VIJNAN STUDY CIRCLE-TRIGNOMETRY-FORMULA AND CONCEPTS

BY K.H. V.
AN ANGLE: An angle is the amount of rotation of a revolving line w.r.t a fixed straight line (a figure
formed by two rays having common initial point.) The two rays or lines are called the sides of the angle and
common initial point is called the vertex of the angle.
Rotation of the initial arm to the terminal arm generates the angle.
• Rotation can be anti clock wise or clockwise.
• Angle is said to be +ve if rotation is anti clockwise.
• Angle is said to be -ve if rotation is clockwise.
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES:
a) Sexagesimal system:
In sexagesimal system of measurement,
the units of measurement are degrees, minutes and
seconds.
1 right angle =90 degrees(90
o
);
1 degree = 60 minutes (60')
1 minute = 60 seconds (60'')
b) Centisimal system of angles:
1 right angle =100 grades =100
g
1 grade =100 minutes =100'
1' = 100 seconds =100''
c) RADIAN OR CIRCULAR MEASURE : In this system units of measurement is radian.
A radian is the measure of an angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc whose length is equal
to the radius of the circle. one radian is denoted by 1
c
1 radian =57
0
16
1
22''
A radian is a Constant angle. And
n radians = 180
0
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEGREES AND RADIANS:
n radians =180
o
1 radian= 1
c
=
180
o
n

1
c
= 57
0
17' 45''; 1
0
=
n
180
o
radian=0.01746 radian
(approximately)
Radian measure=
n
180
o
x Degree measure i.e. To convert degrees into radians Multiply by
n
180
o
Degree measure=
180
o
n
x Radian measure. i.e. To convert radians into degrees Multiply by
180
o
n
NOTE: 1. Radian is the unit to measure angle 2. It does not means that π stands for 180
0
, π is real number,
where as π
c
stands for 180
0


LENGTH OF ARC OF A CIRCLE:
If an arc of length “s” subtends an angle θ radians at the center of a circle of radius 'r', then
S =r θ i.e. length of arc = radius x angle in radians (subtended by arc)
No of radians in an angle subtended by an arc of circle at the centre =
arc
radius
=
S
r
1
c
(1 radian) =
arclength of magnitude of r
radius of ˚ r
AREA OF A SECTOR OF A CIRCLE:(sectorial area)
The area of the sector formed by the angle θ at the center of a circle of radius r is
1
2
r
2

RADIAN MEASURE OF SOME COMMON ANGLES:
θ
0
(
Degrees)
15
0
22½
0
30
0
45
0
60
0
75
0
90
0
120
0
135
0
150
0
180
0
210
0
270
0
360
0
θ
c
Radians
1
+ve
angle
-ve angle
AB be the Arc, Let the length
of the arc =OA=radius
angle AOB =1 radian
VIGNAN CLASSES
Do You know?
When no unit is
mentioned with an angle,
it is understod to be in
radians. If the radius of
the circle is r and its
circumference is C then
C=2πr C/2r =π 
for any circle
Circumference/diameter
=π which is constant.
π =3.1416(approximately)
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

s
i
d
e
(
a
r
m
)
θ
Initial
side(arm)
θ
----r-----
B
Arc
A
D
3 n
4
5n
6
n 7 n
6
3 n
2
2n n
12
n
8
n
6
n
4
n
3
5n
12
n
2
2n
3

SOME USEFUL FACTS ON CLOCKS:
1. Angle between two consecutive digits of a
clock is 30
0
or
n
6
radians.
2. Hour hand of the clock rotates by an angle
of 30
0
or
n
6
radians in one hour
and
1
2
0
or
n
360
radians in one minute.
3. Minute hand of the clock rotates by an
angle of 6
0
or
n
30
radians in one minute.
TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OR RATIOS AND FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS.
1. If θ is an acute angle of a right angled triangle OPM
We define Six trigonometric ratios(t-ratios) as
sinθ =
opposite side
hypotenus
; cosθ =
adjacent side
hypotenus
tanθ =
oppositeside
adjacent side
; cosecθ =
hypotenus
opposite side
secθ =
hypotenus
adjacent side
; cotθ =
adjacent side
opposite side
2. Let θ be an angle in standard position. If P(x,y) is any point on the terminal side of θ and
OP=
.
x
2
+y
2
=r ; then
sinθ =
y
r
cosθ =
x
r
tanθ =
y
x
cosecθ =
r
y
secθ =
r
x
cotθ =
x
y


RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS
BASIC IDENTITTIES:
a) sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ =1;
b) 1+ tan
2
θ = sec
2
θ ;
c) 1+ cot
2
θ = cosec
2
θ ;
DEDUCTIONS:
cos
2
θ = 1 -sin
2
θ; sin
2
θ = 1- cos
2
θ;
sec
2
θ -1 = tan
2
θ; cosec
2
θ -1 = cot
2
θ;
sec
2
θ - tan
2
θ =1; cosec
2
θ - cot
2
θ =1
RECIPROCAL RELATIONS
cosecθ =
1
sinθ
; secθ =
1
cosθ
cotθ =
1
tanθ
;cosecθ.sinθ =1 ; secθ. cosθ =1 ; cotθ. tanθ =1
QUOTIENT RELATIONS
tanθ =
sinθ
cosθ
; cotθ =
1
tanθ
=
cosθ
sinθ
SIGNS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS :
I II III IV
sinθ + + - -
cosθ + - - +
tanθ + - + -
cosecθ + + - -
secθ + - - +
cotθ + - + -
2
Opposite side
H
y
p
o
t
e
n
u
s
Adjacent side
θ
O
P
M
P
O M
0≤θ≤90
0
90
0
≤θ≤180
0
180
0
≤θ≤270
0
270
0
≤θ≤360
0
(QUADRANT RULE)
a) In First quadrant, all
t-ratios are +ve.
b) In Second quadrant
sinθ , cosecθ are +ve.
c) In Third quadrant tanθ and cotθ
are +ve
d) In Fourth quadrant, only cosθ
and secθ are +ve.
DO YOU KNOW:
In a regular polygon
i) All the interior angles are equal
ii) All the exterior angles are equal
iii) All the sides are equal
iv)Sum of all the exterior angles is 360
0
v) Each exterior angle = 360
0
/number of
exterior angles
vi)Each interior angle =
180
0
-exterior angle
vii) For a polygon with n sides
a) the sum of internal angles is
(2n-4) right angles, where a rightnangle
=90
0

