its buds are the sense objects. Its roots
are spread as far as the world of human beings where all actions are performed.
No one can see the real form of this tree which is without any beginning or any end
or any base. This Ashwattha tree with deep roots should be conquered by the
weapon of non-attachment.
Thereafter, you should say that I take the shelter of the Creator of the universe,
and seek the Ultimate Abode, from where no one returns to this world of mortals.
A person, who has given up pride and attachment, who has calmed his desires, who
is engaged in attaining liberation, and who has renounced pleasure and pain,
reaches the Ultimate Abode.
That Abode is not illuminated by the sun or by the moon or by fire. That is My
Ultimate Abode, from where no one ever returns.
My eternal particle takes the form of the spirit in every living being and resides in
the world. It attracts the senses and the mind which are inherent in nature.
When the Lord acquires a body or leaves it, the spirit also accompanies Him, just as
fragrance is carried by the wind from one place to another.
The spirit uses the ear, the eye, the nose, the skin, the tongue and the mind, and,
to derive pleasure through them, consumes the sense objects.

The spirit associates with the modes, gets nourishment, enters the body, and
leaves the body. A fool does not see it, but a person with the eyes of wisdom can
see it.
A yogi, who makes efforts, can see the spirit inside him through disciplined
dedication, but a person who has slow intelligence and is without discipline, does
not see, even if he makes an effort.
The glow of the sun which gives light to the world, the glow of fire and the glow of
the moon, all are manifestations of My Radiance.
Through the life force, I continuously take birth on the earth. In the form of the
moon full of nectar, I feed and support all beings.
I enter the bodies of beings in the form of digestive fire, and, by mixing with the air
through the process of inhaling and exhaling; digest the foods eaten in four
different ways.
I provide knowledge, memory and forgetfulness and I live in every heart. I am the
knowledge of the Vedas; I am the ultimate end of the Vedas; and I am the knower
of the Vedas.
The perishable and the imperishable both forms pervade this universe. The
perishable form causes the manifest existence, and the imperishable form is
inherent in everything.
There is another different and highest Being called the Supreme Spirit; That is the
Lord of the three worlds; and That feeds everyone.
I am beyond the perishable and the imperishable. Therefore, in the world and in the
Vedas, I am the Supreme Person (Purushottam).

To know the Supreme Person, without delusion, is to know everything. You should
fully understand that this is also the way to accept worshipping Me.
Oh Arjun! In this way, I have explained to you this secret knowledge. All those who
get this knowledge feel grateful because it makes them wise.

Chapter 16
The Divine and The Demonic Beings
Week-43/16.01 Lord Krishna said:
Fearlessness, purity of mind, acqucring education, interest in yoga, charity, self-
control, simplicity, doing austerity, performing holy ritual, obtaining true knowledge
of scriptures;
truth, non-violence, control over anger, peace, being indifference to faults,
compassion, lack of greed, tenderness, modesty, renunciation, firmness;
lack of enmity, radiance, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness and politeness; these
are the qualities of a person who is born with a divine disposition.
Cruelty, hypocrisy, haughtiness, anger, pride and ignorance; these are the qualities
of a person who is born with a demonic disposition.
The divine qualities lead to liberation while the demonic qualities lead to bondage.
Arjun, do not be sad, you are born with the divine treasure.
There are two types of beings- divine and demonic. I have explained the divine
beings. Now hear who are the demonic beings.
Demonic beings have no knowledge either of renunciation or of action. They lack
purity, proper manners and truth.
They say that the world is unreal, without a Master and without foundation. They do
not accept the regulatory cause or moral base of the world.
Having small intelligence and corrupt souls, they adopt a very rigid attitude. They
come as enemies to destroy this world.

