RAFAEL FLAUTA, JR., et. al., - versus – COMELEC, July 22, 2009, G.R. No. 184586, EN BANC FACTS: Manganaan was a mayoral y !

an"#"a e "ur#ng $e May 15, 200% lo!al ele! #ons &or $e mun#!#'al# yo& (en. N#noy )*u#no #n (ul an +u"ara . ,e # #oner Ra&ael -lau a, Jr. was 'ro!la#me" mayor o& sa#" mun#!#'al# y, w$#le $e o $er 'e # #oners were 'ro!la#me" w#nn#ng !an"#"a es &or .#!e Mayor an" Mem/ers o& $e (anggun#ang 0ayan, res'e! #vely. 1$e 23M4542 en /an! &oun" ou $e &ollow#ng &a! s6 1$e !anvass#ng 'ro!ee"#ngs o& $e sa#" own was "#sru' e" /y e7'los#ons an" gun &#res. 8ur#ng sa#" #n erru' #on, 0ernan an" 2ollan es, $e !$a#rman an" se!re ary o& $e Mun#!#'al 0oar" o& 2anvassers snea9e" ou o& $e (anggun#ang 0ayan :all an" !ar e" away !om'le ely &#lle" u' an" a/ula e" ( a emen s o& .o es /y ,re!#n! ;(3.,, &or /rev# y< (a#" (3.,s !over e#g$ y-one ;81< o& $e one $un"re" an" s#7 ;106< 're!#n! s o& $e mun#!#'al# y. 0e!ause o& $#s #n!#"en , Manganaan wro e o $e 23M4542 re*ues #ng &or $e null#&#!a #on o& (3.,s s olen /y 0ernan an" 2ollan es. =n res'onse, $e 2omm#ss#oner #ssue" a Memoran"um null#&y#ng $e sa#" (3.,s, "#re! e" $e ('e!#al 0oar" o& 2anvassers ;(032< o !on"u! a re-!anvass#ng>re- ally#ng o& all $e 4le! #on Re urns, e7!e' $ose &or $e 25 're!#n! s w$#!$ $ey $a" alrea"y 'rev#ously !anvasse", an" "#re! e" (032 no o ma9e any 'ro!lama #on 'r#or o $e !om'le #on o& $e re!anvass#ng>re- ally#ng 'ro!e"ure. Meanw$#le, #n $e morn#ng o& $e same "ay, $e 3&&#!e o& $e ,rov#n!#al 4le! #on (u'erv#sor ;3,4(< re!e#ve" a le er &rom 0ernan an" a seale" /allo /o7 /el#eve" o /e !on a#n#ng $e m#ss#ng (3.,s an" $e o $er m#ss#ng "o!umen s. ?n#n&orme" o& $e or"er, $e (032 !onvene" an" 'ro!la#me" $e w#nn#ng !an"#"a es ;'e # #oners<. 1$e 2omm#ss#on en /an! also 'romulga e" a Resolu #on w$#!$ l#s e" $e cases that will be heard by the C !!issi " bey "d J#"e $%, &%%' b#t the i"sta"t case was " t a! "( th se listed. Manganaan $en &#le" a Mo #on &or 2lar#&#!a #on an">or Re!ons#"era #on o& $e Resolu #on ma"e /y 23M4542 en /an!. ,e # #oner also &#le" $e#r o''os# #on. (u!$ mo #on was $en se &or a $ear#ng. 1$e 23M4542 #ssue" a resolu #on "eny#ng Manganaan@s 'e # #on o null#&y $e su/Ae! (3.,s ;1$e (,2 !ase< an" rea e" $e #ns an 'e # #on o /e a 'e # #on o !orre! $e man#&es errors 'resen #n $e sa#" (3.,s. 1$e (032 was also 8=R42148 o6 a< Re!onvene o annul $e 'ro!lama #on o& $e 'e # #oners /< Re!onvene o re! #&y $e errors $e &ormer mem/ers o& $e Mun#!#'al 0oar" o& 2anvassers !omm# e" #n $e !o'y#ng o& vo esB an" !< ,ro!la#m $e w#nn#ng !an"#"a es /ase" on $e !orre! e" en r#es as "e a#le" a/oveB -ur $er, $e 5aw 8e'ar men o& $e 2omm#ss#on #s l#9ew#se "#re! e" o !on"u! $oroug$ #nves #ga #on on $e !ul'a/#l# y o& Mel#!ano 0ernan an" Jul#o 2ollan es #n ma9#ng erroneous en r#es #n $e a/ove-men #one" (3.,s. :en!e $#s #ns an 'e # #on. 8ur#ng $e 'en"en!y o& $e #ns an 'e # #on, $e (032 !om'l#e" w# $ $e or"ers o& $e 23M4542 an" la er 'ro!la#me" res'on"en Manganaan as $e "uly ele! e" mayor w$o $en oo9 $#s oa $ o& o&&#!e. ,e # #oner -lau a, Jr., on $e o $er $an", &#le" an ele! #on 'ro es argu#ng, among o $ers, $a $e 'ro!e"ure a"o' e" /y $e 23M4542 #n motu propio !onver #ng Manganaan@s 'e # #on o annul 'ro!lama #on #n o one &or !orre! #on o& man#&es errors, #s #rregular an" !on rary o $e rule s#n!e 'e # #oners $ave alrea"y /een 'ro!la#me". ,e # #oners rely u'on $e rule $a no 'e # #on &or !orre! #on o& man#&es errors may /e en er a#ne" a& er $e !an"#"a es $ave /een 'ro!la#me".

=n v#ew o& $ese "evelo'men s, Manganaan &#le" a Man#&es a #on see9#ng "#sm#ssal o& $e #ns an 'e # #on on $e groun" $a # $as /e!ome moo . 23M4542 resolve" o "#sm#ss $e sa#" 'e # #on. )SSUE * +! re " the ,r ced#ral as,ect - the case.: C$e $er or no $e 23M4542 !omm# e" grave a/use o& "#s!re #on amoun #ng o la!9 o& or #n e7!ess o& Aur#s"#! #on #n a9#ng !ogn#Dan!e o& $e Mo #on &or Re!ons#"era #on o& an en /an! resolu #on w$#!$ "#sm#sse" (,2 2ase No. 0%-201B RUL)N/: ?n"er $e 23M4542 Rules o& ,ro!e"ure, a mo #on &or re!ons#"era #on o& an en banc resolu #on o& $e 2omm#ss#on #s no allowe". :owever, an e7!e' #on e7#s s as w$en $e !ase #nvolves an ele! #on o&&ense. 1$us6 (e! #on 1. C$a ,lea"#ngs are no )llowe". – 1$e &ollow#ng 'lea"#ngs are no allowe"6 7777 "< mo #on &or re!ons#"era #on o& an en banc rul#ng, resolu #on, or"er or "e!#s#on e0ce,t i" electi " --e"se casesB 7 7 7 7. ;4m'$as#s su''l#e"< =n $e #ns an !ase, Manganaan@s mo #on &or !lar#&#!a #on>re!ons#"era #on allege" 0ernan an" 2ollan es@ unau $or#De" removal o& (3.s &rom $e !anvass#ng venue, as well as 'oss#/le am'er#ng>#n!reas#ng>"e!reas#ng o& vo es. ?n"er our ele! #on laws, any mem/er o& $e /oar" o& ele! #on #ns'e! ors or /oar" o& !anvassers w$o am'ers, #n!reases, or "e!reases $e vo es re!e#ve" /y a !an"#"a e #n any ele! #on or any mem/er o& $e /oar" w$o re&uses, a& er 'ro'er ver#&#!a #on an" $ear#ng, o !re"# $e !orre! vo es or "e"u! su!$ am'ere" vo es s$all /e gu#l y o& an ele! #on o&&ense. 5#9ew#se, any 'erson w$o, $roug$ any a! , means or "ev#!e, v#ola es $e #n egr# y o& any o&&#!#al /allo or ele! #on re urns /e&ore or a& er $ey are use" #n $e ele! #on, an" any 'u/l#! o&&#!#al w$o negle! s or &a#ls o 'ro'erly 'reserve or a!!oun &or any /allo /o7, "o!umen s an" &orms re!e#ve" /y $#m an" 9e' un"er $#s !us o"y s$all /e gu#l y o& an ele! #on o&&ense. )s su!$, sa#" allega #ons o& !omm#ss#on o& ele! #on o&&ense "#" no ma9e Manganaan@s mo #on &or !lar#&#!a #on>re!ons#"era #on a 'ro$#/# e" 'lea"#ng. )SSUE & +M re " the s#bsta"ti1e as,ect - the case.: C$e $er or no $e 23M4542 !omm# e" grave a/use o& "#s!re #on amoun #ng o la!9 o& or #n e7!ess o& Aur#s"#! #on #n rea #ng or !onver #ng $e 'e # #on o annul 'ro!lama #on or as a 'e # #on o !orre! man#&es errors. ;No.< RUL)N/: 1$e 23M4542 ma#n a#ns $a $e rea men o& Manganaan@s 'e # #on o annul 'ro!lama #on as one o !orre! man#&es m#s a9es was 'ro'er. =n O’hara v. Commission on Elections, $e 2our re# era e" $e 23M4542@s /roa" 'ower, "er#ve" &rom our &un"amen al law, o en&or!e an" a"m#n#s er all laws an" regula #ons rela #ve o $e !on"u! o& an ele! #on, 'le/#s!# e, #n# #a #ve, re&eren"um an" re!allB # s 'ower o& su'erv#s#on an" !on rol over /oar"s o& ele! #on #ns'e! ors an" /oar"s o& !anvassersB $e !on!om# an nee" o "o every $#ng #n # s 'ower o se!ure a &a#r an" $ones !anvass o& $e vo es !as #n $e ele! #onsB $e gran o # o& /roa" an" &le7#/le 'owers o e&&e! #vely 'er&orm # s "u #es an" o ensure &ree, or"erly, $ones , 'ea!e&ul an" !re"#/le ele! #onsB an" # s role as $e guar"#an o& $e 'eo'le@s sa!re" r#g$ o& su&&rage. =n 'ar #!ular, $e s a u ory 'ower o& su'erv#s#on an" !on rol /y $e 23M4542 over $e /oar"s o& !anvassers #n!lu"es $e 'ower o rev#se or reverse $e a! #on o& $e /oar"s, as well as o "o w$a $e /oar"s s$oul" $ave "one. S#ch , wer i"cl#des the a#th rity t i"itiate motu propio s#ch ste,s r acti "s as !ay be re2#ired ,#rs#a"t t law, li3e re1iewi"( the acti "s - the b ard4 c "d#cti"( a" i"2#iry a--ecti"( the (e"#i"e"ess - electi " ret#r"s bey "d the electi " rec rds - the , lli"( ,laces i"1 l1ed4 a""#lli"( ca"1ass r ,r cla!ati "s based " i"c !,lete ret#r"s r " i"c rrect r ta!,ered ret#r"s4 i"1alidati"( a ca"1ass r ,r cla!ati " !ade i" a" #"a#th ri5ed !eeti"( - the b ard - ca"1assers either beca#se it lac3ed a 2# r#! r beca#se the b ard did " t !eet at all4 r re2#iri"( the b ard t c "1e"e. 6a1i"( decided t treat Ma"(a"aa"7s ,etiti " as "e - r c rrecti " - !a"i-est err rs, it was withi" the COMELEC7s , wer,

