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The Drivers of Green Brand Equity: Green Brand Image, Green Satisfaction, and Green Trust Author(s): Yu-Shan

Chen Source: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 93, No. 2 (May 2010), pp. 307-319 Published by: Springer Stable URL: . Accessed: 26/03/2014 09:00
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ofBusiness Ethics(2010)93:307-319 Journal DOI 10.1007/sl0551-009-0223-9

Springer 2009

The Drivers of GreenBrandEquity:Green BrandImage,GreenSatisfaction, and GreenTrust


ABSTRACT. Thisarticle four novelconstructs proposed - green brand and trust, satisfaction, image, green green and explored relationthe positive greenbrandequity, between brandequity and itsthree drivers ships green and greentrust. greenbrandimage,greensatisfaction, The objectof thisresearch was information and study in Taiwan.This research electronics products employed an empirical study by use of the questionnaire survey mailedto method.The questionnaires were randomly consumers who had theexperience of purchasing information andelectronics The results showedthat products. brand and green trust are satisfaction, green image, green to green the related brand Furthermore, positively equity. betweengreenbrandimage and positiverelationship is partially mediated by greensatisgreenbrandequity on resources to faction and green trust. Hence,investing and green increase brand satisfaction, green image, green trust is helpful to enhance brand green equity.

notall thecompanies haveenough However, capabilities to market to their their congreen products Ifcompanies sumers. wantto adoptgreen marketing thentheir environmental and successfully, concepts ideas should be integrated intoallaspects ofmarketing canprovide or (Ottman, 1992).Ifcompanies products services thatsatisfy theircustomers' environmental then their customers would bemore favorable to needs, their or In services. the advent of environproducts mustfindan opportunity mental to era,companies to enhance their environmental products' performance their brand strengthen equities. in the Becauseofmorepopular environmentalism sales of have the world, green products dramatically increased moreconsumers and,therefore, nowadays, are willing to pay higher priceforgreenproducts There five for to are reasons (Chen, 2008b). companies with environgreen marketing: compliance KEY WORDS: greenbrandimage,greensatisfaction, develop mental pressures; obtaining competitive advantage; brand trust, green green equity, green marketing newmarkets or improving corporate images; seeking and value. Thereopportunities; enhancing product thisstudy that marIntroduction fore, argued undertaking green for couldraise their brand companies keting intangible the value of brand cannot be In recent to the enormous amount of equities. Although equity years, owing accounted current for financial methwith environmental which connects by accounting pollution directly ods formostown branding in theworld, industrial thesociety has (Neal and companies manufacturing in themarket a strong brand noticed environmental issues Strauss, 2008),creating (Chen, increasing steadily is one of their main because it can benBecause of the attention of the more 2008a). goals provide society, efits less to for and morecompanies arewilling to accepttheenvithem, including vulnerabilitycompetand greater itivemarketing ronmental actions, (Chen et al, 2006). Nowalarger margins, responsibility extension and brand concernrapidly as a opportunities (Delgado-Ballester days,environmental emerges mainstream issueforconsumers becauseof global Munuera-Alemn, 2005;vanRiel etal, 2005). studies havepaidgreat attention andmany areseeking tocatch the Although previous warming, companies to the relevant issues of brand satisfacIn becomes more explore image, green marketing opportunity.turn, and brandequity, none explored them suchas infor- tion,trust, forsomekinds ofproducts, important about or environmental issues. this et mation and electronics Therefore, al., green (Chen 2006). products