They are full of ego and pride; they are hypocrites; they are full of desires; they are
foolish; and they have the wrong attitude. They perform actions without any
thoughtful determination.
They are always pressed by worries and their end is in death. Their only goal is to
satisfy their desires and they believe that this is everything.
Bound by the fetters of selfish desires, they live under the pressure of lust. They
collect immense wealth just for their consumption.
They say: „I have gained everything; I will fulfill all my desires; this is mine; that
will also be mine; I will take everything;
I have killed this one; I will kill that one also; I am the Supreme Being; I am
enjoyer of all possessions; I am successful, happy and strong; I am everything;
I am rich; I am from a high family; I will perform holy rituals; I will give charity; I
will enjoy bliss.‟ Only foolish and ignorant people talk like that.
They are bewildered by many such ideas and get entangled in the net of
attachment. They keep satisfying their desires and fall into a despicable hell.
They are proud and stubborn. They are intoxicated by wealth and fame. They are
hypocrites, and they perform holy rituals only for a show without following the
They are controlled by enmity, ego, power, pride, lust and anger. They hate even
Me, Who resides inside everyone.
They are lowly, cruel and angry, and they continue to perform the despicable acts.
In the cycle of life and death, they are thrown into a demonic womb.

Those fools, staying in the demonic condition, and even after several births,
continue to remain in a low condition and do not attain Me.
Lust, anger and greed, these are the three gates of hell. They lead to the
destruction of the Self and all of them should be avoided and renounced.
A person, who saves himself from entering into the darkness through these three
gates, performs actions for the welfare of others and obtains the virtuous fruits of
the actions.
A person, who performs actions according to his own desires, without following the
rules of the scriptures, does not attain perfection and happiness, nor does he attain
virtuous fruits.
What is to be done and what is not to be done should be determined by the
scriptures. Know the rules through the scriptures and follow them regularly in this

Chapter 17
Types of the Three Faithful Reverences
Week-45/17.01 Arjun said:
What happens to those who perform holy rituals with faithful reverence (Shraddha)
without following the scriptures? What is the difference in faithful reverence of the
three different modes of harmony, passion and inertia?
17.02 Lord Krishna said:
Faithful reverence of embodied beings depends on their disposition. It is good
(Saatvik), average (Raajasik) or bad (Taamasik), according to the mode.
Faithful reverence of every person is according to his natural disposition. It is
determined by the modes and is based on the natural disposition of a person.
Good (Saatvik) people worship gods, average (Raajasik) people worship demi-gods
and demons, and the bad (Taamasik) people worship ghosts, witches and spirits.
If people perform extreme penance which is prohibited by the scriptures, they are
full of ego and pride, and they are motivated by lust and infatuation.
Those foolish and demonic people torture the elements of the body and give pain to
Me since I am residing inside them.
Food is liked by all. Know it to be of three types. Holy ritual, charity and penance
are also of three types. Recognize them properly.
Good (Saatvik) foods increase longevity, vitality, strength, health, happiness and
enthusiasm. They are sweet, buttered, tasty and nourishing.
Foods which are bitter, sour, salty, hot (full of chilies), non-spiced and produce
sadness, pain, sickness and burning, are average (Raajasik) food.

Food which is spoiled, without taste, stale, rotten, leftover and dirty, is called bad
(Taamasik) food.
Oh Arjun! The good (Saatvik) holy ritual is performed without desire for fruits. It is
performed as duty and according to the rules of scriptures.
Average (Raajasik) holy ritual is performed with the expectation of fruits and is
performed only for a show.
Bad (Taamasik) holy ritual is performed without distributing food, without charity,
without rules, without recitation of mantras, and without faithful reverence.
Austerity of the body is to respect gods, learned people, gurus, scholars and to
have purity, to be truthful, non-violent and to practice celibacy.
The austerity of speech is to say words that are harmless, true, pleasing and
beneficial. It is also to recite the holy scriptures regularly.
The austerity of mind is to be silent, cheerful, contented, fully self-controlled, and
to have purity of thought.
While doing the three types of austerities, if the mind is balanced and the austerity
is done with faithful reverence and without desire for the fruits, it is called good
(Saatvik) austerity.
Average (Raajasik) austerity is done with a view to respect someone, or at the time
of worship, or for a show. Such austerity is very weak and temporary.
The austerity by which arrogant and foolish people suffer pain, or do it for causing
harm to others, is bad (Taamasik).
Charity, given to a deserving person, without any desire for fruits, considering it as
duty and given at a proper place and proper time, is called good (Saatvik) charity.

