BY K.H. V.
AN ANGLE: An angle is the amount of rotation of a revolving line w.r.t a fixed straight line (a figure
formed by two rays having common initial point.) The two rays or lines are called the sides of the angle and
common initial point is called the vertex of the angle.
ar l
e( ina
)
Rotation of the initial arm to the terminal arm generates the angle.
m
sid erm
θ +ve
Rotation can be anti clock wise or clockwise.
T
•
• Angle is said to be +ve if rotation is anti clockwise. angle
• Angle is said to be ve if rotation is clockwise. Initial
side(arm) ve angle
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES:
a) Sexagesimal system: b) Centisimal system of angles:
In sexagesimal system of measurement, 1 right angle =100 grades =100g
the units of measurement are degrees, minutes and 1 grade =100 minutes =100'
seconds. 1' = 100 seconds =100''
1 right angle =90 degrees(90o);
1 degree = 60 minutes (60')
1 minute = 60 seconds (60'')
1c = 570 17' 45''; 10 = radian=0.01746 radian
180 o
(approximately)
Radian measure= x Degree measure i.e. To convert degrees into radians Multiply by
180 o 180 o
180 o 180 o
Degree measure= x Radian measure. i.e. To convert radians into degrees Multiply by
NOTE: 1. Radian is the unit to measure angle 2. It does not means that π stands for 1800 , π is real number,
where as π c stands for 1800
1
SOME USEFUL FACTS ON CLOCKS:
DO YOU KNOW:
1. Angle between two consecutive digits of a In a regular polygon
i) All the interior angles are equal
clock is 300 or radians.
6 ii) All the exterior angles are equal
2. Hour hand of the clock rotates by an angle iii) All the sides are equal
iv)Sum of all the exterior angles is 3600
of 300 or radians in one hour v) Each exterior angle = 3600/number of
6 exterior angles
1 0 vi)Each interior angle =
and or radians in one minute. 1800 exterior angle
2 360
vii) For a polygon with n sides
3. Minute hand of the clock rotates by an a) the sum of internal angles is
(2n4) right angles, where a rightnangle
angle of 60 or radians in one minute.
30 =900
b) the number of diagonals is n(n3)/2
TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OR RATIOS AND FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS.
1. If θ is an acute angle of a right angled triangle OPM
We define Six trigonometric ratios(tratios) as
opposite side adjacent side P
sinθ = ; cosθ = u s
hypotenus hypotenus
o ten Opposite side
opposite side hypotenus y p
tanθ = ; cosecθ = H θ
adjacent side opposite side O M
hypotenus adjacent side Adjacent side
secθ = ; cotθ =
adjacent side opposite side
2. Let θ be an angle in standard position. If P(x,y) is any point on the terminal side of θ and
OP= x2 y2 =r ; then
P
y x y
sinθ = cosθ = tanθ =
r r x
r r x
cosecθ = secθ = cotθ =
y x y O M
QUOTIENT RELATIONS
sinθ 1 cosθ
tanθ = ; cotθ = =
cosθ tanθ sinθ
SIGNS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS :
2
TO DETERMINE THE VALUES OF OTHER TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS WHEN ONE
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIO IS GIVEN:
If one of the tratio is given , the values of other tratios can be obtained by constructing a right angled
triangle and using the trigonometric identities given above
For ex. sinθ=1/3, since sine is +ve in Q1 and Q2(II quadrant), we have cosθ=
1−
1
9
or

1−
1
9
ie.