1$e a''re!#a #on o& !on es e" /allo s an" ele! #on "o!umen s #nvolves a *ues #on o& &a! /es le& o $e "e erm#na #on o& $e 23M4542. =n!.ies . $e 'e # #on #s :)SM)SSE:. 5 Mar!$ 1996. !on!lus#ons. #n"ee".the b ard r . )s a resul . ?'on e7am#na #on an" !om'ar#son o& $e !o'#es o& $e ele! #on re urns o& $e M12 Ju"ge an" $e 23M4542. 0allo 0o7 No. 2 $e . 0%-201 #s AFF)RME:.E:(8-=<.$#l#''#ne Eou $ :eal $ an" ('or s 8evelo'men -oun"a #on. re.rov#n!#al 0oar" o& 2anvassers !onvene" an" 're'are" $e 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass an" ( a emen o& .r clai! the wi""ers " the basis . the COMELEC ca" a""#l the ille(al ca"1ass a"d rder the B ard . o 'rove 'ro/a/le !ause.o es o& $e Mun#!#'al# y o& Ma anog. $e 23M4542 #s $e F'u/l#! 'rose!u or w# $ $e e7!lus#ve au $or# y o !on"u! $e 'rel#m#nary #nves #ga #on an" $e 'rose!u #on o& ele! #on o&&enses 'un#s$a/le un"er $e G3mn#/us 4le! #onH 2o"e /e&ore $e !om'e en !our . 'e # #oners@ 'ro es a #ons o& &a#lure o o/serve "ue 'ro!ess are unava#l#ng. $e (032. an" 0allo 0o7 No. regar"#ng allege" use o& &un"s resul #ng &rom $e sa#" ransa! #on o& 8=5G-N2R an" . )t is settled >#ris. 1$e (e' em/er 25.)l erna #ve 8#ges < Facts: ) !om'la#n was &#le" aga#ns 'r#va e res'on"en s.res.28-< were use &or ele! #oneer#ng 'ur'oses. COMELEC .M4542 e7er!#se" grave a/use o& "#s!re #on amoun #ng o la!9 o& Aur#s"#! #on #n #ssu#ng # s 3r"ers o& 29 -e/ruary 1996. COMELEC -)21(6 . 'r#va e res'on"en 8#langalen was 'ro!la#me" $e "uly ele! e" mem/er o& $e :ouse o& Re'resen a #ves.art .F =((?46 C$e $er or no 23. = !er a#nly "eman"s more $an F/are sus'#!#onF an" !an never /e Fle& o 'resu''os# #on. 0allo 0o7 No. !onAe! ure. a! #ng on $e o/Ae! #on.)LOSBA<AN =S. $e 23M4542 (e!on" 8#v#s#on &oun" $a . an" over all ele! #ons. or even !onv#n!#ng log#!F 1$e as9 o& $e 23M4542 as #nves #ga or an" 'rose!u or.e"d the ca"1ass .ers "ecessary . w$o #n e&&e! a!!uses ano $er 'erson o& $av#ng !omm# e" an a! !ons # u #ng an ele! #on o&&ense. #s no $e '$ys#!al sear!$#ng an" ga $er#ng o& 'roo& #n su''or o& a !om'la#n &or an allege" !omm#ss#on o& an ele! #on o&&ense.e"di"( its i"2#iry whether there e0ists a discre. +#los/ayan &#le" a mo #on &or re!ons#"era #on alleg#ng $a $ey are no res'ons#/le &or $e 'ro"u! #on o& ev#"en!e /y us#ng 'u/l#! &un"s.Ca"1assers t rec "1e"e a"d . "de"t COMELEC.e # #oner +=53(0)E)N mus $ave ne!essar#ly en"ere" ev#"en!e. . =nso&ar as $e 'rose!u #on o& ele! #on o&&enses #s !on!erne". $e 23M4542 'ro'erly !ons#"ere" $e la!9 o& $e no #!e o& $ear#ng as mere e!$n#!al# y. =n $e !anvass#ng o& vo es. 96EREFORE. )& er $e 'ro!ee"#ngs #n $e Mun#!#'al 0oar" o& 2anvassers. $ere&ore. w$#!$ rema#ne" un"#s'u e".4< /allo /o7es were 'ro"u!e" an" o'ene". # #s $e 23M4542 w$o s$oul" sear!$ $e ev#"en!e /y us#ng 'u/l#! &un"s an" w# $ $e $el' o& o $er agen!#es o& $e governmen as $e !ons # u #on gave $em $e res'ons#/#l# y o 'rose!u e ele! #on o&&enses. 1$e mo #on was "en#e".o es.as e"#"ciated i" the Alejandro case. t motu propio c "d#ct a" i"2#iry i"t the !atter 8 e0ercisi"( as it d es direct s#. $e 'resum' #on $a $e #s 'resume" #nno!en . M)C6AEL O.. alleg#ng $a 2oun ryw#"e 8evelo'men -un" . an" we are won o #n er&ere $erew# $ #n $e a/sen!e o& grave a/use o& # s "#s!re #on. i. $e &a! ual &#n"#ngs. o "ue 'ro!ess $as /een 1$e "e erm#na #on o& 'ro/a/le !ause #n any !r#m#nal 'rose!u #on. a s'e!#al#De" agen!y as9e" w# $ $e su'erv#s#on o& ele! #ons all over $e !oun ry. $as $e /ur"en. +#los/ayan alleges $a 8=5G-N2R !olla/ora e" w# $ . 2onse*uen ly. :4586 9e -i"d " (ra1e ab#se . )! #ng on $e o/Ae! #on. o &ollow $roug$ $#s a!!usa #on an" 'rove $#s !om'la#nan . .it sh #ld re-#se. w$#!$ we !anno 'u 'rem#um over an" a/ove $e 23M4542@s no/le an" 'aramoun "u y o& "e erm#n#ng $e rue w#ll o& $e ele! ora e. 4 $e . #s ma"e #n"#s'ensa/le /y $e 0#ll o& R#g$ s w$#!$ ens$r#nes every !# #DenIs r#g$ o "ue 'ro!ess. 8#langalen o/Ae! e" o $e #n!lus#on o& $e 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass o& $e Mun#!#'al# y o& Ma anog an". 14 Mar!$ 1996. 6eld: N3. 1$e news 'a'er !l#''#ngs was regar"e" as $earsay. 2omele! #nves #ga ors su/m# e" $e "#sm#ssal o& $e !om'la#n &or la!9 o& ev#"en!e o 'rove 'ro/a/le !ause. -#nally. = #s $e !ons # u #onal !omm#ss#on ves e" w# $ $e e7!lus#ve or#g#nal Aur#s"#! #on over ele! #on !on es s #nvolv#ng reg#onal. as # #s $#s res'ons#/#l# y.1 tes . 0allo 0o7 No.. rul#ngs an" "e!#s#ons ren"ere" /y $e 23M4542 on ma ers &all#ng w# $#n # s !om'e en!e s$all no /e #n er&ere" w# $ /y $#s 2our .#"d t be -alsi-ied r ta!. # may e7er!#se # s Au"gmen as # sees &# . "ce the electi " ret#r"s were . +#los/ayan 'rov#"e" news !l#''#ngs.er res l#ti " .r .2 2ase No. $e &ormer a''rov#ng allo men o $e la er %0M allege"ly use o /uy me"#!al an" s'or s e*u#'men $a was "#s r#/u e" &ew "ays /e&ore ele! #on an" s o''e" a $e "ay o& ele! #on. RUL)N/: Ju"g#ng &rom $e &a! ual m#l#eu. ) !om'la#nan . an" 20 Mar!$ 1996. J $e 23M4542 !o'y o& $e ele! #on re urns. or $e 23M4542 as $e s'e!#al#De" !ons # u #onal agen!y e7er!#s#ng "#re! su'erv#s#on an" !on rol over $e M032 or (032. 2onse*uen ly. 2008 Resolu #on o& $e 2omm#ss#on en banc #n (. . $e 23M4542 (e!on" 8#v#s#on or"ere" $e 'ro"u! #on an" e7am#na #on o& $e ele! #on re urns o& $e Mun#!#'al# y o& Ma anog. G#ven # s /roa" 'owers. 23M4542 or"ere" .rov#n!#al 0oar" o& 2anvassers !o'y o& $e ele! #on re urns. =n $e !ourse o& $e e7am#na #on &our .lace the !e!bers . MASTURA 1s.#ted 1 ti"( ce"ters. as well as a''ella e Aur#s"#! #on over ele! #on 'ro es s #nvolv#ng ele! #ve mun#!#'al an" barangay o&&#!#als. . 1$#s was e7a! ly w$a $a''ene" #n $e #ns an 'e # #on.a"cy betwee" the 1ari #s c .r the . 8#langalen were !ongress#onal !an"#"a es &or $e &#rs "#s r#! o& Magu#n"anao "ur#ng $e 8 May 1995 ele! #ons. $us $#s 'e # #on o !om'el 23M4542 o 'rose!u e $e 'r#va e res'on"en s )ss#e6 C$e $er or no $e 23M4542 !an /e !om'elle" o 'ro"u!e ev#"en!e "es'# e $e !om'la#nan s &a#lure o 'rove 'ro/a/le !ause.the case.ca"1assers 8 a"d sec#re all d c#!e"ts a"d .E:(8-= an" argumen s o su''or # s !la#ms. 1 !on a#ne" $e M12 Ju"ge !o'y o& $e ele! #on re urns.r#de"ce that COMELEC ca" s#s. $e .discreti " " the . $e 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass o& $e Mun#!#'al# y o& Ma anog $a" /een am'ere" w# $.a.ered with. )SSUE $: C$e $er or no 'e # #oners@ r#g$ v#ola e".electi " ret#r"s -r ! the dis. 8#langalen o/Ae! e" o $e #n!lus#on o& $e 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass o& $e Mun#!#'al# y o& Ma anog on $e groun" $a $e same was allege"ly am'ere".the (e"#i"e ret#r"s r. G#ven $e &a! s.e # #oners !oul" no $ave 'resen e" "o!umen ary an" o $er ev#"en!e $a was no alrea"y #n $e 'ossess#on o& $e M032. Mas ura an" 'r#va e res'on"en 8#"agen .r clai! the wi""ers itsel-.rov#n!#al 0oar" o& 2anvassers !o'y o& $e mun#!#'al 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass o& Ma anog w# $ # s su''or #ng ( a emen o& .e # #oner M#!$ael 3. C r llarily.er1isi " a"d c "tr l 1er all b ards . #n"e'en"en o& an" #n su''or o& $e allega #ons #n # s le er-!om'la#n . #n $e a/sen!e o& grave a/use o& "#s!re #on or any Aur#s"#! #onal #n&#rm# y or error o& law. 'rov#n!#al an" !# y o&&#!#als. a! #ng u'on any ele! #on o&&ense !om'la#n . no &ur $er 'roo& was re*u#re" &rom $em $a !oul" $ave !oun era! e" $e e&&e! s o& $e ev#"en!e alrea"y ava#la/le. $e 23M4542 (e!on" 8#v#s#on #ssue" $e $ere#n assa#le" 3r"er o& 29 -e/ruary 1996 annull#ng $e 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass o& Ma anog. -#rs 8#s r#! o& Magu#n"anao.