Charity given with the desire for fruits or to gain profit, or which causes conflicts, is
called average (Raajasik) charity.
Charity, given without a proper ceremony and with a feeling of contempt, to a non-
deserving person, at an improper time or improper place, is called bad (Taamasik)
Om, Tat, Sat, these three words are the symbols of the Supreme Being. They are
used during worship, during the recitation of the holy scriptures and during the
performance of holy rituals.
All actions of holy rituals, charity and austerity which are performed in accordance
with the scriptures, are initiated by holy people reciting Om.
All actions of holy ritual, charity and austerity are called Tat if those actions are
performed without desire for fruits, and performed by people who are seekers of
The word Sat is used to indicate goodness and truth. It is also used during the
performance of commendable actions.
Firm determination for doing holy ritual, charity and austerity, is called Sat. Similar
firm determination for performing other actions is also called Sat.
The performance of holy ritual, charity, austerity, and action without faithful
reverence is called Asat. It does not give benefit in this world or in the other world.

Chapter 18
Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation
Week-47/18.01 Arjun said:
Oh Lord Krishna! I wish to have the knowledge of renunciation and asceticism.
Explain the two separately and tell me what is their reality.
18.02 Lord Krishna said:
It is said that asceticism is the renunciation of those actions which are motivated by
desire. It is also said that the real renunciation is to renounce the desire for fruits of
all actions.
Some people say that you should renounce actions, considering them to be full of
flaws. Others say that you should not renounce the actions of austerity, charity and
holy ritual.
Arjun, now you hear from Me what is renunciation in reality. Intelligent people and
scholars say that there are three types of renunciation.
The actions of holy ritual, charity and austerity should be performed and they
should not be renounced. As an intelligent person, you should purify your life with
these actions.
You should perform actions with detachment and renounce the fruits of actions.
This is my definite view, Arjun, pay attention to it.
Renunciation of regular and obligatory actions is not proper. This type of
renunciation done by an ignorant person is called a low level (Taamasik)
Renunciation, which is due to fear of physical pain and inconvenience, is called
medium level (Raajasik) renunciation. Through this, one does not obtain the fruit of

When someone performs obligatory actions, considering them proper, and
renounces the attachment to actions and the fruits of actions, that is called a high
level (Saatvik) renunciation.
A wise person is a high level (Saatvik) renouncer. He is not attached to the fruit of
action. He neither hates unpleasant actions nor loves pleasant actions.
It is not possible for an embodied being to renounce actions completely but the
renunciation of all fruits of actions is also renunciation.
A person receives pleasant, unpleasant or mixed fruit of actions after death. A
person, who renounces all actions, never receives any fruit.
Arjun, now you know from Me the five essential components of action, the
knowledge of which is given in the Sankhya Yoga.
The five components of action are: the place of action, the performer of action, all
the senses as instruments of action, action itself, and the Divine Will.
When people perform actions with their body, voice or mind, these five components
are always present, irrespective of whether the action is proper or improper.
Only a fool considers himself to be the doer of an action. His intelligence is
untrained and he does not understand the reality.
A person, who is liberated from the ego and whose intelligence is pure, even if he
kills others, will not be bound by the action.
Knowledge, the object of knowledge, and the knower, these are the three factors
that stimulate action. The instrument, the action, and the doer, these are the three
factors that lead to the accumulation of Karma.

