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# VIJNAN STUDY CIRCLE-TRIGNOMETRY-FORMULA AND CONCEPTS

BY K.H. V.
AN ANGLE: An angle is the amount of rotation of a revolving line w.r.t a fixed straight line (a figure
formed by two rays having common initial point.) The two rays or lines are called the sides of the angle and
common initial point is called the vertex of the angle.

ar l
e( ina
)
Rotation of the initial arm to the terminal arm generates the angle.

m
sid erm
θ +ve
Rotation can be anti clock wise or clockwise.

T

• Angle is said to be +ve if rotation is anti clockwise. angle
• Angle is said to be -ve if rotation is clockwise. Initial
side(arm) -ve angle
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES:
a) Sexagesimal system: b) Centisimal system of angles:
In sexagesimal system of measurement, 1 right angle =100 grades =100g
the units of measurement are degrees, minutes and 1 grade =100 minutes =100'
seconds. 1' = 100 seconds =100''
1 right angle =90 degrees(90o);
1 degree = 60 minutes (60')
1 minute = 60 seconds (60'')

## c) RADIAN OR CIRCULAR MEASURE : In this system units of measurement is radian.

A radian is the measure of an angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc whose length is equal
to the radius of the circle. one radian is denoted by 1c
1 radian =570 161 22'' VIGNAN CLASSES
Do You know?
A radian is a Constant angle. And When no unit is
D B  radians = 1800 mentioned with an angle,
Arc it is understod to be in
AB be the Arc, Let the length radians. If the radius of
----r----- A of the arc =OA=radius the circle is r and its
circumference is C then
angle AOB =1 radian C=2πr C/2r =π 
for any circle
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEGREES AND RADIANS: Circumference/diameter
180 o =π which is constant.
 radians =180o 1 radian= 1c =
 π =3.1416(approximately)

1c = 570 17' 45''; 10 = radian=0.01746 radian
180 o
(approximately)
 
Radian measure= x Degree measure i.e. To convert degrees into radians Multiply by
180 o 180 o
180 o 180 o
Degree measure= x Radian measure. i.e. To convert radians into degrees Multiply by
 

NOTE: 1. Radian is the unit to measure angle 2. It does not means that π stands for 1800 , π is real number,
where as π c stands for 1800

## LENGTH OF ARC OF A CIRCLE:

If an arc of length “s” subtends an angle θ radians at the center of a circle of radius 'r', then
S =r θ i.e. length of arc = radius x angle in radians (subtended by arc)
arc S
No of radians in an angle subtended by an arc of circle at the centre = =
arc length of magnitude of r
AREA OF A SECTOR OF A CIRCLE:(sectorial area)
1 θ
The area of the sector formed by the angle θ at the center of a circle of radius r is r2 .θ
2
RADIAN MEASURE OF SOME COMMON ANGLES:
θ 0 150 22½ 300 450 600 750 900 1200 1350 1500 1800 210 2700 3600
0 0
(
Degrees)
θ c
Radians      5  2 3 5  7  3  2
12 8 6 4 3 12 2 3 4 6 6 2

1
SOME USEFUL FACTS ON CLOCKS:
DO YOU KNOW:
1. Angle between two consecutive digits of a In a regular polygon
 i) All the interior angles are equal
clock is 300 or radians.
6 ii) All the exterior angles are equal
2. Hour hand of the clock rotates by an angle iii) All the sides are equal
iv)Sum of all the exterior angles is 3600

of 300 or radians in one hour v) Each exterior angle = 3600/number of
6 exterior angles
1 0  vi)Each interior angle =
and or radians in one minute. 1800 -exterior angle
2 360
vii) For a polygon with n sides
3. Minute hand of the clock rotates by an a) the sum of internal angles is
 (2n-4) right angles, where a rightnangle
angle of 60 or radians in one minute.
30 =900
b) the number of diagonals is n(n-3)/2
TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OR RATIOS AND FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS.
1. If θ is an acute angle of a right angled triangle OPM
We define Six trigonometric ratios(t-ratios) as
opposite side adjacent side P
sinθ = ; cosθ = u s
hypotenus hypotenus
o ten Opposite side
opposite side hypotenus y p
tanθ = ; cosecθ = H θ
adjacent side opposite side O M
secθ = ; cotθ =
adjacent side opposite side
2. Let θ be an angle in standard position. If P(x,y) is any point on the terminal side of θ and

OP= x2  y2 =r ; then
P
y x y
sinθ = cosθ = tanθ =
r r x
r r x
cosecθ = secθ = cotθ =
y x y O M

## RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS

BASIC IDENTITTIES:
a) sin2θ + cos2θ =1; DEDUCTIONS:
2 2
b) 1+ tan θ = sec θ ; cos2θ = 1 -sin2θ; sin2θ = 1- cos2θ;
c) 1+ cot2θ = cosec2θ ; sec2θ -1 = tan2θ; cosec2θ -1 = cot2θ;
sec2θ - tan2θ =1; cosec2θ - cot2θ =1
RECIPROCAL RELATIONS
1 1 1
cosecθ = ; secθ = cotθ = ;cosecθ.sinθ =1 ; secθ. cosθ =1 ; cotθ. tanθ =1
sinθ cosθ tanθ