araKa*ue. Jr. COMM)SS)ON ON ELECT)ONS a"d FLORENC)O M. 0erna/e. = #s. 1$us. an ele! #on 'ro es #s ass#gne" a "o!9e num/er s ar #ng w# $ F4.!rea e" an" e7'l#!# ly ma"e #n"e'en"en /y $e 2ons # u #on # sel& . .on a level $#g$er $an s a u ory a"m#n#s ra #ve organs. (e!on". 1$e ele! #on r#/unal !on!lu"e" $a /ase" on $e allega #ons o& $e 'e # #on. 1omas 1.#!e-Mayor o& $e 2# y o& . BANA/A.#!e-Mayor #n $e 2# y o& .$e 'ro"u! #on an" e7am#na #on o& $e M12 Ju"ge !o'y an" $e 23M4542 !o'y o& $e ele! #on re urns. JR. 2. 0anaga. )/sen any s$ow#ng o& a/use o& "#s!re #on amoun #ng o la!9 o& Aur#s"#! #on.ursuan o # s a"m#n#s ra #ve &un! #ons. as # was a#n e" w# $ w#"es'rea" ele! #on anomal#es w$#!$ !ons # u es ele! #on &rau". J#ly $*. 1$e rule $a &a! ual &#n"#ngs o& a"m#n#s ra #ve /o"#es w#ll no /e "#s ur/e" /y !our s o& Aus #!e e7!e' w$en $ere #s a/solu ely no ev#"en!e or no su/s an #al ev#"en!e #n su''or o& su!$ &#n"#ngs s$oul" /e a''l#e" w# $ grea er &or!e w$en # !on!erns $e 23M4542.e # #oner as9s &or $e &ollow#ng rel#e&6 . %166 #n rela #on o (e! #on 6 o& $e 3mn#/us 4le! #on 2o"e. $ere&ore. 1$e &un! #on o& a !anvass#ng /oar" #n $e !anvass o& $e re urns #s 'urely m#n#s er#al #n na ure. an" on a''eal $ere&rom. # was "#s!overe" $a numerous ele! #on re urns !on a#n glar#ng "#s!re'an!#es an" are re'le e w# $ /la an om#ss#ons. 777 $e lo!al ele! #ons &or $e o&&#!e o& .%1. JR.araKa*ue $as /een "en#gra e". 1998. J.. 'e # #oner #mely &#le" $e #ns an 'e # #on &or certiorari w# $ $#s 2our . it is a Cetiti " t :eclare Fail#re . 8ur#ng $e !anvass#ng o& vo es /e&ore $e 0oar" o& 2anvassers. #m'oss#/le $a $e w#ll re!e#ve Dero .J. #s $e &un! #on o& $e 2omm#ss#on on 4le! #ons. 'ursuan o our 2ons # u #on an" laws. $#s 'e # #on /e&ore $e 23M4542 was #ns # u e" 'ursuan o (e! #on 4 o& Re'u/l#! )! No. $e 'e # #on was "o!9e e" as (. # #s no s r#! ly /oun" /y $e rules o& ev#"en!e. NO J. = #s no an ele! #on 'ro es . N . alleg#ng $a 6 1. #n our v#ew. )88=1=3N)5 =N-3 5)NG6  . -or $e a a#nmen o& $a en".araKa*ue.9%%< vo es o& $e o al vo es !as &or $e v#!e-mayoral y 'os# #on. . 1998.#!e-Mayor. e7!e' #n a !ase #nvolv#ng an ele! #on o&&ense. ) !ase #n 'o#n #s 're!#n! num/er 48J w$ere 'e # #oner s$o!9#ngly #s su''ose" o $ave re!e#ve" Dero . TOMAS T. =n !on ras . 1$e &orego#ng #n!#"en s alone a! ually su&&#!es o es a/l#s$ $a a &a#lure o& ele! #ons s$oul" /e "e!lare" on $e groun" $a $e w#ll o& $e ele! ora e o& $e 2# y o& .0< vo es #n any g#ven 're!#n! . NO. 1$e w#ll o& $e leg# #ma e vo ers were "en#gra e" "ur#ng $eele! #on as a !onse*uen!e o& $e &a! $a an #n"e erm#na/le num/er o& &ly#ng vo ers were allowe" o vo e. /. 3n May 19. Jr. )SSUES: 1.#!e-Mayor #n $e 2# y o& .68. w$#le a 'e # #on o "e!lare &a#lure o& ele! #ons #s !overe" /y Rule 26 un"er s'e!#al a! #ons. 'e # #oner@s a! #on #s a 'e # #on o "e!lare a &a#lure o& ele! #ons or annul ele! #on resul s. &%%%. $e 0oar". • • • . • 8#ssa #s&#e".0< vo es. (o long as $e ele! #on re urns $ave /een a!!om'l#s$e" #n "ue &orm. )lso. =n $#s !ase. # or"ere" # s annulmen an" !rea e" a new se o& Mun#!#'al an" . 1$e 23M4542 $as /roa" 'owers o as!er a#n $e rue resul s o& $e ele! #on /y means ava#la/le o # . $e 23M4542 (e!on" 8#v#s#on &oun" an" !on!lu"e" $a #n"ee" $e 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass o& $e Mun#!#'al# y o& Ma anog was am'ere" w# $. (everal 4le! #on Re urns are &oun" o $ave glar#ng "#s!re'an!#es w$#!$ may ma er#ally al er $e resul s o& $e ele! #on &or $e o&&#!e o& . an ele! #on 'ro es #s an or"#nary a! #on w$#le a 'e # #on o "e!lare a &a#lure o& ele! #ons #s a s'e!#al a! #on un"er $e 199J 23M4542 Rules o& . %.2< )nnull#ng $e 'ro!lama #on o& $e res'on"en as $e ele! e" . 2ons#"er#ng $a a mo #on &or re!ons#"era #on o& a 23M4542 en banc rul#ng #s 'ro$#/# e". *$?@A@. or "e!lar#ng $e annulmen o& $e ele! #onsB . $e 23M4542 e7er!#ses "#re! su'erv#s#on an" !on rol over $e 'ro!ee"#ngs /e&ore $e 0oar" o& 2anvassers. # #s !lear $a an ele! #on oo9 'la!e an" $a # "#" no resul #n a &a#lure o ele! . 'e # #oner. 8#langalen emerge" as $e w#nner an" was $erea& er 'ro!la#me" $e "uly ele! e" mem/er o& $e :ouse o& Re'resen a #ves. 1$#s !on&orms o 'e # #oner@s !a egor#Da #on o& $#s 'e # #on as one o "e!lare a &a#lure o& ele! #ons or annul ele! #on resul s. #n $e e7er!#se o& # s su'erv#sory 'ower over sa#" 0oar".ro!e"ure as amen"e". 2. 3n June 29. re!e#ve" $e se!on" $#g$es num/er o& vo es &or $e sa#" 'os# #on.araKa*ue. 4*ually m#n#s er#al. $e !# y /oar" o& !anvassers 'ro!la#me" 'r#va e res'on"en . an a! #on "enom#na e" as F Petition to Declare Failure of Elections and/or For Annulment of Elections . $#s 2our s$oul" re&ra#n &rom rev#ew#ng $e same. 0ase" on $e !om'ar#son. C$#le 'e # #oner may $ave #n en"e" o #ns # u e an ele! #on 'ro es /y 'ray#ng $a sa#" a! #on may also /e !ons#"ere" an ele! #on 'ro es .. $us. C$e $er or no 'e # #oner@s a! #on #s an ele! #on 'ro es . an" mus a!!or" # #ns ea" $e res'e! # "eserves. w# $ (#7 y 4#g$ 1$ousan" N#ne :un"re" (even y .araKa*ue #n $e May 11. 1998. 1$a $e 2er #&#!a e o& 2anvass o& $e Mun#!#'al# y o& Ma anog was am'ere" w# $ #s a &a! ual &#n"#ng o& $e 23M4542. 2onse*uen ly. 'e # #oner &#le" $#s 'e # #on as a s'e!#al a! #on an" 'a#" $e !orres'on"#ng &ee $ere&or. -loren!#o M. -#rs . = $as l#9ew#se /een marre" /y mass#ve vo e /uy#ng. C$e $er or no 23M4542 s$oul" "e!lare &a#lure o& 4le! #on #n $#s !ase. = $el" $a $e groun"s rel#e" u'on /y 'e # #oner "o no &all un"er any o& $e #ns an!es enumera e" #n (e! #on 6 o& $e 3mn#/us 4le! #on 2o"e..1< /allo #ns#"e $e /allo /o7. C$e $er or no 23M4542 gravely a/use # s "#s!re #on #n "#sm#ss#ng 'e # #oner@s !om'la#n .1< 8e!lar#ng a &a#lure o& ele! #ons. )n ele! #on 'ro es #s governe" /y Rule 20 on or"#nary a! #ons.rov#n!#al 0oar"s o& 2anvassers o re!anvass $e vo es. $e 2omm#ss#on on 4le! #ons mus #n!lu"e sa#" re urns #n $e !anvass. NO RUL)N/: 1. $e 23M4542 "#sm#sse" 'e # #oner@s su# . no o men #on $e &a! $a several ele! #on re urns a''eare" o /e am'ere" w# $ or a''ear o /e &a/r#!a e".R.2F.F 8..e # #oner #s $e #n!um/en .vs. BU)SUMB)N/. 1$us. -#rs 8#s r#! o& Magu#n"anao.#!e-Mayor an" .e # #oner an" 'r#va e res'on"en were $e !an"#"a es &or v#!emayor o& $e 2# y o& . BERNABE.J< 8e!lar#ng $a s'e!#al ele! #ons s$oul" /e $el" &or $e o&&#!e o& . an" aggr#eve" /y $e 23M4542@s "#sm#ssal o& $#s su# . J. $ere $ave /een several #ns an!es w$ere 'ur'or e" vo ers were "e'os# #ng more $an one .)-98J8J. 'e # #oner &#le" w# $ $e 23M4542 on May 29. )& er $e re!anvass#ng. as $e &ramers o& $e 2ons # u #on #n en"e" o 'la!e $e 23M4542 . 1998 ele! #on.00%< vo es.: FACTS: • .9%0< o& $e o al vo es !as . amoun s o a "en#gra #on o& $e e7'ress#on o& $e rue w#ll o& $e 'eo'le. 5. mean#ng ele! #on 'ro es !ase. $e w#nner &or $av#ng garnere" a o al o& (even y 3ne 1$ousan" N#ne :un"re" (even y (even . 3n $e o $er $an". 4.Electi ". $e "#&&eren!e /e ween $e vo es re!e#ve" /y $e 'r#va e res'on"en an" $e 'e # #oner #s $ree $ousan" seven . 6.