The science of modes explains the meaning of knowledge, action, and the doer. The
knowledge, the action, and the doer of action are of three types. Know them
Knowledge, by which the authority of only one Supreme Power is seen in all beings,
and by which a person can see the reality, is the high (Saatvik) knowledge.
Knowledge by which beings are seen as unequal, and by which reality is seen
fragmented, is the medium (Raajasik) knowledge.
Knowledge by which only one action is known, without knowing its cause and the
essential meaning, is low or Taamasik knowledge.
Actions that are obligatory, are performed after the renunciation of desire for the
fruits, and are beyond infatuation and enmity, are good (Saatvik) actions.
Actions that involve hard work, are performed with the desire for fruits, and are
motivated by the feelings of egoism, are average (Raajasik) actions.
Actions that can cause violence or loss, are performed without knowledge of the
results and without having any idea of bravery, are bad (Taamasik) actions.
A person, who is always undisturbed by perfection or imperfection, who is liberated
from egoism, and who is full of patience and enthusiasm, is a good (Saatvik) doer
of action.
A person, who is greedy, violent, infatuated, anxious for the fruits of action, and is
disturbed by joy and sorrow, is an average (Raajasik) doer of action.
A person, who is a cheat, haughty, ill-mannered, has feelings of enmity, is a
procrastinator, sad, lazy and unbalanced, is a bad (Taamasik) doer of action.

Arjun, there are three types of intelligence and fortitude that are based on the
three modes. I will explain them fully to you.
Good (Saatvik), intelligence understands the difference between action and
inaction, fear and fearlessness, bondage and liberation, the desirable and the
Intelligence that does not know what should be done and what should not be done,
what is righteous and what is not righteous, is called average (Raajasik)
Intelligence that causes darkness, through which the non-righteous becomes
righteous, and everything is turned upside down, is called bad (Taamasik)
Fortitude, that is stable and controls the mind, life force and senses through
unification, is of high quality (Saatvik).
Medium quality (Raajasik) fortitude causes clinging to wealth, action and pleasures,
and always causes desire for the fruits of action.
With the low quality (Taamasik) fortitude, people cannot give up enmity, sleep,
fear, pride, sorrow and hatred, and they continue to remain stupid.
Based on the modes, there are three types of happiness. Whoever knows them
through practice, has his sorrows eliminated.
Happiness of high type (Saatvik), is bitter in the beginning but its end is like nectar.
It originates from the knowledge of the Self.
Medium type (Raajasik) happiness is based on the satisfaction of the senses and is
sweet in the beginning but in the end gives pain that causes suffering.

Low type (Taamasik) happiness causes infatuation both in the beginning and in the
end. It increases laziness, sleep and madness.
There is no man or god on this earth or in the heaven whose life is not bound by
the three modes implied in nature.
Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras have their respective activities that
are determined by the modes.
The qualities of a Brahmin are: control of the mind, control of the senses, austerity,
purity, forgiveness, truthfulness, rationality, knowledge, belief in the Supreme
Being and righteousness.
The qualities of a Kshatriya are: radiance, patience, common sense, bravery,
staying in the battlefield, leadership and charity.
The activities of a Vaishya are: agriculture, animal husbandry and commerce.
Performance of the acts of service to all is the natural duty of a Shudra.
A person attains perfection by engaging himself in his own duties. Now I will explain
how to attain perfection.
A person attains perfection by worshiping, through actions, the Supreme Being That
is All Pervading and That is the Creator of all beings.
Performance of duty according to one‟s own nature-even if it be imperfect-is better
than the performance of another person‟s duties. By performaning actions
according to one‟s own disposition, one does not commit any sin.
Do not renounce actions that are determined by your natural disposition-even if
those actions are imperfect. Know that faults surround actions just as smoke
surrounds fire.

An ascetic, who is detached, self-controlled and without any desire, reaches that
place where no action is left to be performed.
Oh Arjun! Now listen, how, on attaining perfection, a person attains the highest
wisdom that is like attaining the Knowledge of the Supreme Being.
He purifies his intellect through self control. After renouncing infatuation and
aversion, he renounces words of praise and other sense objects.
He lives alone; he eats little; he controls his body, mind and words; he is immersed
in meditation; and he has deep interest in life as an ascetic.
He renounces egoism, power, lust, anger, pride, wealth and attachment. With a
peaceful temperament, he becomes capable of attaining the Supreme Being.
Through unification with the Supreme Being, he accepts everybody as an equal. He
has no sorrows or desires and becomes My best devotee.
My devotee knows well Who I am and What I am. After knowing Me in the Real
Form, he enters into Me.
After taking shelter under Me, whoever performs actions with devotion, receives
continuously my blessings and attains blissfulness.
Offer to Me all activities of your body through your mind. Practice to make your
intellect stable and fix your thoughts on Me.
If your intellect is established in Me, you will overcome all sorrows. If you do not
listen due to your ego, you will be destroyed.
Being possessed by ego, saying „I will not fight‟ is futile because your nature will
compel you to fight.

