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March | April 2014 EXPERT TOPIC - TROUT

International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

EXPERT T●PIC

TROUT
Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
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EXPERT TOPIC

EXPERT T●PIC

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ccording to the World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, approximately 576.2 thousand tons of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are cultured in 69 countries throughout the world, valued at 2.4 billion dollars. The production of rainbow trout has grown exponentially since the 1950’s and the total global production today is second only to Atlantic salmon. Major producing countries include Iran, Germany, Australia, Norway and France.

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Global

accounts for 13.26 percent of Iran's overall aquaculture production.

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Iran

Asia’s aquaculture history dates back thousands of years. In the 1980’s, The Islamic Republic of Iran invested heavily in aquaculture development with the culture of rainbow trout along the Caspian Sea. Trout farms are mainly found across the centre, northwestern and western parts of the country. Iran’s trout farming systems consist of simple raceways made of concrete that harbor a continuous water flow. As a result of improved farming techniques and facilities, the country’s annual production of trout has grown dramatically. In1978, Iran reportedly produced 280 tonnes of trout. In 2009, total production reached 73 642 tonnes. Rainbow trout now

Today, rainbow trout is the most important cultured species in Germany. First introduced from North America in 1880, production figures for this species have increased annually over the last 40 years, reaching approximately 24000 tonnes in 2003. This increase in production is mainly due to milestones in the country’s aquaculture systems, namely, the development of artificial feeds, construction of flow-through-systems, artificial oxygen enrichment of production water and effective disease control. Currently, trout is cultured in flow through units throughout the southern part of the country, mainly in the States of BadenWürttemberg and Bavaria. These aquaculture systems are also found in the States of Lower Saxony, Hessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and Thüringen. Germany’s trout farming production reached €113 million in 2005, making up 60 percent of the country’s total aquaculture earnings.

Germany

farming in New South Wales began in the early 1970s and today provides annual revenue of $12 million. Rainbow trout is also a dominant freshwater aquaculture species cultured southeastern state of Victoria. Primarily harvested in Victoria’s cooler Alpine regions, the history of Victoria’s trout rearing dates back to 1870. Today, there are approximately 20 farms in operation in the state, a few of which were established throughout the 70’s and 80’s. Between 2010 and 2011, the Victorian trout farming sector was responsible for the production of approximately 1000 tonnes of fish, a notable figure in light of the of the numerous droughts and bushfires in recent years. In Tasmania, rainbow trout are grown in both freshwater and saltwater systems. The first Tasmanian trial trout farm was established in 1964 in Bridport, a small town on the northeast coast of Tasmania. By 1981, oceanic net pen rearing of rainbow trout was being carried out on an experimental basis, and by 1983 several companies had successfully established marine farming of rainbow trout, operating on both the southeastern and western coasts.

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The farming of both rainbow and brown trout is a valuable contributor to Australia’s aquaculture industry. Rainbow trout were first introduced to the country in 1927 as a source of recreational fishing in the south west of the state. Trout
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Australia

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Rainbow trout is the only non-native species of fish in Norwegian aquaculture. First introduced into the country in 1900, the species was first cultivated in freshwater in the early 1960s. Following successful intensive rearing processes, Norway’s trout production

Norway

EXPERT T●PIC is now primarily reared in sea cages, although a small number of fish are still harvested in freshwater ponds and tanks. Current exports account for 95 percent of the country’s total aquaculture production. As one of the world’s leading trout exporters, it is not surprising that Norwegian reared fished are exported to over 130 different countries. The EU imports a large amount of Norwegian trout, with Denmark and France at the forefront in terms of export volume. Norway’s exports also extend to Russia and other eastern European countries. Currently, Japan and Russia import the largest volume of trout.

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As one of the first European countries to develop a steady aquaculture industry, French aquaculture is notable for the production of trout farming. Trout rearing mainly takes place in Aquitaine, located in the southwest and Bretagne in the northwest. These two regions account for 47 percent of the country’s total trout production. There are however, a range of farms throughout the rest of the country including Nord Pas de Calais, Normandy, Rhône-Alpes and Midi-Pyrénées. Currently, the French trout farming industry employs approximately 2 000 people. 3 percent of the larger production companies produce more than 500 tonnes of fish annually. Interestingly, although they produce less than 100 tonnes each, smaller trout producer in the region represent 84 percent of France’s total production. France is the third largest producer of trout after Chile and Norway and in 2004, approximately 35 128 tonnes of the species was produced with a market value of around €135 million. At present, France’s rainbow trout market is divided in to three main sectors: • Direct consumption: accounts for approximately 80 percent of trout production with a market value of €130 million • Angling: accounts for 12 percent of production with a market value of €16 million • Restocking: accounts for 8 percent of production with a market value of €7 million France currently exports around 5 300 tonnes of rainbow trout to Belgium and Germany and imports around 3 000 tonnes from Norway and Spain.