b) the number of diagonals is n(n-3)/2
The following approximate values are quite helpful:
√2 = 1.41; √3 =1.73;
1/ √2 =0.7; √3 /2 =0.87 ;
1 /√3 =0.58 2/ √3 ==1.154
A
S
C
T
A=All are +ve
S=Sin & cosec are +ve
T=Tan & Cot are +ve
C=Cos & Sec are +ve
Short Cut to remember:
ALL STUDENTS TAKE
COFFE

TO DETERMINE THE VALUES OF OTHER TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS WHEN ONE
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIO IS GIVEN:
If one of the t-ratio is given , the values of other t-ratios can be obtained by constructing a right angled
triangle and using the trigonometric identities given above
For ex. sinθ=1/3, since sine is +ve in Q
1
and Q
2
(II quadrant), we have cosθ=
.
1−
1
9
or
-
.
1−
1
9
ie.
2
.
2
3
or
−2
.
2
3
according as θ
∈Q
1
or θ
∈Q
2
We can find other ratios by forming a rightangled traingle.
Let tanθ=4/3, n0
3 n
2
, then since in Q
3
, sine and cosine both are negative,
we have sinθ=-
4
5
; cosθ=
−3
5
For acute angled traingle, we can write other t ratios in terms of given ratio:
Let sinθ=s=
perp
hyp
=
s
1

cosθ= =
.
1−sin
2
0 ; tanθ=
sin0
.
1−sin
2
0
; secθ=
1
.
1−sin
2
0
; cosecθ=
1
sin 0
; cotθ=
.
1−sin
2
0
sin0
We can express sinθ in terms of other trigonometric functions by above method:
sinθ=
.
1−cos
2
0 =
tan 0
.
1+tan
2
0
=
1
cosec 0
=
.
sec
2
0−1
sec 0
=
.
1+tan
2
0
tan 0
MAXIMUM AND MININUM VALUES :
1. since sin
2
A+cos
2
A =1, hence each of sinA and cosA is numerically less than or equal to unity, that is
|sinA|≤1 and |cosA|≤1 i.e. -1≤sinA≤1 and -1≤cosA≤1
2. Since secA and cosecA are respectively reciprocals of cosA and sinA, therefore the values of secA and
cosecA are always numerically greater than or equal to unity. That is
secA≥1 or secA≤-1 and cosecA≥1 or cosecA≤-1, In otherwords we never have -1<cosecA<1 and
-1<secA<1
3. tanA and cotA can assume any real value.
For all values of θ, -1≤sin θ≤1 and -1≤cos θ≤1
a)Max . sin θ =1; Min . sin θ =-1
b)Max . (sin θ cos θ)=Max
¦
sin2 0
2
)
=
1
2
; Min. (sin θ cos θ) =Min
¦
sin2 0
2
)
= -
1
2
4.If y =a sinx + bcosx +c, then ∀ a , b , c∈R , we can write y=c+
.
a
2
+b
2
sin(x+α)
Where a= r cos α b=r sin α

r=
.
a
2
+b
2
tanα =
b
a
; since -1≤sin (x+α )≤1
∴ c-
.
a
2
+b
2
≤y≤c+
.
a
2
+b
2
Hence Max. (a sinx + bcosx +c) =c+
.
a
2
+b
2
and
Min (a sinx + bcosx +c)= c-
.
a
2
+b
2
5. sin θ >cos θ >0 for
n
4
0
n
2
; 0<sin θ <cos θ for 00
n
4
4.The following formulae of Componedndo and Dividendo must be noted:
If p/q =a/b then by componendo and dividendo we can write
p−q
p+q
=
a−b
a+b
or
PERIODICITY: sin(2nΠ +α ) =sin α, cos(2nΠ +α )=cos α, tan(nΠ +α )= α ( n being any integer). All
Trigonometrical functions are periodic. The period of sineθ , cosineθ, cosecθ, secθ is 2Π and that of
tangent θ and cotθ is Π.
sinθ is periodic with period 2n
cosθ is periodic with period 2n
tanθ is periodic with period n
sinkθ is periodic with period
2 n
k
tankθ is periodic with period
n
k

3
5
3
4
s
1
.
1−s
2
.
1−s
2

TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF STANDARD and QUANDRANTAL ANGLES:
Radians
0
n
6
n
4
n
3
n
2
n 3 n
2
2n n
12
5 n
12
Degrees 0 30
0
45
0
60
0
90
0
180
0
270
0
360
0
15
0
75
0
sinθ
0
1
2
1
.
2
.
3
2
1 0 -1 0
.
3−1
2
.
2
.
3+1
2
.
2
cosθ
1
.
3
2
1
.
2
1
2
0 -1 0 1
.
3+1
2
.
2
.
3−1
2
.
2
tanθ
0
1
.
3 1
.
3