Oh Arjun! If, due to delusion, you do not desire to do it, your natural disposition will
force you to do, even without your desiring it.
The Supreme Being resides in the hearts of all beings and moves all their parts like
a machine (Yantra).
If you offer your existence to Him and take His shelter, His blessings will be
bestowed upon you, through which, you will attain permanent peace and
I have conveyed to you this profound knowledge full of mysteries. Now you ponder
over it and then do whatever appeals to your mind.
Now listen to the most profound and secret words. I will tell you what is beneficial
to you, because you are loved by Me.
Fix your mind on Me, become My devotee, and perform holy rituals for Me. It is
definite that you will attain Me because I love you more than I love others.
Renouncing all religions, if you come under My shelter, I shall remove all your sins
and protect you from all sorrows.
Do not give this knowledge to someone who is not a devotee, who is not attentive,
who talks ill of Me, and who has no strength for austerity and for service.
Whosoever teaches to other devotees this profound knowledge from Me, will
certainly reach Me, because he shows devotion to Me.
For Me, no one else will be a better devotee than such a teacher. He will be dearer
to Me than anyone else in this world.
Whosoever reads this sacred dialogue with attention, I know that he worships Me
by performing the holy ritual of knowledge.

If any person, as a devotee, listens to this dialogue without ill will, he will attain
liberation and enter into the divine world of the virtuous.
Oh Arjun! Have you listened attentively to whatever I have said? Have you
destroyed your delusion caused by ignorance?
18.73 Arjun said:
Oh Lord Krishna! My delusion has been destroyed and my memory has returned.
My doubts are cleared and I am stable. I will obey you.
18.74 Sanjaya said:
I have listened, with attention, to this dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjun. My
hair is on end after hearing this dialogue.
It is through the blessings of Vyaas that I could hear such profound knowledge and
listen to this sermon given by Lord Krishna.
Whenever I have remembered this dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjun, I
have felt thrilled and delighted.
Whenever I remember the wonderful Form of Lord Krishna, I am astonished and
feel joyful.
Wherever Lord Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, and Arjun, the wielder of bow, are
present, morality, well being, victory and prosperity are certainly there.

Abhimanyu : Son of Arjun who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Adityas : Twelve deities that represent the signs of the zodiac or the months of
the year.
Airavat : The mythological white elephant.
Anantanag : The king of the mythological kingdom of snakes.
Arjun : Son of Paandu. Friend and disciple of Lord Krishna to whom is given the
knowledge of yoga in the Bhagvad Gita.
Aryama : The ruler of the world of the ancestors.
Asat : False, unreal or lacking proof of existence.
Ashvatthama : Son of Drona.
Ashvini : Twin God of the creation.
Ashwattha : Sacred tree also called Pipal.
Asit : One of the big sages of ancient India.
Atma : Spirit. Essence.
Atman : The spiritual disposition of a person and indivisible part of the Supreme
Atmavijaya : The conch of Yudhishthir.
Bhim : Brother of Arjun who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Bhishma : The celibate brother of the grandfather of both the Pandavas and the
Kauravas. He fights on the side of the Kauravas.
Bhrigu : One of the seven big sages in the ancient India.
Brahaspati : The supreme celestial priest.
Brahma : God or the Supreme Being.
Brahmins : Priestly class in the Hindu religion.
Brahmmaa : One of three gods in Hindu mythology. The god of creation.
Chekitaan : One of the kings who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Chetrarath : The best among the celestial musicians.
Daityas : Type of demons who were considered very powerful.
Devadatta : The conch of Arjun.