QUOTIENT RELATIONS
sinθ 1 cosθ
tanθ = ; cotθ = =
cosθ tanθ sinθ
SIGNS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS :

## I II III IV (QUADRANT RULE)

a) In First quadrant, all S A
sinθ + + - - 0≤θ≤90 0
t-ratios are +ve.
cosθ + - - + 900≤θ≤1800
b) In Second quadrant
sinθ , cosecθ are +ve.
tanθ + - + - 1800≤θ≤2700 2700≤θ≤3600
c) In Third quadrant tanθ and cotθ
cosecθ + + - - are +ve T C
secθ + - - + d) In Fourth quadrant, only cosθ A=All are +ve
and secθ are +ve. S=Sin & cosec are +ve
cotθ + - + -
T=Tan & Cot are +ve
C=Cos & Sec are +ve
The following approximate values are quite helpful: Short Cut to remember:
√2 = 1.41; √3 =1.73; ALL STUDENTS TAKE
1/ √2 =0.7; √3 /2 =0.87 ; COFFE
1 /√3 =0.58 2/ √3 ==1.154

2
TO DETERMINE THE VALUES OF OTHER TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS WHEN ONE
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIO IS GIVEN:
If one of the t-ratio is given , the values of other t-ratios can be obtained by constructing a right angled
triangle and using the trigonometric identities given above

For ex. sinθ=1/3, since sine is +ve in Q1 and Q2(II quadrant), we have cosθ=
 1−
1
9
or

-
 1−
1
9
ie.
2 2
3
or
−2  2
3
according as θ ∈Q 1 or θ ∈Q2

## We can find other ratios by forming a rightangled traingle.

4 5

3
3
Let tanθ=4/3,  , then since in Q3, sine and cosine both are negative,
2
4 −3
we have sinθ=- ; cosθ=
5 5
For acute angled traingle, we can write other t ratios in terms of given ratio:
1
perp s s
Let sinθ=s= =
1−s 2
hyp 1 1−s 2

sin  1 1  1−sin  2
cosθ= = 1−sin2  ; tanθ=  1−sin  2 ; secθ=
 1−sin  2 ; cosecθ=
sin 
; cotθ=
sin 
We can express sinθ in terms of other trigonometric functions by above method:
tan  1  sec −1
2
 1tan 2

sinθ= 1−cos  = 2

 1tan 2

=
cosec 
=
sec 
=
tan 
MAXIMUM AND MININUM VALUES :
1. since sin2A+cos2A =1, hence each of sinA and cosA is numerically less than or equal to unity, that is
|sinA|≤1 and |cosA|≤1 i.e. -1≤sinA≤1 and -1≤cosA≤1
2. Since secA and cosecA are respectively reciprocals of cosA and sinA, therefore the values of secA and
cosecA are always numerically greater than or equal to unity. That is
secA≥1 or secA≤-1 and cosecA≥1 or cosecA≤-1, In otherwords we never have -1<cosecA<1 and
-1<secA<1
3. tanA and cotA can assume any real value.
For all values of θ, -1≤sin θ≤1 and -1≤cos θ≤1
a)Max . sin θ =1; Min . sin θ =-1

## b)Max . (sin θ cos θ)=Max

  sin2 
2
=
1
2
; Min. (sin θ cos θ) =Min
 
sin2 
2
=-
1
2
4.If y =a sinx + bcosx +c, then ∀ a , b , c∈R , we can write y=c+  a b 2 2
sin(x+α)

## Where a= r cos α b=r sin α ⇒ r=  a b

2 2 tanα = b ; since -1≤sin (x+α )≤1
a
∴ c-  a b2 2
≤y≤c+  a b2 2
Hence Max. (a sinx + bcosx +c) =c+  a b 2 2
and
Min (a sinx + bcosx +c)= c-  a b
2 2

  
5. sin θ >cos θ >0 for  ; 0<sin θ <cos θ for 0
4 2 4
4.The following formulae of Componedndo and Dividendo must be noted:
p−q a−b
If p/q =a/b then by componendo and dividendo we can write = or
pq ab
PERIODICITY: sin(2nΠ +α ) =sin α, cos(2nΠ +α )=cos α, tan(nΠ +α )= α ( n being any integer). All
Trigonometrical functions are periodic. The period of sineθ , cosineθ, cosecθ, secθ is 2Π and that of
tangent θ and cotθ is Π.
sinθ is periodic with period 2  2
sinkθ is periodic with period
cosθ is periodic with period 2  k
tanθ is periodic with period  
tankθ is periodic with period
k

3
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF STANDARD and QUANDRANTAL ANGLES:
Radians      3 2  5
0 6 4 3 2 2 12 12
Degrees 0 300 450 600 900 1800 2700 3600 150 750
sinθ 1 1 3  3−1  31
0 2 2 2 1 0 -1 0 2 2 2 2
cosθ 3 1 1  31  3−1
1 2 2 2 0 -1 0 1 2 2 2 2
tanθ 1 3 ∞ ∞ 2−3 23
0 3 1 0 0