0

0
2−
.
3 2+
.
3
Approximate values of sin θ , cosθ and tanθ when θ is small (OUT OF SYLLUBUS)
Let θ be small and measured in radian, then sinθ ≈ θ , cosθ ≈ 1; tanθ ≈ θ .
These are first degree approximations. The second degree approximations are given by
sinθ ≈ θ ; cosθ ≈ 1-
1
2
0
2
, tanθ ≈ θ
VALUES OF T-FUNCTIONS OF SOME FREQUENTY OCCURING ANGLES.
Radians 0
2 n
3
3 n
4
5 n
6
¦2n+1)
n
2
nn
Degrees 120
0
135
0
150
0
(odd )
n
2
(any n )
sinθ
.
3
2
1
.
2
1
2
(-1)
n
0
cosθ

1
2

1
.
2

.
3
2 0
(-1)
n
tanθ

.
3
-1

1
.
3

0
e.g. cos(odd
n
2
)=0; cos( odd n )=-1, cos(even n ) =1
cos
¦2n−1)
n
2
=0, cos( 2n-1)
n
=-1, cos(2n
n
) =1
sin(any n ) =0, tan(any n ) =0 sin n n =tan n n =0 if n=0,1,2
sin
n
2
= sin
5 n
2
=sin
9 n
2
=.......=1
sin(
3 n
2
) = sin
7 n
2
= sin
11 n
2
= ..........=-1
Some interesting results about allied angles:
1. cosn n `=(-1)
n ,
sin n n =0 2)Sin(nП + θ ) =(-1)
n
sin θ;
cos(nП + θ )=(-1)
n
cos θ
3) cos(
n n
2
+θ)=(-1)
n+1/2
sinθ if n is odd 4)sin(
n n
2
+θ)=(-1)
n-1/2
cosθ if n is odd
=(-1)
n/2
sinθ if n is even =(-1)
n/2
cosθ if n is even

4

DOMAIN AND RANGE OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS:
Function Domain Range
sine
cosine
tangent
cotangent
secant
cosecant
R
R
R-{(2n+1)
n
2
}: nε Z
R-{n n }; nεZ
R-{(2n+1)
n
2
}: nε Z
R-{n n }; nεZ
[-1, 1]
[-1, 1]
R
R
(- ∞ ,-1] υ [1, ∞ )
(- ∞ ,-1] υ [1, ∞ )
ASTC RULE:(QUADRANT RULE):‘ASTC’ rule to remember the
signs ‘allied angles’
A denotes all angles are positive in the I quadrant
S says that sin (and hence cosec) is positive in the II quadrant.
The rest are negative.
T means tan (and hence cot) is positive in the III quadrant. The rest are negative.
C means cos (and hence sec) is positive in the IV quadrant. The rest are negative.
The trignometric ratios of allied angles can be easily remembred from the
following clues:
1. First decide the sign +ve or -ve depending upon the quandrant in which
the angle lies using QUADRANT RULE.
2. a) When the angle is 90+θ or 270−θ, the trignometric ratio changes
from sine→cosine, cosine→sine, tan→cot, cot→tan, sec→cosec,
cosec→sec.
Hence the sine and cosine, tan &cot, sec & cosec are called co - ratios.
b) When the angle is 180+θ or 360 θ , -θ, the trignometrc ratio is remains the same. i.e
sin →sine, cosine→cosine , tan→tan, cot→cot, sec→sec, cosec→cosec.
ALLIED ANGLE’ FORMULAE:Trignometrc ratios of allied angles
θ sinθ cosθ tanθ secθ cosecθ cotθ
-θ -sinθ cosθ -tanθ secθ -cosecθ -cotθ
90
0
-θ cosθ sinθ cotθ cosecθ secθ tanθ
90
0
+ θ cosθ -sinθ -cotθ -cosecθ secθ -tanθ
180
0
-θ sinθ -cosθ -tanθ -secθ cosecθ -cotθ
180
0
+θ -sinθ -cosθ tanθ -secθ -cosecθ cotθ
270
0
-θ -cosθ -sinθ cotθ -cosecθ -secθ tanθ
270
0
+θ cosθ -sinθ -cotθ -cosecθ secθ -tanθ
360
0
-θ -sinθ cosθ -tanθ secθ -cosecθ cotθ
The above may be summed up as follows: Any angle can be expressed as n.90+θ where n is any
integer and θ is an angle less than 90
0
. To get any t. ratios of this angle
a) observe the quandrant n.90+θ lies and determine the sign (+ve or -ve).
b) If n is odd the function will change into its co function ( i.e sine↔cosine; tan↔cot; sec↔cosec. If n is
even t-ratios remains the same.(i.e sin↔sin, cos↔cos etc)
ILLUSTRATION: 1. To determine sin(540-θ), we note that 540
0
-θ =6 x 90
0
-θ is a second quadrant
angle if 0<θ<90
0
. In this quadrant , sine is positive and since the given angle contains an even multiple of
n
2
, the sine function is retained . Hence sin(540- θ ) =sin θ.
2. To determine cos(630
0
- θ ), we note 630
0
- θ =7 x 90
0
- θ is a third quadrant angle if 0< θ <90
0
. In
this quadrant cosine is negative and, since the given angle contains an odd multiple of
n
2
, cosine is
replaced by sine. Hence cos(630
0
- θ ) = -sin θ.
5
S
A
T C
90−θ
n.360 + θ
90+θ
180-θ
180+θ
270-θ
360-θ
270+θ