Deval : One of the sages in ancient India.

Dharma : Religion, righteousness, duty, spiritual path, justice.
Dhrishtadyumna : King who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Dhrishtaketu : King who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Dhritarashtra : The father of the Kauravas.
Draupadi : The wife who was married to the five Pandavas in common.
Drona : The teacher of martial arts of the Kauravas and of the Pandavas.
Drupad : One of the kings who fights on the side of the Pandavas. Father of
Duryodhan : The eldest son of Dhritarashtra and the main opponent of Arjun.
Dvandva : Double meaning
Gada : Scepter.
Gandharva : Mythological artists expert in music and other arts.
Gandiv : The arch of Arjun.
Ganges : Sacred river of India.
Gayatri : Sacred mantra that is recited in most of the Hindu holy rituals and
Gunas : Modes
Guru : Teacher or spiritual guide.
Himalaya : Mountain range in the North of India.
Indra : The god of water and rain.
Janak : Saintly King whose daughter Sita married Ram.
Jap : Sacred rite which consists of the repetition of Mantras.
Jayadrath : Maternal uncle of Duryodhan who fights on the side of the Kauravas.
Kaal : The time. It can also mean the death.
Kamadev : The god of love, desire and sex.
Kamadhenu : The mythological cow that can provide all things to fulfil all the
Kapil : A sage of ancient India to whom is attributed the authorship of the
Sankhya philosophy.
Karma : Action. It can also mean the theory of the causation and the destiny.

Karna : Half brother of Arjun who fights on the side of the Kauravas.
Kashiraja : One of the kings who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Kauravas : Children of King Dhritarashtra who fight against the Pandavas for the
control of the Kingdom of Kuru.
Krip : Warrior on the side of the Kauravas.
Krishna : Incarnation of Vishnu whose discourse is the theme of the Bhagvad Gita.
Kshatria : Person belonging to the class of warriors in Hindu religion.
Kuber : The treasurer of the gods.
Kunti : Mother of Arjun.
Kuntibhoja : One of the kings who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Kurukshetra : The battlefield and place of discourse of the Bhagvad Gita.
Magh : One of the winter months of the Hindu calendar.
Manipushpak : The conch of Sahadev.
Mantra : Sounds or words recited during meditation, religious ceremonies and
holy rituals.
Manus : Humanity's fourteen original ancestors in Hinduism.
Marut : Different types of winds.
Meru : Mythological mountain.
Moksha : The liberation of the spirit. The final goal of the human life in Hinduism.
Narad : Celestial sage.
Nirvana : State of perfection, liberation and peace.
Om : Sacred word that is recited in meditation or in Mantras.
Paandu : Father of the Paandavas and brother of Dhritarashtra.
Panchajanya : The conch of Krishna.
Paundra : The conch of Bhim.
Pipal : Sacred tree also called Ashvattha.
Prakriti : Nature. It causes material existence of the world.
Prahalad : Son of a demonic king (Hiranyakashyap). who defied the belief that his
father was more powerful than God.
Pralaya : Deluge. Final devolution of the universe.
Prana : The force or vital energy.

Purujit : One of the warrior who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Raajasik : The mode of the movement or passion.
Ram : Divine incarnation. He conquered the forces of evil and made the world a
secure place for virtuous people.
Rigved : One of the Vedas.
Rudras : Clan of Shiva.
Saatvik : The mode of harmony, illumination and virtue.
Sahadev : Brother of Arjun.
Samadhi : State of spiritual illumination, peace and absolute bliss.
Samved : One of the Vedas.
Sanyasi : Ascetic. Renunciate.
Sanjaya : The charioter who narrates to the blind king, Dhritarashtra, what
happens in the battlefield
Sankhya : School of Philosophy that studies the knowledge of mind and spirit.
Sat : The Truth. The Reality. What has existence.
Satyaki : One of the warriors who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Shaivya : One of the warriors who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Shankar : One of the names of Shiva.
Shikhandi : One of the warriors who fights on the side of the Kauravas.
Shudra : Lowest class in the Hindu religion.
Skanda : A mythological warrior and commander who is said to be the son of
Somadatta : One of the warriors who fights on the side of the Kauravas.
Subhadra : Wife of Arjun and sister of Krishna.
Sudarshan Charkra : Weapon in disk form that is carried by Lord Krishna.
Sughosh : The conch of Nakul.
Svargaloka : Heaven or habitation of the gods.
Svasti : Blessings.
Taamasik : The mode of inertia, ignorance and darkness.
Tat : Neuter third person pronoun that refers to the Absolute and Supreme Being.
Uccheshrava : Mythological Horse with wings.