2 2
3
or
−2 2
3
according as θ ∈Q 1 or θ ∈Q2
3
3
Let tanθ=4/3, , then since in Q3, sine and cosine both are negative,
2
4 −3
we have sinθ= ; cosθ=
5 5
For acute angled traingle, we can write other t ratios in terms of given ratio:
1
perp s s
Let sinθ=s= =
1−s 2
hyp 1 1−s 2
sin 1 1 1−sin 2
cosθ= = 1−sin2 ; tanθ= 1−sin 2 ; secθ=
1−sin 2 ; cosecθ=
sin
; cotθ=
sin
We can express sinθ in terms of other trigonometric functions by above method:
tan 1 sec −1
2
1tan 2
sinθ= 1−cos = 2
1tan 2
=
cosec
=
sec
=
tan
MAXIMUM AND MININUM VALUES :
1. since sin2A+cos2A =1, hence each of sinA and cosA is numerically less than or equal to unity, that is
sinA≤1 and cosA≤1 i.e. 1≤sinA≤1 and 1≤cosA≤1
2. Since secA and cosecA are respectively reciprocals of cosA and sinA, therefore the values of secA and
cosecA are always numerically greater than or equal to unity. That is
secA≥1 or secA≤1 and cosecA≥1 or cosecA≤1, In otherwords we never have 1<cosecA<1 and
1<secA<1
3. tanA and cotA can assume any real value.
For all values of θ, 1≤sin θ≤1 and 1≤cos θ≤1
a)Max . sin θ =1; Min . sin θ =1
5. sin θ >cos θ >0 for ; 0<sin θ <cos θ for 0
4 2 4
4.The following formulae of Componedndo and Dividendo must be noted:
p−q a−b
If p/q =a/b then by componendo and dividendo we can write = or
pq ab
PERIODICITY: sin(2nΠ +α ) =sin α, cos(2nΠ +α )=cos α, tan(nΠ +α )= α ( n being any integer). All
Trigonometrical functions are periodic. The period of sineθ , cosineθ, cosecθ, secθ is 2Π and that of
tangent θ and cotθ is Π.
sinθ is periodic with period 2 2
sinkθ is periodic with period
cosθ is periodic with period 2 k
tanθ is periodic with period
tankθ is periodic with period
k
3
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF STANDARD and QUANDRANTAL ANGLES:
Radians 3 2 5
0 6 4 3 2 2 12 12
Degrees 0 300 450 600 900 1800 2700 3600 150 750
sinθ 1 1 3 3−1 31
0 2 2 2 1 0 1 0 2 2 2 2
cosθ 3 1 1 31 3−1
1 2 2 2 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 2
tanθ 1 3 ∞ ∞ 2−3 23
0 3 1 0 0
Approximate values of sinθ , cosθ and tanθ when θ is small (OUT OF SYLLUBUS)
Let θ be small and measured in radian, then sinθ ≈ θ , cosθ ≈ 1; tanθ ≈ θ .
These are first degree approximations. The second degree approximations are given by
1 2
sinθ ≈ θ ; cosθ ≈ 1 , tanθ ≈ θ
2
VALUES OF TFUNCTIONS OF SOME FREQUENTY OCCURING ANGLES.
Radians 0 2 3 5 n
2n1
3 4 6 2
Degrees 1200 1350 1500 (any )
(odd )
2
sinθ 3 1 1 (1)n
2 2 2 0
cosθ 1 1 (1)n
−
− 3
−
2 2 2 0
tanθ −3 1 ∞
−
1 3 0
e.g. cos(odd )=0; cos( odd )=1, cos(even ) =1
2
4
DOMAIN AND RANGE OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS:
Function Domain Range
sine R [1, 1]
cosine R [1, 1]
tangent R
R{(2n+1) }: nε Z
2
cotangent R{n }; nεZ R
secant ( ∞ ,1] υ [1, ∞ )
R{(2n+1) }: nε Z
2
5
Short cut: Supposing we have to find the value of t ratio of the angle θ
Step1: Find the sign of the tratio of θ , by finding in which quadrant the angle θ lies. This can be done
by applying the quadrant rule, i.e. ASTC Rule.
Step 2: Find the numerical value of the tratio of θ using the following method:
tratios of θ=
t ratio of (1800 θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the second quandrant
e.g.: cos1200 = cos600 = 1/2
tratio of ( θ 180) with proper sign if θ lies in the third quandrant
e.g: sin2100 = sin300 = 1/2
tratio of (360 θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the fourth quandrant
2
e.g: cosec3000= cosec600 = −
3
tratio of θn (3600 ) if θ>3600
d) If θ is greater than 3600 i.e. θ =n.3600 +α , then remove the multiples of 3600 (i.e. go on subtracting
from 3600 till you get the angle less than 3600 ) and find the tratio of the remaining angle by applying
the above method. e.g: tan10350 =tan6750 (1035360) =tan3150 = tan450 =1
COMPLIMENTARY AND SUPPLIMENTARY ANGLES:
If θ is any angle then the angle  θ is its complement angle and the angle  θ is its
2
supplement angle.