$e 're!ursor o& $e (anggun#ang +a/a aan< $a" 'rev#ously /een $el" on 1990 . &ly#ng vo ers an" glar#ng "#s!re'an!#es #n $e ele! #on re urns. &or $#s &a#lure o 'ro'erly &#le an ele! #on 'ro es ."< so as o /e e7em' &rom $ol"#ng $e ele! #ons on 8e!em/er 1992.1< no vo #ng oo9 'la!e #n $e 're!#n! or 're!#n! s on $e "a e &#7e" /y law. :e &a#le" o 'ay $e re*u#re" &#l#ng &ee an" !as$ "e'os# s &or an ele! #on 'ro es . error#sm. :e averre" $a $ose #n!#"en s warran $e "e!lara #on o& a &a#lure o& ele! #ons. $e 23M4542 $a" alrea"y #n e&&e! "e erm#ne" $a $ere $a" /een no 'rev#ous ele! #ons &or +0 /y !all#ng &or general ele! #ons &or (+ o&&#!ers #n every /arangay w# $ou e7!e' #onB an" +$. 1$e r#al !our #ssue" an #nAun! #on. . 1$e 8=5G a! e" on a le er o& Jos$ue R. $en!e w# $ou mer# . =n su''or o& $e#r !on en #on. 'u/l#! res'on"en !anno /e sa#" o $ave gravely erre" #n rea #ng 'e # #oner@s a! #on as a 'e # #on o "e!lare &a#lure o& ele! #ons or o annul ele! #on resul s. error#sm. 2499.%0. *%D$AA J#ly $*. :owever. J. an" re!allF #s ves e" solely #n $e 23M4542B +&. &rau" or o $er analogous !auses. was e7em' e" &rom $ol"#ng ele! #ons on 8e!em/er 1992. Facts: 1$e &#rs lo!al ele! #ons un"er $e 2o"e were $el" on May 1992. N ./< $e ele! #on #n any 'oll#ng 'la!e $as /een sus'en"e" /e&ore $e $our &#7e" /y law &or $e !los#ng o& $e vo #ng on a!!oun o& force ma!eure. =n $e#r a/sen!e. w$#!$ 'rov#"es $a 6 )ll sea s reserve" &or $e 'e"erasyon ng mga sanggun#ang 9a/a aan #n $e "#&&eren sanggun#ang s$all /e "eeme" va!an un #l su!$ #me $a $e sanggun#ang 9a/a aan !$a#rmen s$all $ave /een ele! e" an" $e res'e! #ve 'e"erasyon 'res#"en s $ave /een sele! e"6 Provided.a< $e ele! #on #n any 'oll#ng 'la!e $as no /een $el" on $e "a e &#7e" on a!!oun o& force ma!eure. error#sm. %%. -#& $. $e ele! #ons were &#nally s!$e"ule" on 8e!em/er 1992. &rau" or o $er analogous !ausesB or . error#sm. $e 23M4542 #ssue" Resolu #on No. a 'e # #on !anno /e rea e" as /o $ an ele! #on 'ro es an" a 'e # #on o "e!lare &a#lure o& ele! #ons. an en banc "e!#s#on o& 23M4542 #n an or"#nary a! #on /e!omes &#nal an" e7e!u ory a& er $#r y . 1992 /u only #n $e 2# y o& Man#la. re&eren"um. v#olen!e. w$#le an en banc "e!#s#on #n a s'e!#al a! #on /e!omes &#nal an" e7e!u ory a& er &#ve . 1988 an" January 1. v#olen!e. !la#m#ng o re'resen $e 24.at any time bet6een 4anuary (+ ()77 and 4anuary (+ ())$ shall be considered as the first elections provided for in this Code. 2he term of office of the 3abataang barangay officials elected 6ithin the said period shall be e1tended correspondingly to coincide 6ith the term of office of those elected under this Code .000 /arangays +0 ele! #ons were $el" /e ween January 1. &#le" a 'e # #on &or certiorari an" man"amus #n $e R12 o& Man#la o se as#"e $e resolu #on o& $e 8=5G. -a#lure o 'ay &#l#ng &ees w#ll no ves $e ele! #on r#/unal Aur#s"#! #on over $e !ase. 1992 /e!ause un"er )r . M2. &rau" or o $er analogous !ausesB . 1$ey argue" $a 'e # #oner 8=5G(e!. ALUNAN ))) vs. v#olen!e. #ssue" a le er-resolu #on Fe7em' #onF $e 2# y o& Man#la &rom $ol"#ng (+ ele! #on on $e groun" $a $e ele! #ons 'rev#ously $el" on May 1990 were o /e !ons#"ere" $e &#rs un"er $e newly-ena! e" 5o!al Governmen 2o"e. 2he Code too3 effect on 4anuary (+ ())$. reg#s ere".em'$as#s a""e"< 1$ey ma#n a#n $a $e (e!re ary o& $e 8=5G $as au $or# y o "e erm#ne w$e $er $e 2# y o& Man#la !ame w# $#n $e e7!e' #on !lause o& M5J2.2< $e vo es no !as woul" $ave a&&e! e" $e resul o& $e ele! #on. ROBERT M)RASOL "ection #$% of the &'C of ())( provides for a "* in every barangay+ to be composed of a chairman+ seven . . 'le/#s!# e. $e 8=5G (e!re ary )lunan ===. 1$e gu#"el#nes 'la!e" $e (+ ele! #ons un"er $e "#re! !on rol an" su'erv#s#on o& $e 8=5G. $a" no 'ower o amen" $e resolu #ons o& $e 23M4542 !all#ng &or general ele! #ons &or (+s an" $a $e 8=5G resolu #on #n *ues #on "en#e" $em $e e*ual 'ro e! #on o& $e laws. a! #ng 'res#"en o& $e +0 2# y -e"era #on o& Man#la an" a mem/er o& 2# y 2oun!#l o& Man#la. no/o"y was ele! e". 'rov#"#ng gu#"el#nes &or $e $ol"#ng o& $e general ele! #ons &or $e (+ on (e' em/er 1992. )SSUES6 C$e $er $e (e!re ary o& =n er#or an" 5o!al Governmen !an Fe7em' F a lo!al governmen un# &rom $ol"#ng ele! #ons &or (+ o&&#!ers on 8e!em/er 1992 an" w$e $er $e 23M4542 !an 'rov#"e $a F $e 8=5G s$all $ave /. (an #ago. "ection /%$. #n# #a #ve.e # #oner !la#ms $a 'u/l#! res'on"en gravely a/use" # s "#s!re #on w$en # "#sm#sse" $#s 'e # #on motu propio. -or $a reason. provides that the first elections for the "* shall be held thirty . 1992. Nor may 'e # #oner now !om'la#n o& "en#al o& "ue 'ro!ess. 2hat+ elections for the 3abataang barangay conducted under 5atas Pambansa 5lg. members+ a secretary+ and a treasurer. 1$e !our rule" $a +*.u/l#! res'on"en $a" no re!ourse /u o "#sm#ss 'e # #on. (u!$ 'ro!e"ural la'se on $e 'ar o& a 'e # #oner woul" !learly warran $e ou r#g$ "#sm#ssal o& $#s a! #on. &rau" or o $er analogous !auses. #n 5. =L. su!$ ele! #on resul s #n a &a#lure o ele! on a!!oun o& force ma!eure.%49 o& $em &#l#ng !er #&#!a es o& !an"#"a!#es. namely . -our $. G#ven $ese !#r!ums an!es. $e 'e # #on mus /e "en#e" ou r#g$ . ) o al o& 152. . $e &a! $a a ver#&#e" 'e # #on $as /een &#le" "oes no mean $a a $ear#ng on $e !ase s$oul" &#rs /e $el" /e&ore 23M4542 !an a! on # . :owever.000 mem/ers o& $e +a #'unan ng +a/a aan. 3n $e same "ay. Ce $ave 'a#ns a9#ngly e7am#ne" $e 'e # #on &#le" /y 'e # #oner 0anaga /e&ore $e 23M4542.1$#r". w# $ $e e!$n#!al ass#s an!e o& $e 23M4542. )& er wo 'os 'onemen s. 0e&ore $e 23M4542 !an a! on a ver#&#e" 'e # #on see9#ng o "e!lare a &a#lure o& ele! #on wo !on"# #ons mus !on!ur. $e Fe7em' #onF o& $e 2# y o& Man#la was v#ola #ve o& $e e*ual 'ro e! #on !lause o& $e 2ons # u #on /e!ause. v#olen!e. $e or"ere" 23M4542 'rov#"#ng &or $e $ol"#ng o& a general ele! #on o& $e (anggun#ang +a/a aan on 8e!em/er 1992 s#mul aneously #n every /arangay $roug$ou $e !oun ry. 0u we &oun" $a 'e # #oner "#" no allege a all $a ele! #ons were e# $er no $el" or sus'en"e".No e $a $e !ause o& su!$ &a#lure o& ele! #on !oul" only /e any o& $e &ollow#ng6 force ma!eure.-. 15.araKa*ue 2# y $el" on May 11.5< "ays &rom 'romulga #on. "en#gra es $e rue w#ll o& $e 'eo'le as # was marre" w# $ w#"es'rea" anomal#es on a!!oun o& vo e /uy#ng. 1$e 23M4542 !an only rule on w$a was &#le" /e&ore # . was $ere no ele! #ons $el" on 8e!em/er 4. = !omm# e" no grave a/use o& "#s!re #on #n "#sm#ss#ng $#s 'e # #on F o "e!lare &a#lure o& ele! #ons an">or &or annulmen o& ele! #onsF &or /e#ng groun"less. age" 15 o 21 years ol". RAFAEL M.e # #oners soug$ $#s rev#ew on certiorari. . or"er#ng 'e # #oners F o "es#s &rom #m'lemen #ng $e or"er o& $e res'on"en (e!re ary.a. unless res ra#ne" /y $e (u'reme 2our . w$#!$ !alle" a en #on o $e &a! $a #n $e 2# y o& Man#la ele! #ons &or $e +a/a aang 0arangay . $e ele! #on resul e" #n a &a#lure o ele! B an" . )!!or"#ngly.J0< "ays &rom # s 'romulga #on. . *AA' . w$ere $ere were 89% /arangays. . 1$e 'e # #on o "e!lare a &a#lure o& ele! #on an">or o annul ele! #on resul s mus s$ow on # s &a!e $a $e !on"# #ons ne!essary o "e!lare a &a#lure o ele! are 'resen . 1$ere are $ree #ns an!es w$ere a &a#lure o& ele! #on may /e "e!lare". 1$ey #ns#s $a $e 2# y o& Man#la. $ey !# e M5J2. 'e # #oner "#" no !om'ly w# $ $e re*u#remen s &or &#l#ng an ele! #on 'ro es . on )ugus 1992.J6J youngs ers. $e allega #ons #n $e 'e # #on "e!#s#vely "e erm#ne # s na ure. on $#s s!ore. 1998. 2. Ne# $er "#" $e aver $a al $oug$ $ere was vo #ng. days after the ne1t local elections.r#va e res'on"en s. $av#ng alrea"y !on"u! e" ele! #ons &or $e +0 on May 1990."< o& $e 5o!al Governmen 2o"e o& 1991. 2.R. or even #& $ere was vo #ng.!< a& er $e vo #ng an" "ur#ng $e 're'ara #on an" ransm#ss#on o& $e ele! #on re urns or #n $e !us o"y or !anvass $ereo&.e # #oner allege" $a $e lo!al ele! #ons &or $e o&&#!e o& v#!e-mayor #n .1< o& $e 2ons # u #on $e 'ower o en&or!e an" a"m#n#s er Fall laws an" regula #ons rela #ve o $e !on"u! o& an ele! #on. namely. a!!or"#ng o $e 8=5GIs re!or"s. $e 8=5G $a" no 'ower o Fe7em' F $e 2# y o& Man#la &rom $ol"#ng (+ ele! #ons on 8e!em/er 4.