Ushana : Celestial poet.

Uttamauja : One of the warriors who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Vaishya : Merchants and business class of Hinduism.
Vajra : Thunderbolt. Destructive weapon in ray form.
Varnas : The four social classes of the Hindu religion.
Varun : The god of the seas.
Vasu : Eight earliest beings created from energy.
Vasudev : Father of Krishna.
Vasuki : The mythological snake that was used to churn and take out butter from
the ocean of milk.
Vedas : The oldest sacred books in India. Literally it means the entire knowledge.
Vikarna : One of the warriors who fights on the side of the Kauravas.
Viraat : One of the warriors who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Vrashneyas : A dynasty of kings.
Vyaas : The sage who composed the Mahabharata and is the author of the
Bhagavad Gita
Yajurved : One of the Vedas.
Yaksha : One of the demigods.
Yantra : Machine. Geometrical formation like mandala.
Yoga : Integrated physical, mental and spiritual discipline whose objective is the
union with God.
Yogi : A person who is devoted to yoga and attain the union with God.
Yudhamanyu : Warrior who fights on the side of the Pandavas.
Yudhishthir : The eldest son of Paandu nad brother of Arjun. He fights on the side
of the Pandavas.
Yuyudhaan : Warrior who fights on the side of the Pandavas.

Guide to Weekly Reading

Week-1 1.01 to 1.19 Week-27 9.16 to 9.34
Week-2 1.20 to 1.27 Week-28 10.01 to 10.11
Week-3 1.28 to 1.47 Week-29 10.12 to 10.18
Week-4 2.01 to 2.09 Week-30 10.19 to 10.32
Week-5 2.10 to 2.30 Week-31 10.33 to 10.42
Week-6 2.31 to 2.38 Week-32 11.01 to 11.14
Week-7 2.39 to 2.53 Week-33 11.15 to 11.31
Week-8 2.54 to 2.72 Week-34 11.32 to 11.46
Week-9 3.01 to 3.16 Week-35 11.47 to 11.55
Week-10 3.17 to 3.35 Week-36 12.01 to 12.20
Week-11 3.36 to 3.43 Week-37 13.01 to 13.19
Week-12 4.01 to 4.12 Week-38 13.20 to 13.35
Week-13 4.13 to 4.24 Week-39 14.01 to 14.09
Week-14 4.25 to 4.32 Week-40 14.10 to 14.18
Week-15 4.33 to 4.42 Week-41 14.19 to 14.27
Week-16 5.01 to 5.15 Week-42 15.01 to 15.20
Week-17 5.16 to 5.29 Week-43 16.01 to 16.05
Week-18 6.01 to 6.18 Week-44 16.06 to 16.24
Week-19 6.19 to 6.36 Week-45 17.01 to 17.13
Week-20 6.37 to 6.47 Week-46 17.14 to 17.28
Week-21 7.01 to 7.11 Week-47 18.01 to 18.12
Week-22 7.12 to 7.19 Week-48 18.13 to 18.28
Week-23 7.20 to 7.30 Week-49 18.29 to 18.39
Week-24 8.01 to 8.10 Week-50 18.40 to 18.49
Week-25 8.11 to 8.28 Week-51 18.50 to 18.63
Week-26 9.01 to 9.15 Week-52 18.64 to 18.78