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Chen Yu-Shan of in theworld because theenvironmental problems and the disasters environmental of infamous the impact activities ofenvironmental rise (Mclntosh, protection to more become consumers 1991).Eventually, willing more environmental which are products purchase aremorecon1993).Becausethere (Krause, friendly attitudes and environmental withresponsible sumers whoprefer theearly since 1990s, products purchasing on detrimental a minimum whichgenerate impact the society becomesmore conthe environment, theenvironment cerned with and,in turn, companies to withregard their behaviors to change are forced environmental concern with the society's compliance 1992, 1995; Vandermerwe 1992; Peattie, (Ottman, is and Oliff,1990). The environmental pressure should so the to develop companies impossible ignore, with that cansecure models newbusiness compliance In recent trends thepopular years, nowadays. green in notions the one of the is emerging marketing green and itsconcept hasbeen widely field of marketing, inpractice. canutilize andapplied Companies accepted togenerate andtofacilitate the ideaofgreen marketing environto customers' intended satisfy anyexchange In mental needsorwants addition, 1994). (Polonsky, which is a muchbroader concept greenmarketing activities that aredeveloped allmarketing encompasses consumers' environmental andto sustain to stimulate andKaur, attitudes andbehaviors 2004). (Jain friendly can undertake studies Previous companies suggested consumers' activities to investigate greenmarketing of to the and attitudes behaviors, identify market green market into difthe to green products, stratify green basedon the consumers' ferent needs,to segments and to formulate a strategies, develop green positioning mix and Kaur, 2004). (Jain marketing program green in ofgreen ofthe more Because marketing importance ofgreen theconcept discussed this thefuture, study to research framework a and brand proposed equity drivers: with its three its relationships explore positive andgreen trust. brand satisfaction, image, green green
The positiveeffect ofgreenbrandimage on green and greenbrandequity greentrust, satisfaction,

theresearch wanted to fill progap.Thisstudy study constructs four novel greenbrandimage, posed andgreen brand trust, satisfaction, equity green green ofgreen in thefield their anddiscussed implications a In this developed research marketing.addition, study can enhance which framework greenbrandequity andgreen brand from satisfaction, image, green green the literasummarized this trust. Furthermore, study environmental and ture on green marketing corporate framework. into a new managerial management is to article ofthis themaincontribution Therefore, constructs brand the four novel image, green propose brand andgreen trust, satisfaction, equitygreen green research intothe envibrand and to extend equity ofthis Another contribution ronmental context. study to explorethe a research framework is to provide satisbrand green image, relationships amonggreen and to brandequity and green trust, faction, green Thisstudy focused anempirical test. undertake further for and evaluation on finding thecorrect standpoint with incompliance ofgreen newconcepts marketing to increase trends the environmental greenbrand drivers: brand from three image, green green equity and trust. satisfaction, green A literature asfollows: The structure ofthis articleis review and review is discussedin "Literature andfive section, hypothedevelopment" hypothesis inthis In "Methodology section. sesarealsoproposed the described thisstudy and measurement" section, the and the data collection, methodology, sample, the oftheconstructs. measurements Next, descriptive factor analofthemeasurement, statistics, reliability discoefficients between correlation constructs, ysis, results and the criminate validity, validity, convergent in ofStructural (SEM) areshown Modeling Equation In the end, thisstudy section. results" "Empirical and the discussions about the findings mentioned directions for and out implications, pointed possible in "Conclusionand implications" future research section. Literaturereview and hypothesis development
Green marketing

hasbeenmore Consumer environmentalism prevalent of areaware in thelast twodecades whileconsumers

rolein themarkets an important Brandimageplays or serto differentiate whereit is difficult products features vicesbased on tangible (Mudambi quality includes etal.,1997).Brand symbolic meanings image

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Brand TheDrivers Equity ofGreen thespecific attributes ofthebrand, associate with that of mental asa consumer's anditcanbe defined picture to an in theconsumer's is linked mindthat a brand andAllen, andBrodie, 2007;Padgett (Cretu offering a set of In brand is addition, 1997). image perceptions for about a brandreflected by brandassociations consumers (Cretuand Brodie,2007; Keller,1993). that brand Park etal. (1986)argued Therefore, image and coversfunctional benefits, benefits, symbolic above Based on the benefits. definition, experiential brand a novelconstruct, this "green study proposed of a of it as "a set and defined perceptions image," mindthatis linkedto enviin a consumer's brand conand environmental ronmental commitments cerns." is a delightful Satisfaction degreeof post-conofconevaluation or a degree pleasurable sumption fulfillment (Oliver,1996; Paulssen sumption-related and Bloemer, andBirk,2007; Ruyter 1999). Thus, or isa level ofoverall satisfaction pleasure contentment of from thequality a resulting by consumer, perceived the consumer's the productor serviceto fulfill needs and and Ness,1999). desires, (Mai expectations, a this Basedon theabovedefinitions, study proposed as and defined it novel satisfaction," construct, "green fulfilllevel of consumption-related "a pleasurable environmental a customer's mentto satisfy desires, needs." andgreen sustainable expectations, Ireland hadsigthat (1996)demonstrated Corrigan ofIreland's since the nificant green promoting growth asserted Hu and Wall Furthermore, (2005) image. canenhance theincrease ofenvironmental that image of tourism. the competitiveness Similarly, green for is more brand companies espeimportant image environmental of under the rise prevalent cially and strict international consciousness of consumers ofenvironmental Companies protection. regulations in their ofgreen theconcept canembody marketing of the differentiation to obtain advantages products et theirproducts (Chen al., 2006; Peattie,1992; firms and van derLinde,1995). In addition, Porter in improving theirbrand manyefforts investing of environcan,notonlyavoidthetrouble images to also enable them or but mental protests punishment aboutenvironcustomer satisfaction enhance their and green sustainable mental desires, expectations, deterneeds.Becausebrandimageis an important studies minantof customer satisfaction, previous between is a positive that there relationship posited