France

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Farming trout in the UK - More than just food
estled in Coln Valley, within the lush Cotwolds in the UK and not far from IAF’s head office is the Bibury Trout Farm - one of Britain’s oldest aquaculture facilities. Founded originally by Arthur Servern, a dedicated naturalist, to supply the native Brown Trout to local rivers; it has evolved over the years, latterly under Kate Marriott’s ownership – and is now capable of producing 6 million trout ova from its hatchery every year, the majority being Rainbow Trout more suited to lake and reservoir habitats. Regardless of its age, established in 1902 – it is anything but ancient; Bibury Trout Farm has successfully solidified itself as both a bustling tourist attraction and innovative industrial fish producer. It has also been instrumental in bringing together its local community, assisting with local business and helping to bring even more life to an already vibrant community. Dedicated to its continued heritage, Bibury Trout Farm proudly maintains its conservation efforts – stocking local rivers, reservoirs and lakes throughout the United Kingdom. Three-fourths of its fish production, backed by local fishing syndicates, goes towards this process; restocking rainbow and brown trout at all stages of life. Although Bibury Trout Farm only uses one-fourth of its fish production for direct market sales, it still produces approximately 125 tonnes of trout annually for consumption. Domestically, Bibury transports trout eggs throughout the United Kingdom; its supply chain reaching as far North as Scotland – paying careful attention to the handling, temperature and packaging of its product in order to ensure it maintains it's high quality when delivered.

EXPERT T●PIC

A multitude of bio-security
Bibury Trout Farm has successfully implemented a multitude of biosecurity measures in order to mitigate and reduce the risk of disease within its operation. By sourcing only from its own hatchery (apart from periodic refreshment of broodstock), Bibury is able to successfully simplify its supply chain and in the process eliminate the chance of cross contamination – growing its fish all the way from the initial egg to maturation. Employees are effectively trained in the ethical and hygienic handling of fish, consistently washing their hands and feet between stations in order to maintain a sanitary and safe environment. Frequently samples of trout are taken and recorded in order to ensure that the health and sustainability of the fish is maintained. The feed producer Skretting has also been instrumental in the wellbeing, health and growth of Bibury Trout Farm as a whole, providing flexible options for finance during times of hardship and also providing an auxiliary of veterinary services which further cements the bio-security of fish stocks.

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Tourist attraction
Tourists from all over the world flock to Bibury Trout Farm, captivated by the beauty of the local area and facilities. Bibury Trout Farm successfully draws a multitude of demographics (for example from trout producing countries such as Turkey and Iran to name just two), from young school children to retirees looking to enjoy their spare time. This open atmosphere and popularity provides a unique opportunity in which to further educate consumers on the trout industry and its farming practices, providing them with greater perspective and understanding. Using its onsite smoke foundry, Bibury is able to indulge its customers by producing a variety of diverse trout based cuisine; such as fresh trout, smoked trout, caviar and trout cakes. This variety of dishes will hopefully provide consumers with the opportunity to see just how many different ways trout can be incorporated into their day-to-day diet.

Recreational activities
Known as the “Greedy Fish” in Latin, trout provides us with not just an excellent form
March-April 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 39

of fish production – but also an enjoyable recreational activity. Bibury Trout Farm helps to maintain this sport by providing fisherman and anglers from across the globe with the opportunity to fish from the re-stocked lakes and rivers dotted throughout the United Kingdom. Furthermore, Bibury provides children with the opportunity to fish directly from the facility, ensuring a catch to help build their confidence and passion for aquaculture at a young age. Although Bibury Trout Farm doesn’t follow the traditional methods of table farming, it has helped to bring more upbeat enthusiasm to the trout industry as a whole. Developing and improving its local community through conservation, tourism and diversification of product – Bibury Trout Farm proves that successful aquaculture isn’t just about food production; but environmental sustainability and recreation as well.

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EXPERT T●PIC

Victorian rainbow trout

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ccording to the history books Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were introduced to Australia just after 1860 and Victoria has held on to the mantle of being the largest supplier of freshwater trout to the Australian market ever since.

Most of the fish produced in Victoria's cool alpine regions, primarily in the upper Goulburn River system, and whilst shorter lived than brown trout (cultured primarily for restocking purposes), the rainbows grow faster in most circumstances.