Short cut: Supposing we have to find the value of t- ratio of the angle θ
Step1: Find the sign of the t-ratio of θ , by finding in which quadrant the angle θ lies. This can be done
by applying the quadrant rule, i.e. ASTC Rule.
Step 2: Find the numerical value of the t-ratio of θ using the following method:
t-ratios of θ=
t- ratio of (180
0-
θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the second quandrant
e.g.: cos120
0
= -cos60
0
= -1/2
t-ratio of ( θ -180) with proper sign if θ lies in the third quandrant
e.g: sin210
0
= -sin30
0
= -1/2
t-ratio of (360- θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the fourth quandrant
e.g: cosec300
0
= -cosec60
0
= −
2
.
3
t-ratio of θ-n (360
0
) if θ>360
0

d) If θ is greater than 360
0
i.e. θ =n.360
0
+α , then remove the multiples of 360
0
(i.e. go on subtracting
from 360
0
till you get the angle less than 360
0
) and find the t-ratio of the remaining angle by applying
the above method. e.g: tan1035
0
=tan675
0
(1035-360) =tan315
0
= -tan45
0
=-1
COMPLIMENTARY AND SUPPLIMENTARY ANGLES:
If θ is any angle then the angle
n
2
- θ is its complement angle and the angle n - θ is its
supplement angle.
a) trigonometric ratio of any angle = Co-trigonometric ratio of its complement
sin θ = cos(90- θ ), cos θ = sin(90- θ ), tan θ = cot(90- θ ) e.g. sin60
0
=cos30
0
, tan60
0
=cot30
0
.
b) sin of(any angle) = sin of its supplement ; cos of ( any angle) = -cos of its supplement
tan of any angle = - tan of its supplement i.e. sin 30
0
=sin 150
0
, cos 60
0
=-cos 120
0

CO-TERMINAL ANGLES: Two angles are said to be co terminal angles , if their terminal sides
are one and the same. e.g. θ and 360+ θ or θ and n.360+ θ ; - θ and 360- θ or - θ and n.360- θ
are co terminal angles : a) Trig functions of θ and n.360+ θ are same
b) Trig functions of -θ and n.360- θ are same .
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF NEGETIVE ANGLES:
For negative angles always use the following relations:
c) sin(- θ ) = -sin θ cos(- θ ) = cos θ, tan(- θ )= -tan θ , cosec(- θ )= -cosec θ ; se(- θ ) =sec θ ;
ci) cot(- θ) =sec θ(V.IMP)
TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS FOR SUM AND DIFFERENCE:
COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE: (Addition and Subtraction formulae)
1. Sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
2. sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B
3. Cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B
4. cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
5. tan (A + B) =
¦tan A+tan B)
¦1– tan Atan B)

6. tan (A – B) =
¦tan A–tan B)
¦1+tan AtanB)
DEDUCTIONS:
7. sin(A-B)sin(A-B) =sin
2
A-sin
2
B
=cos
2
B -cos
2
A
8. cos(A+B)cos(A-B) =cos
2
A-sin
2
B
=cos
2
B -sin
2
A
9. tan(A+B)tan(A-B)=
tan
2
A−tan
2
B
1−tan
2
A . tan
2
B
10.Cot(A+B) =
cotAcotB−1
cotA+cotB
(A#nπ, B#mπ, A+B#kπ)
11.Cot(A-B) =
cotAcotB−1
cotB−cotA
(A#nπ, B#mπ, A-B#kπ)
12. tan(A+B)=
sin¦ A+B)
cos¦ A+B)
13. tan(A-B)=
sin¦ A−B)
cos¦ A−B)
14.
tanA+tanB
tanA−tanB
=
sin¦ A+B)
sin¦ A−B)
15. 1+tanA tanB=
cos¦ A−B)
cosAcosB
6

1-tanA tanB=
cos¦ A+B)
cosAcosB
16. tanA+tanB=tan(A+B)(1-tanA.tanB)
=
sin¦ A+B)
cosA. cosB
tanA-tanB=tan(A-B)(1-tanA.tanB)=
sin¦ A+B)
cosA. cosB
17.tan(Π/4 + A) =
1+tanA
1−tanA
18.tan(Π/4 - A) =
1−tanA
1+tanA
19.cot( Π/4 + A )=
cotA−1
cotA+1
20.cot( Π/4 - A )=
cotA+1
cotA−1
21. tan(A+B+C)
=
tanA+tanB+tanC−tanA.tanB.tanC
1−¦ tanAtanB+tanB.tanC+tanC.tanA)
=
S
1
−S
3
1−S
2
If S1 = tanA + tanB +tanC S3 =tanA.tanB.tanC
S2 =tanAtanB +tanB.tanC +tanC.tanA
21.The cot(A+B+C) =
cotA.cotB.cotC−cotA−cotB−cotC
¦ cotAcotB+cotB.cotC+cotC.cotA−1)
22. sinA+cosA=
.
2sin¦
n
4
+A)
sinA-cosA=
.
2sin¦
n
4
−A)
cosA+sinA=
.
2cos¦
n
4
−A)
cosA-sinA=
.
2cos¦
n
4
+A)
23. sin(A+B+C)
=SinA.cosB.CosC +sinB.cosC.cosA + SinC.cosA.cosB
-sinA.sinB.sinC
=Uone sine and two cos - three sines
= sinA.sinB.sinC [cotA.cotB-1]
24. cos(A+B+C) =cosA.CosB.cosC -sinA.sinB.cosC
-sinBsinCcosA -sinCsinAcosB
=Three cos - one cos and two sines
=cosAcosBcosC[1-tanAtanB-tanBtanC-tanCtanA]
MULTIPLE ANGLE FORMULAE: T ratios of multiple angles
1.Sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A =
2tanA
1−tan
2
A

2.cos 2A = cos
2
A – sin
2
A
= 1 – 2 sin
2
A
= 2cos
2
A – 1 =
1−tan
2
A
1+tan
2
A

3. tan 2A =
2 tan A
1 –tan
2
A
DEDUCTIONS:
1+cos2A =2cos
2
A; cos
2
A =
1
2
¦1+cos2A)
1-cos2A =2sin
2
A; cos
2
A =
1
2
¦1−cos2A)