Approximate values of sinθ , cosθ and tanθ when θ is small (OUT OF SYLLUBUS)
Let θ be small and measured in radian, then sinθ ≈ θ , cosθ ≈ 1; tanθ ≈ θ .
These are first degree approximations. The second degree approximations are given by
1 2
sinθ ≈ θ ; cosθ ≈ 1-  , tanθ ≈ θ
2
VALUES OF T-FUNCTIONS OF SOME FREQUENTY OCCURING ANGLES.
Radians 0 2 3 5  n
2n1 
3 4 6 2
Degrees 1200 1350 1500  (any  )
(odd )
2
sinθ 3 1 1 (-1)n
2 2 2 0
cosθ 1 1 (-1)n
−
− 3

2 2 2 0
tanθ −3 1 ∞

-1 3 0

e.g. cos(odd )=0; cos( odd  )=-1, cos(even  ) =1
2

## cos 2n−1   =0, cos( 2n-1)  =-1, cos(2n  ) =1

2
sin(any  ) =0, tan(any  ) =0 sin n  =tan n  =0 if n=0,1,2
 5 9
sin = sin =sin =.......=1
2 2 2
3 7 11 
sin( ) = sin = sin = ..........=-1
2 2 2
Some interesting results about allied angles:
1. cosn  `=(-1)n , sin n  =0 2)Sin(nП + θ ) =(-1)n sin θ;
cos(nП + θ )=(-1)n cos θ
n n
3) cos( +θ)=(-1)n+1/2 sinθ if n is odd 4)sin( +θ)=(-1)n-1/2 cosθ if n is odd
2 2
=(-1)n/2 sinθ if n is even =(-1)n/2 cosθ if n is even

4
DOMAIN AND RANGE OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS:
Function Domain Range
sine R [-1, 1]
cosine R [-1, 1]
tangent  R
R-{(2n+1) }: nε Z
2
cotangent R-{n  }; nεZ R
secant  (- ∞ ,-1] υ [1, ∞ )
R-{(2n+1) }: nε Z
2

## cosecant R-{n  }; nεZ

(- ∞ ,-1] υ [1, ∞ )
ASTC RULE:(QUADRANT RULE):‘ASTC’ rule to remember the
signs ‘allied angles’ S A
A denotes all angles are positive in the I quadrant
S says that sin (and hence cosec) is positive in the II quadrant.
T C
The rest are negative.
T means tan (and hence cot) is positive in the III quadrant. The rest are negative.
C means cos (and hence sec) is positive in the IV quadrant. The rest are negative.
The trignometric ratios of allied angles can be easily remembred from the
following clues:
1. First decide the sign +ve or -ve depending upon the quandrant in which 90−θ
the angle lies using QUADRANT RULE. 90+θ n.360 + θ
180-θ
2. a) When the angle is 90+θ or 270−θ, the trignometric ratio changes
from sine→cosine, cosine→sine, tan→cot, cot→tan, sec→cosec, 180+θ 360-θ
cosec→sec. 270-θ 270+θ

Hence the sine and cosine, tan &cot, sec & cosec are called co - ratios.
b) When the angle is 180+θ or 360 θ , -θ, the trignometrc ratio is remains the same. i.e
sin →sine, cosine→cosine , tan→tan, cot→cot, sec→sec, cosec→cosec.
ALLIED ANGLE’ FORMULAE:Trignometrc ratios of allied angles
θ sinθ cosθ tanθ secθ cosecθ cotθ
-θ -sinθ cosθ -tanθ secθ -cosecθ -cotθ
900 -θ cosθ sinθ cotθ cosecθ secθ tanθ
0
90 + θ cosθ -sinθ -cotθ -cosecθ secθ -tanθ
1800 -θ sinθ -cosθ -tanθ -secθ cosecθ -cotθ
1800+θ -sinθ -cosθ tanθ -secθ -cosecθ cotθ
2700 -θ -cosθ -sinθ cotθ -cosecθ -secθ tanθ
2700 +θ cosθ -sinθ -cotθ -cosecθ secθ -tanθ
360 -θ 0
-sinθ cosθ -tanθ secθ -cosecθ cotθ
The above may be summed up as follows: Any angle can be expressed as n.90+θ where n is any
integer and θ is an angle less than 900. To get any t. ratios of this angle
a) observe the quandrant n.90+θ lies and determine the sign (+ve or -ve).
b) If n is odd the function will change into its co function ( i.e sine↔cosine; tan↔cot; sec↔cosec. If n is
even t-ratios remains the same.(i.e sin↔sin, cos↔cos etc)
ILLUSTRATION: 1. To determine sin(540-θ), we note that 5400 -θ =6 x 900 -θ is a second quadrant
angle if 0<θ<900. In this quadrant , sine is positive and since the given angle contains an even multiple of

, the sine function is retained . Hence sin(540- θ ) =sin θ.
2
2. To determine cos(6300 - θ ), we note 6300 - θ =7 x 900 - θ is a third quadrant angle if 0< θ <900. In

this quadrant cosine is negative and, since the given angle contains an odd multiple of , cosine is
2
replaced by sine. Hence cos(6300 - θ ) = -sin θ.