*% 1$e !$o#!e o& $e 8=5G &or $e as9 #n *ues #on was a''ro'r#a e an" was #n l#ne w# $ $e leg#sla #ve 'ol#!y ev#"en #n several s a u es. an" $e 2omm#ss#on on 4le! #ons o ass#s $e +a/a aang 0arangay #n $e !on"u! o& $e ele! #ons. # #s !a'a/le o& re'# #on.< First. /e!ause $ey $a" !on"u! e" 9a/a aang /arangay ele! #ons /e ween January 1988 an" January 1992. 5oard of Election "upervisors+ it 6as contended that CO9E&EC :esolution . 1$ere #s no "#s!r#m#na #on $ere. #n# #a #ve.. 2."#re! !on rol an" su'erv#s#on over $e ele! #on o& (+ w# $ $e e!$n#!al ass#s an!e /y $e 2omm#ss#on on 4le! #ons R#li"(: Ce &#n" $e 'e # #on o /e mer# or#ous. C$a was le& o $e 8=5G o 'er&orm was $e en&or!emen o& $e rules. were no #n!lu"e" #n $e (+ ele! #ons o /e $el" on 8e!em/er 1992. o "e erm#ne an" "e!lare $e even u'on w$#!$ # s e7'resse" w#ll was o a9e e&&e! .1$e !ase #s no moo . -or one $#ng. $a &a! "#" no mean $ose #n Man#la s$oul" s#m#larly $ave /een allowe" o !on"u! ele! #ons on 8e!em/er 1992 /e!ause $e &a! was $a $ey alrea"y $a" $e#r own. it prescribes a separate set of rules for the election of the "* Chairman different from and inconsistent 6ith that set forth in the Omnibus Election Code+ thereby contravening "ection $+ Article ( of the said Code 6hich e1plicitly provides that it shall govern all elections of public officers + and+ . as we $ave re!en ly $el". 1988. 2421 o& $e . 684 . (#n!e M5J2. =& ele! #ons $a" /een !on"u! e". /y M4 o& Resolu #on No.b.a. C$e $er $#s !la#m #s rue !anno /e as!er a#ne" &rom $e re!or"s o& $#s !ase. #n $e leg#sla #ve /o"#es o& $e lo!al governmen un# s. $#s "#" no !on ravene )r .&ormerly +0< o&&#!#als "o no &all w# $#n (e! #on 252 o& $e 3mn#/us 4le! #on 2o"e an" 'aragra'$ 2. $#s &a! "oes no g#ve $e you $ vo ers #n $e 89% Man#la /arangays groun" &or !om'la#n /e!ause w$a $e o $er /arangays "#" was !on rary o law. 1$ere was no un"ue "elega #on o& leg#sla #ve 'ower /u only o& $e "#s!re #on as o $e e7e!u #on o& a law. "ur#ng $a 'er#o". ye eva"#ng rev#ew. !on es s #nvolv#ng ele! #ons o& (+ o&&#!#als "o no &all w# $#n $e Aur#s"#! #on o& $e 23M4542. 19%5<. 1$us. 1$a $#s #s !ons # u #onally 'erm#ss#/le #s $e ea!$#ng o& our !ases. 5lg. 2hey are also the same officers referred to by the provisions of the Omnibus Election Code of the Philippines on election of barangay officials. Res'on"en !la#m $a only #n /arangays #n $e 2# y o& Man#la. 'rov#"e" #n M6 $a $e F(e!re ary o& 5o!al Governmen an" 2ommun# y 8evelo'men s$all 'romulga e su!$ rules an" regula #ons as may /e "eeme" ne!essary o e&&e! #vely #m'lemen $e 'rov#s#ons o& $#s 8e!ree. 3n $e o $er $an". # #s #n"#s'u a/le $a !on es s #nvolv#ng ele! #ons o& (+ .ro!lama #on No. $e 23M4542 'la!e" $e (+ ele! #ons un"er $e "#re! !on rol an" su'erv#s#on o& $e 8=5G. $e 'unong /arangay an" $e seven regular sanggun#ang /arangay mem/ers w$o are ele! e" a large /y $ose w$o are *ual#&#e" o e7er!#se $e r#g$ o& su&&rage un"er )r #!le .+ Article 8=> C of the Constitution? "ection /$+ Article @888 of the Omnibus Election Code? and "ection $+ Chapter (+ "ubtitle C+ 2itle (+ 5oo3 @ of the ()7Administrative Code. Aus wo years /e&ore on May 1990. #n a Memoran"um 2#r!ular "a e" Mar!$ %. 1$e role o& $e 23M4542 #n $e 1992 ele! #ons &or (+ o&&#!ers was /y no means #n!onse*uen #al. as9e" $e $en M#n#s ry o& 5o!al Governmen .. 2499. 'le/#s!# e.res#"en 2oraDon 2. $e (e!re ary o& =n er#or an" 5o!al Governmen was o a! merely as $e agen o& $e leg#sla #ve "e'ar men . No.$#l#''#nes. /e!ause $ey alrea"y $a" ele! #ons /e ween January 1988 an" January 1992. 568 /arangays #n $e . $el"6 "ection $/$ of the Omnibus Election Code and that portion of paragraph . 8=5G su'erv#s#on was o /e e7er!#se" w# $#n $e &ramewor9 o& "e a#le" an" !om're$ens#ve rules em/o"#e" #n Resolu #on No. v#D.F 4le! #ons &or (+ o&&#!ers are no su/Ae! o $e su'erv#s#on o& $e 23M4542 #n $e same way $a .P. 9etropolitan and municipal trial courts had e1clusive original !urisdiction over contests relating to their election. w$en.(.$. $e 23M4542 "#" no name $e /arangays w$#!$. #n !rea #ng +a/a aang 0arangays #n every /arangay $roug$ou $e !oun ry.1< o& $e 2ons # u #on w$#!$ 'rov#"es $a $e 23M4542 s$all $ave $e 'ower o Fen&or!e an" a"m#n#s er all laws an" regula #ons rela #ve o $e !on"u! o& an ele! #on. #n !all#ng &or $e general ele! #ons o& $e +a/a aang 0arangay on July 1J-14. 2499 o& $e 23M4542. Res'on"en sI e*ual 'ro e! #on argumen v#ola es $e "#! um $a one wrong "oes no ma9e ano $er wrong r#g$ .+ "ection $+ Article 8=>C of the Constitution on the CO9E&ECAs e1clusive appellate !urisdiction over contest involving elective barangay officials refer to the elective barangay officials under the pertinent la6s in force at the time the Omnibus Election Code 6as enacted and upon the ratification of the Constitution. =L. )r #!le =L2 o& $e 2ons # u #on an" $a no law #n e&&e! 'r#or o $e ra #&#!a #on o& $e 2ons # u #on $a" ma"e $e (+ !$a#rman an ele! #ve /arangay o&&#!#als. 2he decisions of these courts 6ere appealable to the :egional 2rial Courts. 1$a $ese /arangays were 're!#sely o /e "e erm#ne" /y $e 8=5G #s &a#rly #n&era/le &rom $e au $or# y g#ven o $e 8=5G o su'erv#se $e !on"u! o& $e ele! #ons. 2hat la6 6as 5. 8n 9ercado v.000 /arangays.o. 2ul ure an" ('or s. a!!or"#ng o $e 9anila 5ulletin."< $e erm o& o&&#!e o& $e 9a/a aang /arangay o&&#!#als so ele! e" was Fe7 en"e" !orres'on"#ngly o !o#n!#"e w# $ $e erm o& o&&#!e o& $ose ele! e" un"er G $e 5o!al Governmen 2o"e o& 1991H. re&eren"um. = #s !on en"e" $a . $#s 2our . .F )ga#n. :#s /e#ng an e7-o&&#!#o mem/er o& $e sanggun#ang /arangay "oes no ma9e $#m one &or $e law s'e!#&#!ally 'rov#"es w$o are # s ele! #ve mem/ers. among o $er se! ors. %%-+ other6ise 3no6n as the &ocal 'overnment Code+ and the elective barangay officials referred to 6ere the punong barangay and the si1 sangguniang bayan members.res#"en o& $e . Merely s$ow#ng $a $ere were 5+ /arangays w$#!$ s#m#larly $el" +0 ele! #ons /e ween January 1988 an" January 1992 "oes no 'rove $a "es'# e $a &a! $ese same /arangays were 'erm# e" o $ol" ele! #ons on 8e!em/er 1992. it constitutes a total+ absolute+ and complete abdication by the CO9E&EC of its constitutionally and statutorily mandated duty to enforce and administer all election la6s as provided for in "ection $."< 'rov#"e" &or 9a/a aang /arangay o&&#!#als w$ose erm o& o&&#!e was e7 en"e" /eyon" 1992. even assum#ng $a only /arangays #n Man#la were no 'erm# e" o $ol" (+ ele! #ons on 8e!em/er 1992 w$#le $e res o& $e 5+ /arangays were allowe" even #& +0 ele! #ons $a" alrea"y /een $el" $ere /e&ore. = #s &#nally !on en"e" $a $e e7em' #on o& $e /arangays o& $e 2# y o& Man#la &rom $e re*u#remen o $ol" ele! #ons &or (+ o&&#!ers on 8e!em/er 1992 woul" "eny $e you $ vo ers #n $ose /arangays o& $e e*ual 'ro e! #on o& laws. =n $e l#g$ o& $e &orego#ng.rov#n!e o& 0ula!an "#" no $ave (+ ele! #ons on 8e!em/er 1992 e# $er. . 1$e au $or# y gran e" was no $#ng more $an $e as!er a#nmen o& a &a! . (e! #on 2. #n 1985 . an" re!all. 1985. "econd. M2. =& $ose /arangays were no en # le" o $ave (+ ele! #ons on 1992 /u never $eless were allowe" o $ave su!$ ele! #ons. w$e $er /e ween January 1988 an" 1992 ele! #ons $a" /een $el" #n a g#ven 9a/a aang /arangay. )*u#no "#re! e" $e (e!re ary o& 5o!al Governmen o #ssue $e ne!essary rules an" regula #ons &or e&&e! #ng $e re'resen a #on o& $e +a/a aang 0arangay.8. 2hey 6ere to be elected by those Bualified to e1ercise the right of suffrage.F =n "o#ng $#s. $roug$ Jus #!e 8av#"e.)'r#l 15. $e M#n#s ry o& 4"u!a #on. . -or ano $er. $e au $or# y o su'erv#se $e !on"u! o& ele! #ons #n $a year mus ne!essar#ly /e "eeme" o #n!lu"e $e au $or# y o "e erm#ne w$#!$ 9a/a aang /arangay woul" no /e #n!lu"e" #n $e 1992 ele! #ons. (+ ele! #ons $a" a! ually /een !on"u! e" #n 5. 2on rary o res'on"en sI !on en #on. 9 ReAe! #ng $#s !on en #on. a!!or"#ng o 'e # #onersI own ev#"en!e. w$#!$ $en num/ere" 89%. o& $e 2ons # u #on an" w$o are "uly reg#s ere" vo ers o& $e /arangay. C$a you $ vo ers #n $e o $er /arangays m#g$ $ave /een allowe" was no a r#g$ w$#!$ was "en#e" o you $ vo ers #n Man#la. )s alrea"y s a e". $#)) is null and void because< . . $en no new ele! #ons $a" o /e $el" on 8e!em/er 1992 s#n!e /y v#r ue o& M5J2. were ele! #ons &or (+ no $el" #n 1992 on $e groun" $a /e ween January 1988 an" January 1992 $ere $a" alrea"y /een (+ ele! #ons $el".