1−cos2A
1+cos2A
=tan
2
A;
1+cos2A
1−cos2A
=cot
2
A
1+sin2A =(sinA +cosA)
2

1-sin2A =(sinA -cosA)
2
cotA -tanA = 2 cot2A
tanA+cotA=2 cosec 2A
TRIPLE ANGLES: T - ratios of 3 θ in terms of those of θ
Sin 3A = 3 sin A – 4 sin
3
A ;
cos 3A = 4 cos
3
A – 3 cos A ;
tan3A =
3tanA−tan
3
A
1−3tan
2
A
;
DEDUCTIONS:
4 sin
3
A =3 sin A -Sin 3A ;
sin
3
A =
1
4
( 3 sin A -Sin 3A ).
4 cos
3
A =3 cos A +cos 3A;
cos
3
A =
1
4
( 3 cos A +cos 3A )
TRIGNOMETRC RATIOS OF HALF
ANGLES-t ratios of sub multiple angles
a) sinθ =2sin
0
2
cos
0
2
=
2tan
0
2
1+tan
2
0
2
b) cosθ=cos
2
0
2
-sin
2
0
2
=2cos
2
0
2
-1
=1-2sin
2
0
2
=
1−tan
2
0
2
1+tan
2
0
2
c)tanθ=
2tan
0
2
1−tan
2
0
2
7

DEDUCTIONS:
1+cosθ=2cos
2
0
2
; 1-cosθ=2sin
2
0
2
1−cos 0
1+cos 0
=tan
2

0
2
;
1+cos 0
1−cos 0
=cot
2

0
2

1−sin 0
1+sin 0
= tan
2
¦
n
4

0
2
)
;

1+sin 0
1−sin 0
= cot
2
¦
n
4
+
0
2
)

sin0
1+cos 0
=tan
0
2
;
sin0
1−cos 0
=cot
0
2

cos0
1+sin 0
= tan
¦
n
4

0
2
)
;
cos0
1−sin 0
= cot
¦
n
4
+
0
2
)
Transformation formulae:
a) SUMS AND DIFFERENCE TO PRODUCT FORMULAE:
Formula that express sum or difference into products
Sin C + sin D = 2sin
¦C+D)
2
cos
C–D
2
Sin C – sin D = 2cos
¦C+D)
2
sin
C–D
2
Cos C + cos D = 2cos
C+D
2
cos
C–D
2
Cos C – cos D = 2sin
C+D
2
sin
D−C
2

or −2sin
C+D
2
sin
C−D
2
b) PRODUCT-TO-SUM OR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE :formula which express
products as sum or Difference of sines and cosines.
2 sin A cos B = sin (sum) + sin (diff) i.e 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(A-B)
2 cos A sin B = sin (sum) – sin (diff) i.e 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B) - sin(A-B)
2 cos A cos B = cos (sum) + cos (diff) i.e. 2 cosA.cosB = cos(A+B)+cos(A-B)
2 sin A sin B = cos (diff) – cos (sum) i.e. -2 sinA.sin B = cos(A+B)-cos(A-B)
OR 2 sinA.sin B = cos(A-B)-cos(A+B)
VALUES OF TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS OF SOME IMPORTANT ANGLES :
Angle

Ratio

7
1
2
0

15
0
18
0

22
1
2
0
36
0
75
0

sin
.
8−2
.
6−2
.
2
4
or
.
4−
.
6−
.
2
2
.
2
.
3−1
2
.
2
.
5−1
4
1
2
.
2−
.
2
1
4
¦
.
10−2
.
5)
.
3+1
2
.
2
cos
.
8+2
.
6−2
.
2
4
or
.
4+
.
6+
.
2
2
.
2
.
3+1
2
.
2
1
4
¦
.
10+2
.
5)
1
2
.
2+
.
2
1
4
¦
.
5+1)
.
3−1
2
.
2
tan
.
6−
.
4−
.
3+
.
2
or
¦
.
3−
.
2)¦
.
2−1)
2-
.
3
.
25−10
.
5
5
.
2−1
.
5−2
.
5
2+
.
3
cot
.
6!
.
4!
.
3+
.
2
or
¦
.
3+
.
2)¦
.
2+1)
2+
.
3
.
¦5+2
.
5) .
2+1
.
¦
1+
2
.
5
)
2-
.
3
sec
.
16−10
.
2+8
.
3−6
.
6
(
.
6−
.
2 )
.
¦2−
2
.
5
)
.
4−2
.
2 .
5−1
.
6+
.
2
sin22½
0
=
1
2
.
2−
.
2 ;
cos22½
0
=
1
2
.
2+
.
2 ;
tan22½
0
=
.
2−1 ;cot22½
0
=
.
2+1
sin18
0
=
1
4
¦
.
5−1) =cos72
0
;
8

cos18
0
=
1
4
¦
.
10+2
.
5) =sin72
0
;
sin36
0
=
1
4
¦
.
10−2
.
5) =cos54
0
;
cos36
0
=
1
4
¦
.
5+1) =sin54
0

tan7 ½
0=
.
6−
.
4−
.
3+
.
2
cot7½
0
=
.
6!
.
4!
.
3+
.
2
sin9
0
=
.
3+
.
5−
.
3−
.
5
4
cos9
0
=
.
3+
.
5+
.
3−
.
5
4

EXPRESSION FOR Sin(A/2) and cos(A/2) in terms of sinA:
¦
sin
A
2
+cos
A
2
)
2
=1+sinA so that sin
A
2
+cos
A
2
= !
.
1+sinA
¦
sin
A
2
−cos
A
2
)
2
=1-sinA so that sin
A
2
−cos
A
2
= !
.
1−sinA
By addition and subtraction, we have
2 sin
A
2
= !
.
1+sinA ± !
.
1−sinA ; 2 cos
A
2
= !
.
1+sinA