5
Short cut: Supposing we have to find the value of t- ratio of the angle θ
Step1: Find the sign of the t-ratio of θ , by finding in which quadrant the angle θ lies. This can be done
by applying the quadrant rule, i.e. ASTC Rule.
Step 2: Find the numerical value of the t-ratio of θ using the following method:
t-ratios of θ=
t- ratio of (1800- θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the second quandrant
e.g.: cos1200 = -cos600 = -1/2
t-ratio of ( θ -180) with proper sign if θ lies in the third quandrant
e.g: sin2100 = -sin300 = -1/2
t-ratio of (360- θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the fourth quandrant
2
e.g: cosec3000= -cosec600 = −
3
t-ratio of θ-n (3600 ) if θ>3600
d) If θ is greater than 3600 i.e. θ =n.3600 +α , then remove the multiples of 3600 (i.e. go on subtracting
from 3600 till you get the angle less than 3600 ) and find the t-ratio of the remaining angle by applying
the above method. e.g: tan10350 =tan6750 (1035-360) =tan3150 = -tan450 =-1
COMPLIMENTARY AND SUPPLIMENTARY ANGLES:

If θ is any angle then the angle - θ is its complement angle and the angle  - θ is its
2
supplement angle.
a) trigonometric ratio of any angle = Co-trigonometric ratio of its complement
sin θ = cos(90- θ ), cos θ = sin(90- θ ), tan θ = cot(90- θ ) e.g. sin600 =cos300 , tan600 =cot300 .
b) sin of(any angle) = sin of its supplement ; cos of ( any angle) = -cos of its supplement
tan of any angle = - tan of its supplement i.e. sin 300 =sin 1500 , cos 600 =-cos 1200
CO-TERMINAL ANGLES: Two angles are said to be co terminal angles , if their terminal sides
are one and the same. e.g. θ and 360+ θ or θ and n.360+ θ ; - θ and 360- θ or - θ and n.360- θ
are co terminal angles : a) Trig functions of θ and n.360+ θ are same
b) Trig functions of -θ and n.360- θ are same .
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF NEGETIVE ANGLES:
For negative angles always use the following relations:
c) sin(- θ ) = -sin θ cos(- θ ) = cos θ, tan(- θ )= -tan θ , cosec(- θ )= -cosec θ ; se(- θ ) =sec θ ;
ci) cot(- θ) =sec θ(V.IMP)
TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS FOR SUM AND DIFFERENCE:
COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE: (Addition and Subtraction formulae)
1. Sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B tan Atan B 
5. tan (A + B) =
2. sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B 1 – tan A tan B
3. Cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B tan A – tan B 
6. tan (A – B) =
4. cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B 1tan A tan B
DEDUCTIONS:
7. sin(A-B)sin(A-B) =sin2A-sin2B cotAcotB−1
11.Cot(A-B) =
=cos B -cos A
2 2
cotB−cotA
8. cos(A+B)cos(A-B) =cos2A-sin2B (A#nπ, B#mπ, A-B#kπ)
=cos B -sin A
2 2
sin AB
12. tan(A+B)=
2
tan A−tan B 2 cos  AB
9. tan(A+B)tan(A-B)=
1 −tan 2 A . tan2 B 13. tan(A-B)=
sin A−B
cotAcotB−1 cos  A−B
10.Cot(A+B) =
cotAcotB tanA tanB sin  AB
14. =
(A#nπ, B#mπ, A+B#kπ) tanA −tanB sin  A−B
cos  A−B
15. 1+tanA tanB=
cosA cosB

6
cos  AB 21.The cot(A+B+C) =
1-tanA tanB= cotA.cotB.cotC−cotA−cotB−cotC
cosA cosB
16. tanA+tanB=tan(A+B)(1-tanA.tanB)  cotAcotBcotB.cotCcotC.cotA−1 
sin  AB 
= 22. sinA+cosA= 2 sin 4 A
cosA. cosB
sin  AB 
tanA-tanB=tan(A-B)(1-tanA.tanB)=
cosA. cosB
sinA-cosA= 2 sin 4 −A
1 tanA 
17.tan(Π/4 + A) = cosA+sinA= 2 cos 4 −A 
1 −tanA
1 −tanA 
18.tan(Π/4 - A) = cosA-sinA= 2 cos 4 A 
1 tanA
cotA −1 23. sin(A+B+C)
19.cot( Π/4 + A )= =SinA.cosB.CosC +sinB.cosC.cosA + SinC.cosA.cosB
cotA 1
-sinA.sinB.sinC
cotA 1
20.cot( Π/4 - A )= =one sine and two cos - three sines
cotA −1
= sinA.sinB.sinC [cotA.cotB-1]
21. tan(A+B+C)
24. cos(A+B+C) =cosA.CosB.cosC -sinA.sinB.cosC
tanA tanB tanC −tanA.tanB.tanC -sinBsinCcosA -sinCsinAcosB
=
1 − tanAtanBtanB.tanCtanC.tanA =Three cos - one cos and two sines
S 1 −S 3 =cosAcosBcosC[1-tanAtanB-tanBtanC-tanCtanA]
=
1−S 2
If S1 = tanA + tanB +tanC S3 =tanA.tanB.tanC
S2 =tanAtanB +tanB.tanC +tanC.tanA