Victorian commercial trout farming has operated for over 40 years. Today's farms range in size from small tourist operations to large farms with many ponds or raceways that produce 100s of tonnes of fish. Freshwater trout in Victoria are usually farmed in flow-through raceways or ponds under semi-intensive and intensive grow-out systems using flow-through systems where large quantities of water are continually exchanged in the culture unit and fed a commercial pelleted diet. This type of farming requires a considerable amount of clean, cool water which is usually diverted from an adjacent river. Farms licensed through the Victorian Government Environmental Protection Authority, to ensure water is appropriately treated prior to discharge. This water generally passes through the production system and on to settlement ponds or constructed wetlands, before being discharged back into the river. As trout is a cold water species, it prefers water temperatures between 10-20 degrees, the frequency of hotter summers is proving to be a challenge for the industry. Innovations, such as using oxygen injection and deeper raceways to cope with increasing summer temperatures are being introduced. Since the trout pioneering days of Alan and Peter Leake, the industry has faced some significant challenges. Over recent years they have had to contend with massive bush fires in 2009 which were followed by floods. The majority of the farmers had just got their stocks back up from the fires and the consequential fire retardant chemicals, when in 2010 those gains were then lost when the fish were washed/swam away with the incredible floods. Most local people would recall seeing on the television at the time, trout being picked up from the water in the town’s street.

Profiles of Victoria's Salmonids
Brown trout Brown trout were introduced to mainland Australia from Tasmania in 1864 as fertilised eggs. Fisheries Victoria stocks more brown trout than any other salmonid (trout and salmon). These stockings are predominantly into lakes and impoundments. This species of trout is widespread and abundant in north eastern Victoria where self-sustaining populations thrive in cool, fast flowing waters. Given good habitat and food, brown trout grow rapidly in their second and third year of life although few live beyond five to six years of age. Brown trout are considered to be a 'residential' fish exhibiting limited movement from established home ranges. They appear to dominate rainbow trout in waters where both species exist naturally.

Rainbow trout

Getting back to normal
After 2010 the state was down to 50% of normal production but latest news is that it is getting back to where it was with currently 26 licensed holders and is the largest volume aquaculture sector in Victoria. Companies like Alpine Trout Farm in Noojee, Victoria, at the base of the Mount Baw Baw Ranges, (a winter snow area Victorian Ranges about 120km east of Melbourne), is one of those in the business who through continuous improvement in production techniques and environmental management is adapting to these challenges. They have recently purchased eight ha and 58 ponds, the farm plans to produce 400 tonnes in the year but have concerns in
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Chinook salmon Chinook salmon are also known as Quinnat salmon and King salmon and are highly regarded by anglers as a strong sportsfish. They were first introduced to Australia in the 1870s. In natural circumstances, young and adults spend most of their life at sea, returning to their natal streams to spawn. Natural migratory stocks in North America have recorded fish of 1.6m and nearly 60kg. In Victoria they are only stocked into Lake Purrumbete, Lake Murdeduke and on occasion, Lake Modewarre. These waters have been known to produce fish of 89cm and 11.4kg (Lake Bullen Merri, 1981), but most fish are generally between 1 and 3kg.

Atlantic salmon Atlantic salmon are often confused with brown trout and were first introduced to Australia in the 1860s. In natural circumstances, most of their life cycle is spent at sea, however stocked populations for recreational fishing have been maintained in Lake Purrumbete and Lake Bullen Merri.

EXPERT T●PIC produces about 800 tonnes of trout per annum or 30,000 fish per week. Approximately 40 percent of the fish are smoked. been released in numerous lakes, rivers and streams across the state. Today, the Government utilises a combination of regulation, stocking and habitat improvement to manage trout fisheries. The use of these tools is underpinned by research performed by Primary Industries Research Victoria (PIRVic) based at Snobs Creek near Eildon. Continuing research on trout provides increased awareness of their behaviour and needs, which subsequently leads to improved trout fisheries as a result of informed management decisions. Research also provides the means to scientifically monitor both stocked and wild trout in order to adjust management strategies.

Recreational angling
One cannot mention trout in Victoria without talking about recreational angling – it also relies on aquaculture for restocking. The angling effort in Victoria occurs on freshwater lakes, rivers and streams with trout being one of the most harvested species in these waters. The Victorian trout fishery is a major social and economic contributor to regional communities with nearly half of all trout harvested in Australia being caught in Victoria. Inland anglers spend more than Aus$170 million a year pursuing trout, redfin and native species such as Murray cod and golden perch. In addition to providing good sport fishing, many consider trout to be a choice table fish. Since 1960, over 41 million trout have

ensuring low stocking densities. The organisation has its fish processed in the farm's new 500sqm on-site facility, opened in November last year and they are growing Rainbow trout, Golden trout, Arctic Char and Brook trout. The most established Victorian Rainbow Trout organisation is Goulburn River Trout, a family operated trout farming and processing business based near Alexandra on the Goulburn River. The business has been in operation for 35 years, the last 20 under the ownership of the Meggitt family. The business employs about 25 people,

Perspectives
To get some perspectives in the global scene the value of Norwegian trout exports (information from FAO Globefish) increased to NOK 1.7 billion (US$304.8 million) in 2012 because of strong growth in volume, which totaled 56,000 tonnes, a 43 percent jump from 2011. Norway has an export growth of 60 percent in volume to Russia; Russia is fast increasing its relative share of Norwegian trout exports. In total, 55 percent of Norwegian trout exports went to this market in 2012. Other big trout markets were Japan and Belarus.

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