!
.
1−sinA
Using suitable signs , we can find sin
A
2
, cos
A
2
IDENTITTIES CONNECTED WITH TRAINGLE:
If A,B,C are angles of a traingle,
sin(sum of any two) =sin(third); e.g.:sin(B+C) =sinA;
cos(sum of any two)= -cos(third); e.g.: cos(A+B)= -cosC]
tan(sum of ny two) = -tan(third) e.g. : tan(A+B) =-tanC
sin
1
2
(sum of any two) = cos
1
2
(third); e.g sin
A+C
2
=cos
B
2
)
cos
1
2
(sum of any two) = sin
1
2
(third), e.g: cos
B+C
2
=sin
A
2
)
If A is any angle of traingle and α lies between 0
0
and 180
0
, then
sinA=sin α ⇒A = α or 180
0
- α ; cosA=cos α ⇒Α= α; tanA=tan α ⇒Α= α
SOME IMPORTANT IDENTITTIES:
If A+B+C =180
0
, then
1) sin2A +sin2B+sin2C=4sinAsinBsinC i.e.

sin2A
= 4sinAsinBsinC
2)cos2A+cos2B+cos2C=-1-4cosAcosBcosC i.e.

cos2A =-1-4cosAcosBcosC
3)sinA+sinB+sinC=4cos
A
2
cos
B
2
cos
C
2
VIGNAN CLASSES
i.e.

sinA =4cos
A
2
cos
B
2
cos
C
2
4)cosA+cosB+cosC=1+4sin
A
2
sin
B
2
sin
C
2
i.e

cosA
=1+4sin
A
2
sin
B
2
sin
C
2
5)tanA+tanB+tanC=tanA.tanB.tanC i.e.

tanA
= tanA.tanB.tanC
6)cotB.cotC+cotC.cotA+cotA.cotB =1 i.e.

cotA.cotB
=1
7)cot
A
2
+cot
B
2
+cot
C
2
=cot
A
2
cot
B
2
cot
C
2
i.e. ∑
cot
A
2
=cot
A
2
cot
B
2
cot
C
2
8)tan
A
2
tan
B
2
+tan
B
2
tan
C
2
+tan
C
2
tan
A
2
=1 i.e. ∑
tan
A
2
tan
B
2
=1
Note: If A, B, C are the angles of a traingle , then
sin(A+B+C) =sinП=0, cos(A+B+C) =cos П= -1 and tan(A+B+C) =0;
9
GRAPHS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
I quadrant II quadrant III quadrant IV quadrant
sinθ increases
from 0 to 1
decreases
from
1 to 0
decreses from
0 to -1
increases from
-1 to 0
cosθ decreases from
1 to 0
decreases
from
0 to -1
increases from
-1 to 0
increases from
0 to 1
tanθ increases from
0 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to 0
increases from
0 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to 0
cotθ decreases from
∞ to 0
decreases
from
0 to −∞
decreases from
∞ to 0
decreases from
0 to ∞
secθ increses from
1 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to -1
decreases from
-1 to −∞
decreases from
∞ to 1
cosecθ decreases from
∞ to 1
increases from
1 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to -1
decreases from
-1 to -infinity
Graph of sinx Graph of cosecx
Graph of cosx Graph of secx
Graph of tanx Graph of cotx
10
f(x)=cot (x)
-8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8
-8
-6
-4
-2
2
4
6
8
x
y

RELATION BETWEEN THE SIDES & ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE:
A traingle consists of 6 elements, three angles and three sides. The angles of traingle ABC
are denoted by A,B, and C. a,b, and c are respectively the sides opposite to the angles A,B
and C.
In any traingle ABC , the following results or rule hold good.
1 Sine rule’: a = 2R sin A, b = 2R sin B, c = 2R sin C ie
a
sinA
=
b
sinB
=
c
sinC
=2R Where R is
the circum radius of circum circle that passes through the vertices of the traingle.
2.‘Cosine rule’: a
2
=b
2
+c
2
-2bc cosA or cos A =
¦ b
2
+c
2
– a
2
)
2bc
b
2
=a
2
+c
2
-2ac cosB or cos B =
¦ c
2
+a
2
– b
2
)
2ca
c
2
=a
2
+b
2
-2ab cosC or cos C =
¦ a
2
+b
2
– c
2
)
2ab
3.Projection rule’:
a = b cos C + c cos B; b = c cos A + a cos C; c = a cos B + b cos A
4.Napier's formula or ‘Law of Tangents’:
tan
¦ B–C)
2
=|
¦b –c)
¦b+c)
¦cot
A
2
or
¦
b−c
b+c
)
=
tan
B−C
2
tan
B+C
2
tan
¦ A–B)
2
=|
¦a –b)
¦ a+b)
¦cot
C
2
or
¦
a−b
a+b
)
=
tan
A−B
2
tan
A+B
2
etc.
5.‘Half-angle rule’: In any traingle ABC, a+b+c =2s, where 2s is the perimeter of the
traingle.
sin
A
2
=
.
¦s –b)¦s –c)
bc
cos
A
2
=
.
s¦s –a)
bc

tan
A
2
=
.
¦ s−b)¦ s−c)
s¦s−a)

sin
B
2
=
.
¦s –a)¦s –c)
ac
cos
B
2
=
.
s¦s –b)
ac

tan
B
2
=
.
¦ s−a)¦ s−c)
s¦s−b)