## MULTIPLE ANGLE FORMULAE: T ratios of multiple angles

2tanA DEDUCTIONS:
1.Sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A = 2
1 −tan A 1
1+cos2A =2cos2A; cos2A = 1cos2A 
2.cos 2A = cos 2
A – sin 2
A 2
= 1 – 2 sin2A 1
1-cos2A =2sin2A; cos2A = 1−cos2A 
1 −tan A 2 2
= 2cos 2A – 1 = 1 −cos2A 1 cos2A
1 tan2 A =tan2A; =cot2A
1 cos2A 1 −cos2A
2 tan A
3. tan 2A = 1+sin2A =(sinA +cosA)2
1 – tan 2 A
1-sin2A =(sinA -cosA)2
cotA -tanA = 2 cot2A
tanA+cotA=2 cosec 2A
TRIPLE ANGLES: T - ratios of 3θ in terms of those of θ
Sin 3A = 3 sin A – 4 sin3A ; DEDUCTIONS:
cos 3A = 4 cos3A – 3 cos A ; 4 sin3A =3 sin A -Sin 3A ;
3tanA −tan A
3 1
tan3A = ; sin3A = ( 3 sin A -Sin 3A ).
1−3tan2 A 4
4 cos3A =3 cos A +cos 3A;
1
cos3A = ( 3 cos A +cos 3A )
4
TRIGNOMETRC RATIOS OF HALF 
1 −tan 2
ANGLES-t ratios of sub multiple angles =1-2sin2

=
2
 2 
2 tan 1 tan 2
  2 2
a) sinθ =2sin cos =
2 2  
1 tan 2 2 tan
2 2
c)tanθ=
   
b) cosθ=cos 2 -sin2 =2cos2 -1 1 −tan 2
2 2 2 2

7
DEDUCTIONS:

1+cosθ=2cos 2

; 1-cosθ=2sin2

1 sin 
1 −sin 
= cot
2 

4 2

 
2 2 sin   sin  
=tan ; =cot
1 −cos   1 cos   1 cos  2 1 −cos  2
=tan2 ; =cot2
1 cos  2 1 −cos  2
1 −sin 
= tan
2 

  ;
cos 
1 sin 
= tan
 

4 2   ;

1 sin  4 2
cos 
1 −sin 
= cot
 

4 2  
Transformation formulae:
a) SUMS AND DIFFERENCE TO PRODUCT FORMULAE:
Formula that express sum or difference into products
CD C–D CD C–D
Sin C + sin D = 2sin cos Sin C – sin D = 2cos sin
2 2 2 2
CD C–D CD D−C
Cos C + cos D = 2cos cos Cos C – cos D = 2sin sin
2 2 2 2
CD C−D
or −2sin sin
2 2
b) PRODUCT-TO-SUM OR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE :formula which express
products as sum or Difference of sines and cosines.
2 sin A cos B = sin (sum) + sin (diff) i.e 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(A-B)
2 cos A sin B = sin (sum) – sin (diff) i.e 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B) - sin(A-B)
2 cos A cos B = cos (sum) + cos (diff) i.e. 2 cosA.cosB = cos(A+B)+cos(A-B)
2 sin A sin B = cos (diff) – cos (sum) i.e. -2 sinA.sin B = cos(A+B)-cos(A-B)
OR 2 sinA.sin B = cos(A-B)-cos(A+B)
VALUES OF TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS OF SOME IMPORTANT ANGLES:
Angle 1 0 150 180 1 0 360 750
→ 7 22
2 2
Ratio

sin  8−2 6−2 2  3−1  5−1 1 1  31
4 2 2 4 2
 2−2 4
 10−2  5
2 2

or  4− 6− 2
2 2
cos  82 6−2 2  31 1 1 1  3−1
 102  5
2
or 2 2  51 
4 2 2 4 4 2 2

 4 6 2
2 2
tan 6− 4−32 2- 3  25−10 5 2−1 5−2  5 2+ 3
or 5
  3− 2 2−1 
cot 2+ 2-


6± 4±32 3 5 2 5  21 3
or 1
2
5 
  3 2 21 
sec 16−10  28  3−6 (6 6−2 )

1
 2 −
2
5
  4−2  2 5−1 62

## sin22½0 =  2−2 ; tan22½0 = 2−1 ;cot22½ 0= 21

2 1
1 sin180 =  5−1  =cos720 ;
4
cos22½0 =
2
 22 ;

8
1 tan7 ½0= 6− 4−32
cos180 =  102  5 =sin720 ;
4
cot7½0= 6± 4±32
1
sin360 =  10−2  5 =cos540 ;  3 5−3−5
4 sin90 =
4
1
cos360 =  51  =sin540  3 53−5
4 cos90 =
4
EXPRESSION FOR Sin(A/2) and cos(A/2) in terms of sinA:
2
A A
 sin
A
2
cos
A
2  =1+sinA so that sin
2
cos
2
= ±1 sinA