?navo#"a/ly.J. $e law $as also 'rov#"e" $an u'on $e 23M4542Is re!ommen"a #on. )ss#e: C$a #s $e 'ower o& $e =n er#m 0a asang . #n!lu"#ng 1an. $#s 'e # #on. a9en !ogn#Dan!e o& /y. = !oul" an" "#" 'ro'ose $e amen"men s em/o"#e" #n $e resolu #ons now /e#ng assa#le". a& er "ue 'ro!ess. mus &#rs sa #s&y # sel& $a $ere #n"ee" $as /een an #n&ra! #on o& $e law. *AA? ANTON)O =. or"ers.am/ansa o 'ro'ose amen"men s #s no new. #n!lu"#ng mem/ers o& any na #onal or lo!al law en&or!emen agen!y an" #ns rumen al# y o& $e governmen . r#g$ s. • 1$e 23M4542Is au $or# y un"er (e! #on 2. $e Javellana rul#ng o $e !on rary no w# $s an"#ng. a !an"#"a e *ues #one" $e val#"# y o& $e 'ro!lama #on an" $e #ns # u e" w# $ 23M4542 a !ase aga#ns $e 2# y 0oar" o& 2anvassers. -)21(6 • • 1992 Na #onal an" 5o!al 4le! #on. $e #ns an 'e # #on #s 8=(M=((48. $e (e!re ary o& $e 8e'ar men o& Jus #!e #n $e !ase a /ar< s$all a9e a''ro'r#a e a! #on. res'on"en s. s$oul" !on"u! $e a"m#n#s ra #ve #n*u#ry. or o& # s "#re! #ves #ssue" !on&orma/ly $erew# $. RUST)CO T.am/ansa.A. C$en. Mar!os.4R(48 an" $e !ase &#le" aga#ns 'e # #oner /y 'r#va e res'on"en s #s 8=(M=((48. $e 23M4542. = may /e o/serve" 'aren $e #!ally $a as &ar as 'e # #oner 3!!ena #s !on!erne".rov#s#ons ves e" $e =n er#m Na #onal )ssem/ly w# $ $e 'ower o 'ro'ose amen"men s u'on s'e!#al !all /y $e .F 1an move" o "#sm#ss $e a"m#n#s ra #ve !om'la#n aga#ns $#m &or allege" la!9 o& Aur#s"#! #on o& $e 23M4542 $ereover. me as a !ons # uen /o"y # s au $or# y o "o so #s !learly /eyon" "ou/ . C:4R4-3R4. N . Negle! o& 8u y. • 3/serve. $e num/er o& vo es ne!essary &or $e val#"# y o& a 'ro'osal. /e#ng #n $e /es 'os# #on o assess $ow # s "e'u #De" o&&#!#als an" em'loyees 'er&orm or $ave 'er&orme" #n $e#r "u #es. w$a #s $e e7 en o& $e !$anges $a may /e #n ro"u!e". 1$e ra $er unor $o"o7 as'e! o& $ese 'e # #ons #s $e asser #on $a $e 19%J 2ons # u #on #s no $e &un"amen al law. :en!e. 1o say $a $e 23M4542 #s w# $ou Aur#s"#! #on o loo9 #n o !$arges o& ele! #on o&&enses !omm# e" /y o&&#!#als an" em'loyees o& governmen ou s#"e $e regular em'loy o& $e 23M4542 woul" /e o un"uly "eny o # $e 'ro'er an" soun" e7er!#se o& su!$ re!ommen"a ory 'ower an". $ere&ore. /u #s !ongruen w# $. "e!#s#on or rul#ngs o& $e 23M4542.ril &. 'e # #oner. # !anno . Re(i "al Electi " :irect r.R. $e =n er#m 0a asang .%0< years #s /u a res ora #on o& $e age o& re #remen 'rov#"e" #n $e 19J5 2ons # u #on an" $as /een #n ens#vely an" e7 ens#vely "#s!usse" a $e =n er#m 0a asang . never $eless. /e sa#" $a our 'eo'le are unaware o& $e a"van ages an" "#sa"van ages o& $e 'ro'ose" amen"men . N . 'er$a's more $an $a . Re(i " E).e # #oners (amuel 3!!ena an" Ramon ). $e *ues #on o& $e au $or# y o& $e =n er#m 0a asang . 1$e 23M4542Is man"a e #n!lu"es # s au $or# y o e7er!#se "#re! an" #mme"#a e su'erv#s#on an" !on rol over na #onal an" lo!al o&&#!#als or em'loyees. = s$oul" /e s resse" $a $e a"m#n#s ra #ve !ase aga#ns 'e # #oner.r#me M#n#s er /y a vo e o& $e maAor# y o& # s mem/ers o /e ra #&#e" #n a!!or"an!e w# $ $e )r #!le on )men"men s. COMM)SS)ON ON ELECT)ONS. 1an was $e #n!um/en !# y 'rose!u or o& "avao !# y an" $e was "es#gna e" /y 23M4542 as . )ss#e: =((?46 C 3 N $e 2omele! $as $e Ausr#s"#! #on over 1an :4586 E4(. =n or"er o $el' ensure $a su!$ "uly "e'u #De" o&&#!#als an" em'loyees o& governmen !arry ou $e#r res'e! #ve ass#gne" as9s.r#me M#n#s er -er"#nan" 4. $e "e!#s#on o& $e Reg#onal 1r#al 2our o& Man#la. GonDales. e# $er o sus'en" or remove &rom o&&#!e $e o&&#!er or em'loyee w$o may. )LA/AN. = also s an"s o reason $a # #s $e 23M4542. $e /e#ng un"er $e 47e!u #ve 8e'ar men o& $e governmen . 2ons#"er#ng $a $e 'ro'ose" amen"men o& (e! #on % o& )r #!le L o& $e 2ons # u #on e7 en"#ng $e re #remen o& mem/ers o& $e (u'reme 2our an" Au"ges o& #n&er#or !our s &rom s#7 y-&#ve . #s #n rela #on o $e 'er&orman!e o& $#s "u #es as an ele! #on !anvasser an" no as a !# y 'rose!u or.-2$a#rman o& $e 0oar" o& 2anvassers o& "avao !# y. $e 23M4542. **&%A$ Oct ber ?.C:4R4-3R4. LFG@$G% A. u'on $e !all o& $e . even a 'oss#/le "en#al o& "ue 'ro!ess o $e o&&#!#al or em'loyee !on!erne". C. /o $ mem/ers o& $e . /e &oun" gu#l y o& v#ola #on o& ele! #on laws or &a#lure o !om'ly w# $ #ns ru! #ons. as well as $roug$ $e mass me"#a. $ere&ore. vs. • • . 1$e 19%J 2ons # u #on #n # s 1rans# ory . $e !orres'on"#ng 'ro'er au $or# y . an" s #ll 'en"#ng w# $. :a1a City.65< o seven y . Gross =n!om'e en!e an" )! s =n#m#!al o $e (erv#!e. an" $e s an"ar" re*u#re" &or a 'ro'er su/m#ss#onO 6eld: 1$e a''l#!a/le 'rov#s#on #n $e 19%6 )men"men s #s *u# e e7'l#!# . /y $e 'erson a"m#n#s ra #vely !$arge". $a $e 23M4542 merely may #ssue a re!ommen"a #on &or "#s!#'l#nary a! #on /u $a # #s $e e7e!u #ve "e'ar men o w$#!$ $e !$arge" o&&#!#al or em'loyee /elongs w$#!$ $as $e ul #ma e au $or# y o #m'ose $e "#s!#'l#nary 'enal y. res'ons#/#l# #es. *AD* Fer"a"d .am/ansa. 1$e law $en "oes no "e ra! &rom.am/ansa o 'ro'ose amen"men s an" $ow may # /e e7er!#se"O More s'e!#&#!ally as o $e la er.6-8<. an" "#s*ual#&#!a #ons as $e #n er#m Na #onal )ssem/ly an" $e regular Na #onal )ssem/ly an" $e Mem/ers $ereo&. o& $e 2ons # u #on #s v#r ually all-en!om'ass#ng w$en # !omes o ele! #on ma ers. TAN.am/ansa s$all $ave $e same 'owers an" # s Mem/ers s$all $ave $e same &un! #ons. /. a"d SENFOR)ANO B. 0ran!$ J6 #s R4.R. -a! s6 • • )l era"o. 'r#or o ma9#ng # s re!ommen"a #on. COMELEC /. Occe"a 1. $e general a"m#n#s ra #ve au $or# y o& $e "e'ar men o& governmen !on!erne" over # s own 'ersonnel. )r #!le =L. 1an /e#ng a !# y 'rose!u or 1$e 23M4542 "en#e" 'e # #onerIs mo #on o "#sm#ss. Manuel Gar!#a was 'ro!la#me" $e Re'resen a #ve o& $e 2n" "#s r#! .P 3ne o& su!$ 'owers #s 're!#sely $a o& 'ro'os#ng amen"men s.$#l#''#ne 0ar an" &ormer "elega es o $e 19%1 2ons # u #onal 2onven #on $a &rame" $e 'resen 2ons # u #on. &or NM#s!on"u! . ALTERA:O.res#"en an" . =nso&ar as 'er #nen # rea"s $us6 N1$e =n er#m 0a asang . $a • • . are su#ng as a7'ayers. re*u#re" /y law o 'er&orm "u #es rela #ve o $e !on"u! o& ele! #ons. C !!issi " " Electi "s. 'r#v#leges.