sin
C
2
=
.
¦s –a)¦s –b)
ab
cos
C
2
=
.
s ¦s –c)
ab

tan
C
2
=
.
¦ s−a)¦s−b)
s¦s−c)
6. Formula that involve the Perimeter: If S=
a+b+c
2
, where a+b+c is the perimeter of
a traingle, R the radius of the circumcircle, and r the radius of the inscribed circle, then
6. Area of traingle: ∆=
.
s¦ s−a)¦s−b)¦s−c)
;(HERO'S FORMULA)
∆=
1
2
a.b.SinC =
1
2
b.c. sinA =
1
2
c.a.sinB=
abc
4R
∆=
1
2
a
2
sinB. sinC
sinA
=
1
2
b
2
sin.CsinA
sinB
=
1
2
c
2
sinA. sinB
sinC
=
1
2
a
2
sinB. sinC
sin¦B+C)
DEDUCTIONS:
sinA=
2 
bc
=
2
bc
.
s¦s−a)¦s−b)¦ s−c) sinB=
2 
ca
SinC=
2 
ab
tan
A
2
tan
B
2
=
s−c
s
; tan
B
2
tan
C
2
=
s−a
s
; tan
C
2
tan
A
2
=
s−b
s
.
tan
A
2
tan
B
2
=

s
cot
C
2
; tan
B
2
tan
C
2
=

s
cot
A
2
;
tan
C
2
tan
A
2
=

s
cot
B
2
.
11

NOTE WORTHY POINTS: In a traingle ABC
• If cotA +cotB +cotC=
.
3 then
traingle is equilateral
• If sin
2
A +sin
2
B + sin
2
C =2 then
traingle is equilateral
• If cosA + cosB +cosC =3/2 then traingle
is equilateral
• If cotA cotB cotC>0 then traingle is
acute angled traingle
• If cos
2
A+cos
2
B +cos
2
C =1 then
traingle is rightangled traingle
• If in a traingle
a
cosA
=
b
cosB
=
c
cosC
then traingle is equilateral
• In a traingle a sinA =b sinB, then
traingle is isosceles
• If a cosA = bcosB then traingle is
isosceles or rightangled
• If in atraingle 8R
2
=a
2
+b
2
+c
2
then
traingle is rightangled.
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
To solve a triangle a) when all the 3 sides are given :
GIVEN REQUIRED
a,b, c
i) Area of ∆=
.s¦ s−a)¦s−b)¦ s−c) , 2s = a+b+c
sinA=
2A
bc
, sinB=
2A
ac
, sin C=
2A
ab
OR
iii) First, find two of the three angles by cosine formula, then the third angle is
determined by using the relation A+B+C=180
0
. It is advisable to find the smallest
angle first. (angle opposite to the smallest side).
b) When two sides and an included angle is given:
GIVEN REQUIRED
a , b and C
i)Area of traingle=∆=
1
2
a.b.SinC ; tan
¦ A–B)
2
=|
¦a –b)
¦ a+b)
¦cot
C
2

A+B
2
=90
0
-
C
2
; c=
asinC
sinA
ii) Use cosine rule to find the third side. then find the smaller of the two angles
by cosine formula. Use A+B+C=180
0
to find the third angle
iii)Use Napier's formula and find two angles, then the third side can be
determined sine rule or cosine rule or by projection rule.
c)when one side and two angles A and B are given:
GIVEN REQUIRED
a A and B
i) C =180-(A+B) ; b=
asinB
sinA
;c=
asinC
sinA
d) When two sides and an angle opposite to one of them is given.
Let us assume that a,b, and A are given. Now we are required to find c,B and C. We just
cannot find c or C directly before finding B. There exist only one relation with which we can
find B i.e. by using sine Rule. sinB =
b sinA
a
; C=180-(A+B); c=
asinC
sinA
CASES:i)When A is acute angle and a<bsinA; In this relation sinB=
b sinA
a
gives us that
sinB>1, which is impossible. then there exists no solution or no traingle.
ii)When A is acute angle and a=bsinA: In this case only one traingle is possible
which is rightangled at B. If a=bsinA , sinB =1, then B=90
0
there exist only one
solution or one traingle since A is given, we can find C using A+B+C=180
0
. we can
find 'c' by any one of the rules.
iii)When A is acute angle and a>bsinA, sinB<1, then there exist two sub cases.
a) If a≥b, then A≥B, B must be acute. Thus there exists only one solution.
b) if b≥a, then B≥A., there exist two values to B for which this can be true .
one being acute and the other being obtuse.
When B is determined, we can find C using A+B+C =180
0
, then c by any one of the rules. this case is called
an ambiguous case since there exist no solution, one solution or two solutions depending on the cases.
Note: It is not advisable to use sine rule to find the angle in all other cases. since it always gives an ambiguous result.
Use sine rule to find the angle only when it is inevitable.
12

SUMMERY:
A unique traingle exists if I)three sides are given (b+c>a etc)
ii)one side and two angles are given
iii)two sides and included angle are given
iv)But two sides and angle opposite to one of these sides are given , the following
cases arise: a, b, A given
i)a<b sinA
ii)a=b sinA
iii)b>a>bsinA
iv)a>b
No triangle
Right angled triangle
Two triangles
one triangle
OTHER IMPORTANT FORMULA AND CONCEPTS:
1.To find the greatest and least values of the expression asin θ +bcos θ :
Let a=rcosα. b=rsinα , then a
2
+b
2
=r
2
or r=
.
a
2
+b
2