2
A A
 A
sin −cos
2
A
2  =1-sinA so that sin
2
−cos
2
= ±1 −sinA

## By addition and subtraction, we have

A A
2 sin = ±1 sinA ± ±1 −sinA ; 2 cos = ±1 sinA ∓ ±1 −sinA
2 2
A A
Using suitable signs , we can find sin , cos
2 2
IDENTITTIES CONNECTED WITH TRAINGLE:
If A,B,C are angles of a traingle,
sin(sum of any two) =sin(third); e.g.:sin(B+C) =sinA;
cos(sum of any two)= -cos(third); e.g.: cos(A+B)= -cosC]
tan(sum of ny two) = -tan(third) e.g. : tan(A+B) =-tanC
1 1 AC B
sin (sum of any two) = cos (third); e.g sin =cos )
2 2 2 2
1 1 BC A
cos (sum of any two) = sin (third), e.g: cos =sin )
2 2 2 2
If A is any angle of traingle and α lies between 00 and 1800 , then
sinA=sin α ⇒A = α or 1800- α ; cosA=cos α ⇒Α= α; tanA=tan α ⇒Α= α
SOME IMPORTANT IDENTITTIES:
If A+B+C =1800 , then

## 2)cos2A+cos2B+cos2C=-1-4cosAcosBcosC i.e. ∑ cos2A =-1-4cosAcosBcosC

A B C
3)sinA+sinB+sinC=4cos cos cos VIGNAN CLASSES
2 2 2
A B C
i.e. ∑ sinA =4cos
2
cos
2
cos
2
A B C
4)cosA+cosB+cosC=1+4sin sin sin
2 2 2
A B C
i.e ∑ cosA =1+4sin
2
sin
2
sin
2
5)tanA+tanB+tanC=tanA.tanB.tanC i.e. ∑ tanA = tanA.tanB.tanC
6)cotB.cotC+cotC.cotA+cotA.cotB =1 i.e. ∑ cotA.cotB =1

A B C A B C
7)cot +cot +cot =cot cot cot
2 2 2 2 2 2
A A B C
i.e. ∑ cot 2 =cot
2
cot
2
cot
2
A B B C C A A B
8)tan
2
tan
2
+tan
2
tan
2
+tan
2
tan
2
=1 i.e. ∑ tan 2 tan 2 =1

## Note: If A, B, C are the angles of a traingle , then

sin(A+B+C) =sinП=0, cos(A+B+C) =cos П= -1 and tan(A+B+C) =0;

9
GRAPHS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
sinθ increases decreases decreses from increases from
from
from 0 to 1 0 to -1 -1 to 0
1 to 0
cosθ decreases from decreases increases from increases from
from
1 to 0 -1 to 0 0 to 1
0 to -1
tanθ increases from increases from increases from increases from
0 to ∞ −∞ to 0 0 to ∞ −∞ to 0
cotθ decreases from decreases decreases from decreases from
∞ to 0 from ∞ to 0 0 to ∞
0 to −∞
secθ increses from increases from decreases from decreases from
∞ to 1
1 to ∞ −∞ to -1 -1 to −∞
cosecθ decreases from increases from increases from decreases from
∞ to 1 1 to ∞ −∞ to -1 -1 to -infinity
Graph of sinx Graph of cosecx

## Graph of tanx Graph of cotx

y f(x)=cot(x)

x
-8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8

-2

-4

-6

-8

10
RELATION BETWEEN THE SIDES & ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE:
A traingle consists of 6 elements, three angles and three sides. The angles of traingle ABC
are denoted by A,B, and C. a,b, and c are respectively the sides opposite to the angles A,B
and C.
In any traingle ABC , the following results or rule hold good.
a b c
1 Sine rule’: a = 2R sin A, b = 2R sin B, c = 2R sin C ie = = =2R Where R is
sinA sinB sinC
the circum radius of circum circle that passes through the vertices of the traingle.
2 2 2
 b c – a 
2.‘Cosine rule’: a2 =b2 +c2 -2bc cosA or cos A =
2bc
2 2 2
 c a – b 
b2 =a2 +c2 -2ac cosB or cos B =
2ca
 a2 b2 – c2 
c2 =a2 +b2 -2ab cosC or cos C =
2ab
3.Projection rule’:
a = b cos C + c cos B; b = c cos A + a cos C; c = a cos B + b cos A

## 4.Napier's formula or ‘Law of Tangents’:

B−C
tan
tan
 B –C  b – c 
2
=[
bc
]cot
A
2
or
 
b−c
bc
=
tan
2
BC
2
A−B
tan
tan
 A – B a – b 
2
=[
 ab
]cot
C
2
or
 
a−b
ab
=
tan
2
AB
etc.

2
5.‘Half-angle rule’: In any traingle ABC, a+b+c =2s, where 2s is the perimeter of the