a) trigonometric ratio of any angle = Cotrigonometric ratio of its complement
sin θ = cos(90 θ ), cos θ = sin(90 θ ), tan θ = cot(90 θ ) e.g. sin600 =cos300 , tan600 =cot300 .
b) sin of(any angle) = sin of its supplement ; cos of ( any angle) = cos of its supplement
tan of any angle =  tan of its supplement i.e. sin 300 =sin 1500 , cos 600 =cos 1200
COTERMINAL ANGLES: Two angles are said to be co terminal angles , if their terminal sides
are one and the same. e.g. θ and 360+ θ or θ and n.360+ θ ;  θ and 360 θ or  θ and n.360 θ
are co terminal angles : a) Trig functions of θ and n.360+ θ are same
b) Trig functions of θ and n.360 θ are same .
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF NEGETIVE ANGLES:
For negative angles always use the following relations:
c) sin( θ ) = sin θ cos( θ ) = cos θ, tan( θ )= tan θ , cosec( θ )= cosec θ ; se( θ ) =sec θ ;
ci) cot( θ) =sec θ(V.IMP)
TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS FOR SUM AND DIFFERENCE:
COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE: (Addition and Subtraction formulae)
1. Sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B tan Atan B
5. tan (A + B) =
2. sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B 1 – tan A tan B
3. Cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B tan A – tan B
6. tan (A – B) =
4. cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B 1tan A tan B
DEDUCTIONS:
7. sin(AB)sin(AB) =sin2Asin2B cotAcotB−1
11.Cot(AB) =
=cos B cos A
2 2
cotB−cotA
8. cos(A+B)cos(AB) =cos2Asin2B (A#nπ, B#mπ, AB#kπ)
=cos B sin A
2 2
sin AB
12. tan(A+B)=
2
tan A−tan B 2 cos AB
9. tan(A+B)tan(AB)=
1 −tan 2 A . tan2 B 13. tan(AB)=
sin A−B
cotAcotB−1 cos A−B
10.Cot(A+B) =
cotAcotB tanA tanB sin AB
14. =
(A#nπ, B#mπ, A+B#kπ) tanA −tanB sin A−B
cos A−B
15. 1+tanA tanB=
cosA cosB
6
cos AB 21.The cot(A+B+C) =
1tanA tanB= cotA.cotB.cotC−cotA−cotB−cotC
cosA cosB
16. tanA+tanB=tan(A+B)(1tanA.tanB) cotAcotBcotB.cotCcotC.cotA−1
sin AB
= 22. sinA+cosA= 2 sin 4 A
cosA. cosB
sin AB
tanAtanB=tan(AB)(1tanA.tanB)=
cosA. cosB
sinAcosA= 2 sin 4 −A
1 tanA
17.tan(Π/4 + A) = cosA+sinA= 2 cos 4 −A
1 −tanA
1 −tanA
18.tan(Π/4  A) = cosAsinA= 2 cos 4 A
1 tanA
cotA −1 23. sin(A+B+C)
19.cot( Π/4 + A )= =SinA.cosB.CosC +sinB.cosC.cosA + SinC.cosA.cosB
cotA 1
sinA.sinB.sinC
cotA 1
20.cot( Π/4  A )= =one sine and two cos  three sines
cotA −1
= sinA.sinB.sinC [cotA.cotB1]
21. tan(A+B+C)
24. cos(A+B+C) =cosA.CosB.cosC sinA.sinB.cosC
tanA tanB tanC −tanA.tanB.tanC sinBsinCcosA sinCsinAcosB
=
1 − tanAtanBtanB.tanCtanC.tanA =Three cos  one cos and two sines
S 1 −S 3 =cosAcosBcosC[1tanAtanBtanBtanCtanCtanA]
=
1−S 2
If S1 = tanA + tanB +tanC S3 =tanA.tanB.tanC
S2 =tanAtanB +tanB.tanC +tanC.tanA
7
DEDUCTIONS:
1+cosθ=2cos 2
; 1cosθ=2sin2
1 sin
1 −sin
= cot
2
4 2
2 2 sin sin
=tan ; =cot
1 −cos 1 cos 1 cos 2 1 −cos 2
=tan2 ; =cot2
1 cos 2 1 −cos 2
1 −sin
= tan
2
−
;
cos
1 sin
= tan
−
4 2 ;
1 sin 4 2
cos
1 −sin
= cot
4 2
Transformation formulae:
a) SUMS AND DIFFERENCE TO PRODUCT FORMULAE:
Formula that express sum or difference into products
CD C–D CD C–D
Sin C + sin D = 2sin cos Sin C – sin D = 2cos sin
2 2 2 2
CD C–D CD D−C
Cos C + cos D = 2cos cos Cos C – cos D = 2sin sin
2 2 2 2
CD C−D
or −2sin sin
2 2
b) PRODUCTTOSUM OR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE :formula which express
products as sum or Difference of sines and cosines.