asinθ +bcosθ = r(sinθ cos α +cosθ sin α) = rsin(θ + α )
But -1≤sin(θ + α )≤1 so that -r ≤rsin(θ + α )≤r. Hence -
.
a
2
+b
2
≤ asinθ +bcosθ ≤
.
a
2
+b
2
Thus the greatest and least values of asinθ +bcosθ are respectively
.
a
2
+b
2
and -
.
a
2
+b
2
.
Similarly maximum value of asinθ -bcosθ is
.
a
2
+b
2
For 00n , minimum value of a sinθ + bcosecθ is 2
.
ab
For
−n
2
0
n
2
, minimum value of acosθ +bsecθ is 2
.
ab
For 00
n
2
or n0
3 n
2
, minimum value of a tanθ +bcotθ is 2
.
ab
2. cosA.cos2A.cos4A.cos8A............cos2
n-1
A =
1
2
n
sinA
sin¦2
n
A)
(Remember)
OR cos θ.cos2 θ.cos2
2
θ.cos2
3
θ............cos2
n
θ =
sin ¦2
n+1
A)
2
n
sinA
(Each angle being double of preceding)
3. SUM OF THE SIN AND COSINE SERIES WHEN THE ANGLES ARE IN AP:
sinα +sin(α+β) +sin(α +2 β) +..........n terms
cosα +cos(α+β) +cos(α +2 β) +..........n terms
=
sin n.
diff
2
sin
diff
2
. sin or cos
|
1st angle+last angle
2
¦
(Remember the rule)
=
sin
n ß
2
sin
ß
2
.sin or cos
|
o+o+¦n−1)ß
2
¦
=
sin
n ß
2
sin
ß
2
.sin or cos
|
o+¦n−1)
ß
2
¦
Note: β is not an even multiple of Π i.e. β #2n Π because in that case sum will take the form 0/0. Particular
case: Both the sum will be zero if sin

2
=0 i.e.
n ß
2
=r Π or β =
2r n
n
or β = even multiple of
n
n
then S=0
4. SOME RESULTS IN PRODUCT FORM:
sinθ sin(60+θ)sin(60-θ) =
1
4
sin3θ
cosθ cos(60+θ) cos(60-θ)
=
1
4
cos3 θ
cosθ cos(120+θ) cos(120-θ)
tanθ tan(60+θ )tan(60-θ ) =tan3θ
sin(60
0
-A) sin(60
0
+A) =
sin3A
4sinA
cos(60
0
-A) cos(60
0
+A)=
cos3A
4cosA
tan(60
0
-A) tan(60
0
+A) =
tan3A
tanA
tan2A tan3A tan5A=tan5A-tan3A-tan2A
tanx tan2x tan3x =tan3x-tan2x-tanx
(Use the above formula at time of integration)
tan(x-α). tan(x+ α ) tan 2x= tan2x-tan(x+ α )-tan(x- α )

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(cos α +cos β) (cos2α +cos2 β ) (cos2
2
α +cos2
2
β ) .........(cos2
n
α +cos 2
n
β ) =
cos2
n+1
o−cos2
n+1
ß
2
n
¦cos o−cos ß)
(2cos θ -1)(2cos2 θ-1)(2cos2
2
θ-1).......(2cos2
n
θ) =
2cos2
n+1
0+1
2cos 0+1

4. i) cosA ±sinA=
.
2sin¦
n
4
!A) =
.
2cos¦
n
4
∓A) ii) tanA +cotA =
1
sinA.cosA
5. tan θ + tan¦0+
n
3
) + tan¦0+
2 n
3
) =3tan3 θ ; tan θ + tan¦0+
n
3
) + tan¦0−
n
3
) =3tan3 θ
6.
.
2+
.
2+
.
2+
.
2+............+
.
2+2cos2
n
0
=2cos θ ∀n∈N
HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES-VIGNAN CLASSES
ANGLE OF ELEVATION AND ANGLE OF DEPRESSION
Suppose a st.line OX is drawn in the horizontal direction.
Then the angle XOP where P is a point (or the position
of the object to be observed from the point O of observation )
above OX is called Angle of Elevation of P as seen from O.
Similarly, Angle XOQ where Q is below OX, is called
angle of depression of Q as seen from O.
OX is the horizontal line and OP and OQ are called
line of sights
Properties used for solving problems
related to Heights and Distances.
1. Any line perpendicular to a plane is
perpendicular to every line lying in the plane.
Explanation: Place your pen PQ upright on your notebook, so that its lower end Q is on the notebook.
Through the point Q draw line QA,QB,QC,....... in your notebook in different directions and you will
observe that each of the angles PQA,PQB,..PQC,.... is a right angle. In other words PA is perpendicular
to each of the lines QA, QB, QC, lying in the plane.
2.To express one side of a right angled triangle in terms of the other side.
Explanation: Let ABC =Ө, Where ABC is right angled
triangle in which C = 90
0
. The side opposite to right angle C
will be denoted by H(Hypotenus),
the side opposite (opposite side) to angle θ is denoted by O,
the side containing angle θ (other than H)(Adjacent side) will be denoted by A
Then from the figure it is clear that
O=A(tanθ ) or A = O(cotθ ) i.e. Opposite = Adj(tanθ ) or Adj=opposite (cotθ ).
Also O=H(sinθ ) or A =H(cosθ ) i.e opposite =Hyp( sinθ ) or Adjacent =Hyp(cosθ )
:../ |¦- ASWEQRTYUIXCVBNMKL ' 098
PREPARED AND DTP BY KHV,
LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS
14
O
X
Q
α
β
α= Angle of
elevation of P
β=Angle of
Depression of Q
U
H
A
O
θ
P
THE SPIRIT OF MATHEMATICS
The only way to learn mathematics is to recreate it for oneself -J.L.Kelley
The objects of mathematical study are mental constructs. In order to understand these one
must study , meditate, think and work hard -SHANTHINARYAN
Mathematical theories do not try to find out the true nature of things, that would be an
unreasonable aim for them. Their only purpose is to co-ordinate the physical laws we find
from experience but could not even state without the aid of mathematics. -A. POINCARE
Experience and intution, though usually obtained more painfully, may be doveloped by
mathematical insight. -R Aris
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