traingle. sin
A
2
=

s – b s – c 
bc
cos
A
2
=

s s – a 
bc
tan
A
2
=
 s−b s−c
s s−a 

sin
B
2
=

s – a s – c 
ac
cos
B
2
=

s s – b 
ac
tan
B
2
=
 s−a s−c
s s−b 

sin
C
2
=

s – a s – b 
ab
cos
C
2
=

s s – c 
ab
C
tan
2
abc
=

 s−as−b 
s s−c 

## 6. Formula that involve the Perimeter: If S= , where a+b+c is the perimeter of

2
a traingle, R the radius of the circumcircle, and r the radius of the inscribed circle, then
6. Area of traingle: ∆=  s s−a s−b s −c  ;(HERO'S FORMULA)
1 1 1 abc
∆= a.b.SinC = b.c. sinA = c.a.sinB=
2 2 2 4R
2
1 a 2 sinB. sinC 1 b 2 sin.C sinA 1 c 2 sinA. sinB 1 a sinB. sinC
∆= = = =
2 sinA 2 sinB 2 sinC 2 sinBC 
DEDUCTIONS:
2 2 2 2
sinA= =  s s−a s −b  s−c sinB= SinC=
bc bc ca ab
A B s −c B C s −a C A s −b
tan tan = ; tan tan = ; tan tan = .
2 2 s 2 2 s 2 2 s
A B  C B C  A
tan tan = cot ; tan tan = cot ;
2 2 s 2 2 2 s 2
C A  B
tan tan = cot .
2 2 s 2

11
NOTE WORTHY POINTS: In a traingle ABC
• If cotA +cotB +cotC= 3 then a b c
• If in a traingle = =
traingle is equilateral cosA cosB cosC
• If sin2 A +sin2B + sin2 C =2 then then traingle is equilateral
traingle is equilateral • In a traingle a sinA =b sinB, then
• If cosA + cosB +cosC =3/2 then traingle traingle is isosceles
is equilateral • If a cosA = bcosB then traingle is
• If cotA cotB cotC>0 then traingle is isosceles or rightangled
acute angled traingle • If in atraingle 8R2 =a2 +b2 +c2 then
• If cos2 A+cos2 B +cos2C =1 then traingle is rightangled.
traingle is rightangled traingle
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
To solve a triangle a) when all the 3 sides are given :
GIVEN REQUIRED
a,b, c i) Area of ∆=  s s−a s−b s−c , 2s = a+b+c

2 2 2
sinA= , sinB= , sin C= OR
bc ac ab
iii) First, find two of the three angles by cosine formula, then the third angle is
determined by using the relation A+B+C=180 0. It is advisable to find the smallest
angle first. (angle opposite to the smallest side).
b) When two sides and an included angle is given:
GIVEN REQUIRED
a , b and C 1  A – B a – b  C
i)Area of traingle=∆= a.b.SinC ; tan =[ ]cot
2 2  ab 2
AB C asinC
=900 - ; c=
2 2 sinA
ii) Use cosine rule to find the third side. then find the smaller of the two angles
by cosine formula. Use A+B+C=1800 to find the third angle
iii)Use Napier's formula and find two angles, then the third side can be
determined sine rule or cosine rule or by projection rule.
c)when one side and two angles A and B are given:
GIVEN REQUIRED
a A and B asinB asinC
i) C =180-(A+B) ; b= ;c=
sinA sinA
d) When two sides and an angle opposite to one of them is given.
Let us assume that a,b, and A are given. Now we are required to find c,B and C. We just
cannot find c or C directly before finding B. There exist only one relation with which we can
b sinA asinC
find B i.e. by using sine Rule. sinB = ; C=180-(A+B); c=
a sinA
b sinA
CASES:i)When A is acute angle and a<bsinA; In this relation sinB= gives us that
a
sinB>1, which is impossible. then there exists no solution or no traingle.
ii)When A is acute angle and a=bsinA: In this case only one traingle is possible
which is rightangled at B. If a=bsinA , sinB =1, then B=900 there exist only one
solution or one traingle since A is given, we can find C using A+B+C=1800 . we can
find 'c' by any one of the rules.
iii)When A is acute angle and a>bsinA, sinB<1, then there exist two sub cases.
a) If a≥b, then A≥B, B must be acute. Thus there exists only one solution.
b) if b≥a, then B≥A., there exist two values to B for which this can be true .
one being acute and the other being obtuse.
When B is determined, we can find C using A+B+C =180 , then c by any one of the rules. this case is called
0

an ambiguous case since there exist no solution, one solution or two solutions depending on the cases.
Note: It is not advisable to use sine rule to find the angle in all other cases. since it always gives an ambiguous result.
Use sine rule to find the angle only when it is inevitable.

12
SUMMERY:
A unique traingle exists if I)three sides are given (b+c>a etc)
ii)one side and two angles are given
iii)two sides and included angle are given
iv)But two sides and angle opposite to one of these sides are given , the following
cases arise: a, b, A given
i)a<b sinA No triangle
ii)a=b sinA Right angled triangle
iii)b>a>bsinA Two triangles
iv)a>b one triangle
OTHER IMPORTANT FORMULA AND CONCEPTS:
1.To find the greatest and least values of the expression asinθ +bcosθ :
Let a=rcosα. b=rsinα , then a2 +b2 =r2 or r=  a b
2 2

## asinθ +bcosθ = r(sinθ cos α +cosθ sin α) = rsin(θ + α )

But -1≤sin(θ + α )≤1 so that -r ≤rsin(θ + α )≤r. Hence -  a b2 2 ≤ asinθ +bcosθ ≤  a b 2 2

Thus the greatest and least values of asinθ +bcosθ are respectively  a b
2 2
and -  a b
2 2
.