2 sin A cos B = sin (sum) + sin (diff) i.e 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(AB)
2 cos A sin B = sin (sum) – sin (diff) i.e 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B)  sin(AB)
2 cos A cos B = cos (sum) + cos (diff) i.e. 2 cosA.cosB = cos(A+B)+cos(AB)
2 sin A sin B = cos (diff) – cos (sum) i.e. 2 sinA.sin B = cos(A+B)cos(AB)
OR 2 sinA.sin B = cos(AB)cos(A+B)
VALUES OF TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS OF SOME IMPORTANT ANGLES:
Angle 1 0 150 180 1 0 360 750
→ 7 22
2 2
Ratio
↓
sin 8−2 6−2 2 3−1 5−1 1 1 31
4 2 2 4 2
2−2 4
10−2 5
2 2
or 4− 6− 2
2 2
cos 82 6−2 2 31 1 1 1 3−1
102 5
2
or 2 2 51
4 2 2 4 4 2 2
4 6 2
2 2
tan 6− 4−32 2 3 25−10 5 2−1 5−2 5 2+ 3
or 5
3− 2 2−1
cot 2+ 2
6± 4±32 3 5 2 5 21 3
or 1
2
5
3 2 21
sec 16−10 28 3−6 (6 6−2 )
1
2 −
2
5
4−2 2 5−1 62
8
1 tan7 ½0= 6− 4−32
cos180 = 102 5 =sin720 ;
4
cot7½0= 6± 4±32
1
sin360 = 10−2 5 =cos540 ; 3 5−3−5
4 sin90 =
4
1
cos360 = 51 =sin540 3 53−5
4 cos90 =
4
EXPRESSION FOR Sin(A/2) and cos(A/2) in terms of sinA:
2
A A
sin
A
2
cos
A
2 =1+sinA so that sin
2
cos
2
= ±1 sinA
2
A A
A
sin −cos
2
A
2 =1sinA so that sin
2
−cos
2
= ±1 −sinA
A B C A B C
7)cot +cot +cot =cot cot cot
2 2 2 2 2 2
A A B C
i.e. ∑ cot 2 =cot
2
cot
2
cot
2
A B B C C A A B
8)tan
2
tan
2
+tan
2
tan
2
+tan
2
tan
2
=1 i.e. ∑ tan 2 tan 2 =1
9
GRAPHS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
I quadrant II quadrant III quadrant IV quadrant
sinθ increases decreases decreses from increases from
from
from 0 to 1 0 to 1 1 to 0
1 to 0
cosθ decreases from decreases increases from increases from
from
1 to 0 1 to 0 0 to 1
0 to 1
tanθ increases from increases from increases from increases from
0 to ∞ −∞ to 0 0 to ∞ −∞ to 0
cotθ decreases from decreases decreases from decreases from
∞ to 0 from ∞ to 0 0 to ∞
0 to −∞
secθ increses from increases from decreases from decreases from
∞ to 1
1 to ∞ −∞ to 1 1 to −∞
cosecθ decreases from increases from increases from decreases from
∞ to 1 1 to ∞ −∞ to 1 1 to infinity
Graph of sinx Graph of cosecx
y f(x)=cot(x)
x
8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8
2
4
6
8
10
RELATION BETWEEN THE SIDES & ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE:
A traingle consists of 6 elements, three angles and three sides. The angles of traingle ABC
are denoted by A,B, and C. a,b, and c are respectively the sides opposite to the angles A,B
and C.