C:41:4R 3R N31 1:4 23M4542 .am/ansa s# #ng as a !ons # uen assem/ly on -e/ruary 5 an" 2%. are $ose ou l#ne" #n $e sem#nal !ase o& Ang 2ibay v.rov#n!e o& 0ula!an #n $e May 14. .2< No only mus $e 'ar y /e g#ven an o''or un# y o 'resen $#s !ase an" o a""u!e ev#"en!e en"#ng o es a/l#s$ $e r#g$ s w$#!$ $e asser s /u $e r#/unal mus !ons#"er $e ev#"en!e 'resen e". =n $a !a'a!# y.am/ansa 0lg. s# #ng as a !ons # uen /o"y. /u $e ev#"en!e mus /e Fsu/s an #al. .R324(( 0E 23N8?21=NG . 1$ese #n er-rela e" Resolu #ons le" o $e 23M4542@s !on #nue" a! #on – s. .3C4R.=35)148 8?4 . the a. )SSUE: ). ) "e!#s#on w# $ a/solu ely no $#ng o su''or # #s a null# y. 1$e 'ar #es !om'l#e" w# $ $e 23M4542@s or"er. )ss#e: C$a #s $e vo e ne!essary o 'ro'ose amen"men s as well as $e s an"ar" &or 'ro'er su/m#ss#onO 6eld: 1$e =n er#m 0a asang .41=1=3N4R. .an"#.$#l#''#nes na ural#De" #n a &ore#gn !oun ry o own a l#m# e" area o& lan" &or res#"en #al 'ur'oses was a''rove" /y $e vo e o& 122 o 5B Resolu #on No. as an a"m#n#s ra #ve or *uas#-Au"#!#al r#/unal.lar#"el. 2009. a le er o !on&#rm $e vera!# y o& $e re'or e" !on"u! o& 'ro!ee"#ngs. 1$ere #s no am/#gu# y o $e a''l#!a/le 'rov#s#on6 N)ny amen"men o. 2009. Moreover. J on $e amen"men o $e )r #!le on $e 2omm#ss#on on 4le! #ons /y a vo e o& 148 o 2 w# $ 1 a/s en #on. 8oKa Reme"#os 1r#n#"a". lea"#ng o $e 'ar #es@ &ormal o&&er o& $e#r res'e! #ve ev#"en!e. #s o& no momen B /e!ause $e same w#ll /e su/m# e" o $e 'eo'le &or ra #&#!a #on.ul#lan.reciati " ball ts – on $e 'rov#n!#al ele! #on !on es a $e (41 o&&#!es. 22. = #s $us w# $#n $e 90-"ay 'er#o" 'rov#"e" /y $e 2ons # u #on. !an 'ro'ose amen"men s. 1981.4< No only mus $ere /e some ev#"en!e o su''or a &#n"#ng or !on!lus#on.P 1$e $ree resolu #ons were a''rove" /y $e =n er#m 0a asang .1< 1$e &#rs o& $ese r#g$ s #s $e r#g$ o a $ear#ng. 0o!aue. or rev#s#on o&. /u $e 23M4542@s (e!on" 8#v#s#on "en#e" $e mo #on #n # s 3r"er o& May 26. 1$a #s no a re*u#remen as &ar as a !ons # u #onal !onven #on #s !on!erne".r#me M#n#s er an" $e 2a/#ne . )llege"ly alarme" /y #n&orma #on on 23M4542 a! #on on $e 'rov#n!#al ele! #on !on es 6ithin the "E2 premises 6ithout notice to him and 6ithout his participation+ $e 'e # #oner@s !ounsel wro e $e (41 (e!re ary. &%%A 1$e res'on"en seasona/ly &#le" an ele! #on 'ro es w# $ $e 23M4542.am/ansa. . . $e "a e o& $e 'le/#s!# e #s se &or )'r#l %. as #n $#s !ase. 1$e 'e # #oner move" o re!ons#"er $#s 3r"er. )s o $e 'er#o". The case was therea-ter s#b!itted . Mey!auayan. $e 'ar #es 'resen e" $e#r o $er ev#"en!e. =n $e 0a asang . 1$e rev#s#on was !on"u! e" a $e 23M4542@s o&&#!e #n =n ramuros.P F(u/s an #al ev#"en!e #s more $an a mere FACTS: 1$e 'e # #oner an" $e res'on"en v#e" &or $e 'os# #on o& Governor o& $e . Gu#g#n o. 6EL:: ). a 'la!e w$en "#re! ly a a!$e". )& er rev#s#on. # !on!lu"e" $a # woul" !on #nue $e 'ro!ee"#ngs a& er 'ro'er !oor"#na #on w# $ $e (41.Cere $e amen"men s 'ro'ose" are so e7 ens#ve #n !$ara! er $a $ey go &ar /eyon" $e l#m# s o& $e au $or# y !on&erre" on $e =n er#m 0a asang . 0. 1 'ro'os#ng an amen"men allow#ng a na ural-/orn !# #Den o& $e . Court of 8ndustrial :elations+ *uo e" /elow6 . $e *ues #on may /e v#ewe" no only &rom $e s an"'o#n o& $e 'er#o" $a mus ela'se /e&ore $e $ol"#ng o& $e 'le/#s!# e /u also &rom $e s an"'o#n o& su!$ amen"men s $av#ng /een !alle" o $e a en #on o& $e 'eo'le so $a # !oul" no 'laus#/ly /e ma#n a#ne" $a $ey were 'ro'erly #n&orme" as o $e 'ro'ose" !$anges. su!$ e7 raor"#nary maAor# y was o/ a#ne". w$e $er $e 2ons # u #on #s merely amen"e" #n 'ar or rev#se" or o ally !$ange" woul" /e!ome #mma er#al $e momen $e same #s ra #&#e" /y $e sovere#gn 'eo'le.R32448=NG( C=1:3?1 G=. MEN:OHA 1s. 1$e 23M4542@s (e!on" 8#v#s#on "en#e" $e 'e # #oner@s mo #on #n # s 3r"er o& )'r#l 29. NorDagaray. even on $e assum' #on $a $e re*u#remen o& $ree.am/ansa as (u!!essor o& $e =n er#m Na #onal )ssem/lyO Cas $ere rev#s#on ra $er $an amen"men O 6eld: C$e $er $e 2ons # u #onal 2onven #on w#ll only 'ro'ose amen"men s o $e 2ons # u #on or en #rely over$aul $e 'resen 2ons # u #on an" 'ro'ose an en #rely new 2ons # u #on /ase" on an ="eology &ore#gn o $e "emo!ra #! sys em. COMELEC a"d CA/:AN/ANAN Oct ber *G.am/ansa e7er!#ses # s !ons # uen 'ower o 'ro'ose amen"men s. = woul" /e an #n"e&ens#/le 'ro'os# #on o asser $a $e $ree-&our $ vo es re*u#re" w$en # s# s as a leg#sla #ve /o"y a''l#es as well w$en # $as /een !onvene" as $e agen!y $roug$ w$#!$ amen"men s !oul" /e 'ro'ose". ) any ra e. Malolos. 777 . 1$e &a! $a $e 'resen 2ons # u #on may /e rev#se" an" re'la!e" w# $ a new one #s no argumen aga#ns $e val#"# y o& $e law /e!ause Qamen"men @ #n!lu"es $e Qrev#s#on@ or o al over$aul o& $e en #re 2ons # u #on. C$ere $en #s $e allege" #n&#rm# yO )s o $e re*u#s# e s an"ar" &or a 'ro'er su/m#ss#on.J< C$#le $e "u y o "el#/era e "oes no #m'ose $e o/l#ga #on o "e!#"e r#g$ . Rev#s#on o& /allo s #nvolv#ng $e 'ro es e" an" !oun er-'ro es e" 're!#n! s #n )nga . w$#!$ #n!lu"es $e r#g$ o& $e 'ar y #n eres e" or a&&e! e" o 'resen $#s own !ase an" su/m# ev#"en!e #n su''or $ereo&. N3R 1$e a''ro'r#a e "ue 'ro!ess s an"ar"s $a a''ly o $e 23M4542. 200% ele! #ons.&our $ vo es a''l#es. namely. ) y.res#"en!y.eci-ically. = #s no "#s'u e" $a Resolu #on No. $#s 2ons # u #on s$all /e val#" w$en ra #&#e" /y a maAor# y o& $e vo es !as #n a 'le/#s!# e w$#!$ s$all /e $el" no la er $an $ree mon $s a& er $e a''roval o& su!$ amen"men or rev#s#on. C:41:4R 3R N31 1:4 23M4542 :)( J?8=2=)5 . 3n!e ra #&#e" /y $e sovere#gn 'eo'le. 2 "eal#ng w# $ $e . $e =n er#m 0a asang . rul#ng $a $e 23M4542 $as 'lenary 'owers o &#n" al erna #ve me $o"s o &a!#l# a e $e resolu #on o& $e ele! #on 'ro es B $us. 2alum'# .2 No.. 1$e 'e # #oner was 'ro!la#me" w#nn#ng !an"#"a e an" assume" $e o&&#!e o& Governor. an" $e Na #onal )ssem/ly /y a vo e o& 14% o 5 w# $ 1 a/s en #onB an" Resolu #on No. 1$e 23M4542 a''rove" $e 'ar #es@ &ormal o&&er o& ev#"en!e an" $en re*u#re" $e 'ar #es o su/m# $e#r res'e! #ve memoran"a. 200%44. $a o& $av#ng some $#ng o su''or # s "e!#s#on. .r res l#ti ". w$#!$ was ra&&le" o $e (e!on" 8#v#s#on an" "o!9e e" as 4. $e 2ons # u #on #n"#!a es $e way $e ma er s$oul" /e resolve".=NG 8?4 N31=24 13 1:4 . only a maAor# y vo e #s nee"e". # "oes #m'ly a ne!ess# y w$#!$ !anno /e "#sregar"e". = #s no a re*u#remen e# $er w$en. $e . (an Ra&ael an" (an Jose "el Mon e soon &ollowe". =rene Guevarra. $ere !an /e no "e/a e a/ou $e val#"# y o& $e new 2ons # u #on.aom/ong. 1981.