2 2

## For 0 , minimum value of a sinθ + bcosecθ is 2  ab

− 
For
2

2
, minimum value of acosθ +bsecθ is 2  ab
 3
For 0 or  , minimum value of a tanθ +bcotθ is 2  ab
2 2
1
2. cosA.cos2A.cos4A.cos8A............cos2
n-1
A= n sin 2n A (Remember)
2 sinA
n1
sin 2 A 
OR cos θ.cos2 θ.cos22 θ.cos23 θ............cos2n θ = (Each angle being double of preceding)
2 n sinA
3. SUM OF THE SIN AND COSINE SERIES WHEN THE ANGLES ARE IN AP:
sinα +sin(α+β) +sin(α +2 β) +..........n terms
cosα +cos(α+β) +cos(α +2 β) +..........n terms
diff
sin n.
=
sin
2
diff
. sin or cos
[ 1st angle last angle
2 ] (Remember the rule)

2
n n
sin sin
=
sin
2

.sin or cos
[  n−1 
2 ] =
sin
2

.sin or cos
[  n−1 

2 ]
2 2
Note: β is not an even multiple of Π i.e. β #2n Π because in that case sum will take the form 0/0. Particular
n n 2r  
case: Both the sum will be zero if sin =0 i.e. =r Π or β = or β = even multiple of
2 2 n n
then S=0
4. SOME RESULTS IN PRODUCT FORM:
1 cos3A
sinθ sin(60+θ)sin(60-θ) = sin3θ cos(600 -A) cos(600 +A)=
4 4cosA
cosθ cos(60+θ) cos(60-θ) tan3A
tan(600 -A) tan(600 +A) =
1 tanA
= cos3 θ
4 tan2A tan3A tan5A=tan5A-tan3A-tan2A
cosθ cos(120+θ) cos(120-θ) tanx tan2x tan3x =tan3x-tan2x-tanx
tanθ tan(60+θ )tan(60-θ ) =tan3θ (Use the above formula at time of integration)
sin3A tan(x-α). tan(x+ α ) tan 2x= tan2x-tan(x+ α )-tan(x- α )
sin(600 -A) sin(600 +A) =
4sinA

13
cos2 n 1 −cos 2 n1 
(cos α +cos β) (cos2α +cos2 β ) (cos22α +cos22 β ) .........(cos2nα +cos 2n β ) = n
2 cos −cos  
2cos2 n 1 1
(2cos θ -1)(2cos2 θ-1)(2cos22 θ-1).......(2cos2n θ) =
2cos 1

  1
4. i) cosA ±sinA= 2 sin 4 ±A = 2 cos 4 ∓A  ii) tanA +cotA =
sinA.cosA
 2  
5. tan θ + tan  + tan  =3tan3 θ ; tan θ + tan  + tan−  =3tan3 θ
3 3 3 3

6.
   
2 2 2 2............  22cos2 
n =2cos θ ∀ n∈N

## HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES-VIGNAN CLASSES

ANGLE OF ELEVATION AND ANGLE OF DEPRESSION P
Suppose a st.line OX is drawn in the horizontal direction.
Then the angle XOP where P is a point (or the position
of the object to be observed from the point O of observation )
above OX is called Angle of Elevation of P as seen from O. α
O X
Similarly, Angle XOQ where Q is below OX, is called
β
angle of depression of Q as seen from O.
OX is the horizontal line and OP and OQ are called α= Angle of
line of sights elevation of P
Properties used for solving problems
related to Heights and Distances. β=Angle of Q
1. Any line perpendicular to a plane is Depression of Q
perpendicular to every line lying in the plane.
Explanation: Place your pen PQ upright on your notebook, so that its lower end Q is on the notebook.
Through the point Q draw line QA,QB,QC,....... in your notebook in different directions and you will
observe that each of the angles PQA,PQB,..PQC,.... is a right angle. In other words PA is perpendicular
to each of the lines QA, QB, QC, lying in the plane.
2.To express one side of a right angled triangle in terms of the other side.

## Explanation: Let ABC =Ө, Where ABC is right angled H

triangle in which C = 900 . The side opposite to right angleC O
will be denoted by H(Hypotenus), θ
the side opposite (opposite side) to angle θ is denoted by O, A
the side containing angle θ (other than H)(Adjacent side) will be denoted by A
Then from the figure it is clear that
O=A(tanθ ) or A = O(cotθ ) i.e. Opposite = Adj(tanθ ) or Adj=opposite (cotθ ).
Also O=H(sinθ ) or A =H(cosθ ) i.e opposite =Hyp( sinθ ) or Adjacent =Hyp(cosθ )

ASWEQRTYUIXCVBNMKL;,./'[]-098
PREPARED AND DTP BY KHV,
LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS
THE SPIRIT OF MATHEMATICS
The only way to learn mathematics is to recreate it for oneself -J.L.Kelley
The objects of mathematical study are mental constructs. In order to understand these one
must study , meditate, think and work hard -SHANTHINARYAN
Mathematical theories do not try to find out the true nature of things, that would be an
unreasonable aim for them. Their only purpose is to co-ordinate the physical laws we find
from experience but could not even state without the aid of mathematics. -A. POINCARE
Experience and intution, though usually obtained more painfully, may be doveloped by
mathematical insight. -R Aris

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