In any traingle ABC , the following results or rule hold good.
a b c
1 Sine rule’: a = 2R sin A, b = 2R sin B, c = 2R sin C ie = = =2R Where R is
sinA sinB sinC
the circum radius of circum circle that passes through the vertices of the traingle.
2 2 2
b c – a
2.‘Cosine rule’: a2 =b2 +c2 2bc cosA or cos A =
2bc
2 2 2
c a – b
b2 =a2 +c2 2ac cosB or cos B =
2ca
a2 b2 – c2
c2 =a2 +b2 2ab cosC or cos C =
2ab
3.Projection rule’:
a = b cos C + c cos B; b = c cos A + a cos C; c = a cos B + b cos A
2
5.‘Halfangle rule’: In any traingle ABC, a+b+c =2s, where 2s is the perimeter of the
traingle. sin
A
2
=
s – b s – c
bc
cos
A
2
=
s s – a
bc
tan
A
2
=
s−b s−c
s s−a
sin
B
2
=
s – a s – c
ac
cos
B
2
=
s s – b
ac
tan
B
2
=
s−a s−c
s s−b
sin
C
2
=
s – a s – b
ab
cos
C
2
=
s s – c
ab
C
tan
2
abc
=
s−as−b
s s−c
11
NOTE WORTHY POINTS: In a traingle ABC
• If cotA +cotB +cotC= 3 then a b c
• If in a traingle = =
traingle is equilateral cosA cosB cosC
• If sin2 A +sin2B + sin2 C =2 then then traingle is equilateral
traingle is equilateral • In a traingle a sinA =b sinB, then
• If cosA + cosB +cosC =3/2 then traingle traingle is isosceles
is equilateral • If a cosA = bcosB then traingle is
• If cotA cotB cotC>0 then traingle is isosceles or rightangled
acute angled traingle • If in atraingle 8R2 =a2 +b2 +c2 then
• If cos2 A+cos2 B +cos2C =1 then traingle is rightangled.
traingle is rightangled traingle
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
To solve a triangle a) when all the 3 sides are given :
GIVEN REQUIRED
a,b, c i) Area of ∆= s s−a s−b s−c , 2s = a+b+c
2 2 2
sinA= , sinB= , sin C= OR
bc ac ab
iii) First, find two of the three angles by cosine formula, then the third angle is
determined by using the relation A+B+C=180 0. It is advisable to find the smallest
angle first. (angle opposite to the smallest side).
b) When two sides and an included angle is given:
GIVEN REQUIRED
a , b and C 1 A – B a – b C
i)Area of traingle=∆= a.b.SinC ; tan =[ ]cot
2 2 ab 2
AB C asinC
=900  ; c=
2 2 sinA
ii) Use cosine rule to find the third side. then find the smaller of the two angles
by cosine formula. Use A+B+C=1800 to find the third angle
iii)Use Napier's formula and find two angles, then the third side can be
determined sine rule or cosine rule or by projection rule.
c)when one side and two angles A and B are given:
GIVEN REQUIRED
a A and B asinB asinC
i) C =180(A+B) ; b= ;c=
sinA sinA
d) When two sides and an angle opposite to one of them is given.