&#nal or"ers. &#& $. ren"er # s "e!#s#on #n su!$ a manner $a $e 'ar #es o $e 'ro!ee"#ng !an 9now $e var#ous #ssues #nvolve". "uly 'resen e" $#s ev#"en!e.r 1i"cial electi " c "tests. a''o#n men o& ele! #on o&&#!#als an" #ns'e! ors.leadi"(s -iled. an" ne# $er one !an !om'la#n o& any "en#al o& no #!e or o& $e r#g$ o /e $ear".its >#risdicti " 1er .r the . 1$e essen!e o& $#s as'e! o& "ue 'ro!ess. =n $e &#rs 'la!e. rt#"ity t clari-y that >#dicial . wer i" #r c #"try is “vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law.rulema9#ng on all *ues #ons a&&e! #ng ele! #ons an" $e 'romulga #on o& # s rules o& 'ro!e"ure<. 1$ese var#ous '$ases o& $e 'ro!ee"#ngs !ons # u e $e $ear#ng 'ro'er o& $e ele! #on !on es an" $e 23M4542 $as more $an sa #s&#e" $e o''or un# y o /e $ear" $a $e Ang 2ibay $ear#ng s age r#g$ s re*u#re. we $ave !ons#s en ly $el". #n# #a #ve.Cr ced#re. $#r".lai" . o e7'ose $e reason o 'u/l#! s!ru #ny an" !r# #!#sm. 23M4542 #s no a r#/unal w# $#n $e Au"#!#al /ran!$ o& governmen an" #s no a !our e7er!#s#ng Au"#!#al 'ower #n $e !ons # u #onal senseB $en!e. an" a''ella e Aur#s"#! #on over all !on es s #nvolv#ng ele! #ve mun#!#'al o&&#!#als "e!#"e" /y r#al !our s o& general Aur#s"#! #on.2< 47er!#se e7!lus#ve or#g#nal Aur#s"#! #on over all !on es s rela #ng o $e ele! #ons.the sta"dards set by Secti " ? . /o $ 'ar #es $a" $e#r "ay #n !our . 1$e se!on".ro!e"ure "e&#nes $e re*u#remen s &or a $ear#ng an" $ese serve as $e s an"ar"s #n $e "e erm#na #on o& $e 'resen!e or "en#al o& "ue 'ro!ess.F . ma9e $e#r 'resen a #ons. -#nally.i" the ha"dli"( electi " cases. Rule 1% o& # s Rules o& . as!er a#n $e &a! s &rom $ese su/m#ss#ons. e7e!u ory.ri!ary ri(hts #n a"m#n#s ra #ve 'ro!ee"#ngs.e. . an" #n $e !ourse o& $e e7er!#se o& # s Aur#s"#! #on.J< 8e!#"e. so o s'ea9.arties t the c "test that w #ld re"der the r#le #"reas "able. an" !on rover ea!$ o $er@s su/m#ss#on.re>#dicial r discri!i"at ry e--ects " the . . 1$e &#rs o& $e enumera e" r#g$ s 'er a#n o $e su/s an #ve r#g$ s o& a 'ar y a heari"( sta(e o& $e 'ro!ee"#ngs. o e7er!#se or#g#nal Aur#s"#! #on over ele! #on !on es s o& reg#onal. 'rov#n!#al an" !# y o&&#!#als an" a''ella e Aur#s"#! #on over ele! #on !on es s o& o $er lower ran9#ng o&&#!#als<. as &ollows6 . 1$ese are now !ommonly re&erre" o as cardi"al . O" the basis . $ere&ore. or a leas !on a#ne" #n $e re!or" an" "#s!lose" o $e 'ar #es a&&e! e". ?n"er $ese un"#s'u e" &a! s.i. # s a"Au"#!a #ve &un! #on.+ those presented or submitted by the parties. a"d .de"ial . $#s #s $e Cduty to give reasonD o ena/le $e a&&e! e" 'erson o un"ers an" $ow $e rule o& &a#rness $as /een a"m#n#s ere" #n $#s !ase.his heari"( sta(e ri(hts. ai!ed at e0.y'e $ear#ng #s no a all #mes an" #n all #ns an!es essen #alB #n $e !ase o& 23M4542. an" o ensure $a $e "e!#s#on w#ll /e $oug$ $roug$ /y $e "e!#s#on-ma9er.e. $e 23M4542 un"er our governmen al s ru! ure #s a !ons # u #onal a"m#n#s ra #ve agen!y an" # s 'owers are essen #ally e7e!u #ve #n na ure . 1$e 23M4542@s a"Au"#!a #ve &un! #on #s *uas#-Au"#!#al s#n!e # #s a !ons # u #onal /o"y.etiti "er t c !.G1%H ) &ormal or r#al. .#.editi"( the dis. an" no a''eala/le. other than a court. an" *uas#-leg#sla #ve .r cess withi" the e0ercise . an" no s#m'ly a!!e' $e v#ews o& a su/or"#na e #n arr#v#ng a a "e!#s#on. o $ol" $ear#ngs an" e7er!#se "#s!re #on o& a Au"#!#al na ureB # re!e#ves ev#"en!e.discreti " as it is a s#itable a"d reas "able . e7er!#se" as # #s #n $e !ourse o& a"m#n#s ra #on an" en&or!emen . 'le/#s!# e.the C "stit#ti " itsel. 1$ese s an"ar"s se &or $ $e gu#"#ng !ons#"era #ons #n "el#/era #ng on $e !ase an" are $e ma er#al an" su/s an #al !om'onen s o& "e!#s#onma9#ng. re urns an" *ual#&#!a #ons o& all ele! #ve reg#onal.the COMELEC R#les .%< 1$e 2our o& =n"us r#al Rela #ons s$oul". 'rov#n!#al.5< 1$e "e!#s#on mus /e ren"ere" on $e ev#"en!e 'resen e" a $e $ear#ng. #n all !on rovers#al *ues #ons. Based " the . *uas#Au"#!#al . =n $ese 'ro!ee"#ngs. we r#le that the COMELEC acti " is a 1alid e0ercise . )r #!le =L. 5riefly+ the tribunal must consider the totality of the evidence presented 6hich must all be found in the records of the case .o-$ea" w# $ $e res'on"en #n an a"versar#al !on es w$ere /o $ s#"es were g#ven $e#r res'e! #ve r#g$ s o s'ea9. o en&or!e an" a"m#n#s er ele! #on laws<.s!#n #lla. $e las re*u#remen . . all *ues #ons a&&e! #ng ele! #ons. as $e "e!#s#onma9er "e!#"es on $e ev#"en!e 'resen e" "ur#ng $e $ear#ng.I =n !on ras w# $ $e a/ove "e&#n# #ons.this case. or rul#ngs o& $e 2omm#ss#on on ele! #on !on es s #nvolv#ng ele! #ve mun#!#'al an" barangay o&&#!#als s$all /e &#nal. &ur $er !om'lemen s $e $ear#ng an" "e!#s#on-ma9#ng "ue 'ro!ess r#g$ s an" #s s#m#lar #n su/s an!e o $e !ons # u #onal re*u#remen $a a "e!#s#on o& a !our mus s a e "#s #n! ly $e &a! s an" $e law u'on w$#!$ # #s /ase". e7!e' $ose #nvolv#ng $e r#g$ o vo e. $e 'e # #oner s oo" $ea". an" s#7 $ as'e! s o& $e Ang 2ibay re*u#remen s are re#n&or!emen s o& $e r#g$ o a $ear#ng an" are $e #nv#ola/le r#g$ s a''l#!a/le a $e deliberati1e sta(e. an" on $e /as#s o& all $ese "e!#"es on $e mer# s o& $e !ase an" ren"ers Au"gmen . an" reg#s ra #on o& vo ers. )s a !om'onen o& $e rule o& &a#rness $a un"erl#es "ue 'ro!ess.6< 1$e 2our o& =n"us r#al Rela #ons or any o& # s Au"ges. ?n"er $ese erms. ves e" w# $ au $or# y o "e!#"e ele! #on !on es s. or as a''l#e" o a"m#n#s ra #ve 'ro!ee"#ngs. we see " -act#al a"d le(al basis . siti " . a"d with " ad1erse. re&eren"um.1< 4n&or!e an" a"m#n#s er all laws an" regula #ons rela #ve o $e !on"u! o& an ele! #on. .2< o& $e 2ons # u #on l#s s $e 23M4542@s 'owers an" &un! #ons.. 8es'# e $e e7er!#se o& "#s!re #on $a #s essen #ally Au"#!#al #n !$ara! er. #s *uas#-Au"#!#al. an" $e reasons &or $e "e!#s#ons ren"ere". an" !# y o&&#!#als.? the conclusion+ reached by the decision>ma3er himself and not by a subordinate+ must be based on substantial evidence.. $e "oes no "#s'u e $a $e &ully 'ar #!#'a e" #n $e 'ro!ee"#ngs o& $e ele! #on 'ro es un #l $e !ase was "eeme" su/m# e" &or resolu #onB $e $a" re'resen a #on a $e rev#s#on o& $e /allo s. su/Ae! only o es a/l#s$e" 23M4542 rules o& 'ro!e"ures. 1$e 'er&orman!e o& $#s "u y #s #nse'ara/le &rom $e au $or# y !on&erre" u'on # . or #nvolv#ng ele! #ve barangay o&&#!#als /y r#al !our s o& l#m# e" Aur#s"#! #on. (e! #on 2. N3R 9e ta3e this . an" re!all. mus a! on # s or $#s own #n"e'en"en !ons#"era #on o& $e law an" &a! s o& $e !on roversy. an" summe" u' $#s !ase $roug$ a memoran"um. 0. #s s#m'ly $e o''or un# y o /e $ear". rela #ng o $e &orm an" su/s an!e o& $e "e!#s#on o& a *uas#-Au"#!#al /o"y. 8e!#s#ons. an o''or un# y o e7'la#n one@s s#"e or an o''or un# y o see9 a re!ons#"era #on o& $e a! #on or rul#ng !om'la#ne" o&. &our $. 'ar #!ularly w# $ res'e! o ele! #on !on es s. #n!lu"#ng "e erm#na #on o& $e num/er an" lo!a #on o& 'oll#ng 'la!es. . among o $ers. "e erm#ne $e law an" $e legal r#g$ s o& $e 'ar #es. = means su!$ relevan ev#"en!e as a reasona/le m#n" m#g$ a!!e' as a"e*ua e o su''or a !on!lus#on.