Let us assume that a,b, and A are given. Now we are required to find c,B and C. We just
cannot find c or C directly before finding B. There exist only one relation with which we can
b sinA asinC
find B i.e. by using sine Rule. sinB = ; C=180(A+B); c=
a sinA
b sinA
CASES:i)When A is acute angle and a<bsinA; In this relation sinB= gives us that
a
sinB>1, which is impossible. then there exists no solution or no traingle.
ii)When A is acute angle and a=bsinA: In this case only one traingle is possible
which is rightangled at B. If a=bsinA , sinB =1, then B=900 there exist only one
solution or one traingle since A is given, we can find C using A+B+C=1800 . we can
find 'c' by any one of the rules.
iii)When A is acute angle and a>bsinA, sinB<1, then there exist two sub cases.
a) If a≥b, then A≥B, B must be acute. Thus there exists only one solution.
b) if b≥a, then B≥A., there exist two values to B for which this can be true .
one being acute and the other being obtuse.
When B is determined, we can find C using A+B+C =180 , then c by any one of the rules. this case is called
0
an ambiguous case since there exist no solution, one solution or two solutions depending on the cases.
Note: It is not advisable to use sine rule to find the angle in all other cases. since it always gives an ambiguous result.
Use sine rule to find the angle only when it is inevitable.
12
SUMMERY:
A unique traingle exists if I)three sides are given (b+c>a etc)
ii)one side and two angles are given
iii)two sides and included angle are given
iv)But two sides and angle opposite to one of these sides are given , the following
cases arise: a, b, A given
i)a<b sinA No triangle
ii)a=b sinA Right angled triangle
iii)b>a>bsinA Two triangles
iv)a>b one triangle
OTHER IMPORTANT FORMULA AND CONCEPTS:
1.To find the greatest and least values of the expression asinθ +bcosθ :
Let a=rcosα. b=rsinα , then a2 +b2 =r2 or r= a b
2 2
Thus the greatest and least values of asinθ +bcosθ are respectively a b
2 2
and  a b
2 2
.
2
n n
sin sin
=
sin
2
.sin or cos
[ n−1
2 ] =
sin
2
.sin or cos
[ n−1
2 ]
2 2
Note: β is not an even multiple of Π i.e. β #2n Π because in that case sum will take the form 0/0. Particular
n n 2r
case: Both the sum will be zero if sin =0 i.e. =r Π or β = or β = even multiple of
2 2 n n
then S=0
4. SOME RESULTS IN PRODUCT FORM:
1 cos3A
sinθ sin(60+θ)sin(60θ) = sin3θ cos(600 A) cos(600 +A)=
4 4cosA
cosθ cos(60+θ) cos(60θ) tan3A
tan(600 A) tan(600 +A) =
1 tanA
= cos3 θ
4 tan2A tan3A tan5A=tan5Atan3Atan2A
cosθ cos(120+θ) cos(120θ) tanx tan2x tan3x =tan3xtan2xtanx
tanθ tan(60+θ )tan(60θ ) =tan3θ (Use the above formula at time of integration)
sin3A tan(xα). tan(x+ α ) tan 2x= tan2xtan(x+ α )tan(x α )
sin(600 A) sin(600 +A) =
4sinA
13
cos2 n 1 −cos 2 n1
(cos α +cos β) (cos2α +cos2 β ) (cos22α +cos22 β ) .........(cos2nα +cos 2n β ) = n
2 cos −cos
2cos2 n 1 1
(2cos θ 1)(2cos2 θ1)(2cos22 θ1).......(2cos2n θ) =
2cos 1
1
4. i) cosA ±sinA= 2 sin 4 ±A = 2 cos 4 ∓A ii) tanA +cotA =
sinA.cosA
2
5. tan θ + tan + tan =3tan3 θ ; tan θ + tan + tan− =3tan3 θ
3 3 3 3
6.
2 2 2 2............ 22cos2
n =2cos θ ∀ n∈N
ASWEQRTYUIXCVBNMKL;,./'[]098
PREPARED AND DTP BY KHV,
LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS
THE SPIRIT OF MATHEMATICS
The only way to learn mathematics is to recreate it for oneself J.L.Kelley
The objects of mathematical study are mental constructs. In order to understand these one
must study , meditate, think and work hard SHANTHINARYAN
Mathematical theories do not try to find out the true nature of things, that would be an
unreasonable aim for them. Their only purpose is to coordinate the physical laws we find
from experience but could not even state without the aid of mathematics. A. POINCARE
Experience and intution, though usually obtained more painfully, may be doveloped by
mathematical insight. R Aris
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