satisfaction brandimageand customer (Changand to thearguTu, 2005;Martenson, 2007).According the more the brand ment above, green imageis,the levelof consumption-related thepleasurable higher thecustomers' environmental fulfillment is to satisfy and sustainable desires, expectations, greenneeds. thefollowing this Thus, hypothesis: study proposed (Hi): Greenbrandimageis positively Hypothesis satisfaction. associated withgreen another is a leveloftheconfidence that Trust party and asexpected wouldbehave Saunders, 1997). (Hart that trust is theintenRousseauetal. (1998)asserted basedon positive tionto accept expecvulnerability or intentions of another. of the behaviors tations includesthree Previousstudiesarguedthat trust and beliefs:integrity, benevolence, ability(Blau, GaneandOzanne,1985).In addition, 1964;Schurr is a willingness to depend that trust san(1994)argued basedon theexpectation on another resulting party andbenevolence. from theparty's reliability, ability, their trust can influence customer Therefore, purBecause and decisions Strub, 2004). (Gefen chasing which newproducts their somecompanies promote and and confusing claims, green embody misleading valueoftheir theenvironmental products, exaggerate to trust their customers arenotwilling any products toBlau andPollard, more(Kalafatis 1999).Referring (1964), Schurrand Ozanne (1985), and Ganesan a novelconstruct, "green (1994),this study proposed on a to it as "a and defined trust," willingness depend or the belief brand based on or service, product, benevofromits credibility, resulting expectation about its environmental lence, and ability perforshowed thatthe image mance." Previousstudies hisor cansignificantly affect bya consumer perceived herbehavior 1986;Ratnasingham, 1998). (Dowling, influence has a In addition, upon image positive therisk trust becauseit can diminish consumer perthe increase andsimultaneously ceivedbyconsumers of ofexecution atthemoment ofpurchase probability transaction (Flavianet al., 2005). Therefore, prior thatbrandimagemight have demonstrated studies in the of influence involving decision-makingagents isa positive that there andtherefore argued exchanges, trust and customer between brand image relationship and et Nath, al., 2005; 2003). (Flavian Mukherjee the themore totheargument above, green According

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Yu-Shan Chen 3 (H3): Greenbrandimageis positively Hypothesis brand withgreen associated equity.
on greenbrand The positiveeffect ofgreensatisfaction equity

on todepend thewillingness thehigher brand image, orexpectation thebrand basedon thebelief resulting and ability about from itscredibility, benevolence, thisstudy environmental Therefore, performance. thefollowing hypothesis: implied 2 (H2): Greenbrandimageis positively Hypothesis withgreen trust. associated is the brand theintangible Brandequity, property, name in a well-known brand hidden valueinherent can enable brand (Yasinet al.,2007). Higher equity level topaymore for thesame consumers tobe willing of the name of qualitydue to the attractiveness to theproduct attached 1995). (BelloandHolbrook, two defined brand from Previous studies equity perThe first definition from thefinancial perspectives: firm value ofa brand tothe stresses the (Simon spective from the and Sullivan, 1993); theseconddefinition of a brand the value consumer perspective highlights to theconsumers 1991; Keller,1993; Ran(Aaker, theclassic definition etal.,1993).Although gaswamy from theaddedvalueof ofbrand is proposed equity litrecent thebrand endowed branding byitsname, a broad itsdefinition to include erature hasexpanded that drive customer choice(Yoo etal., setofattributes brand (1991)andKeller (1993)explored 2000).Aaker on conthe consumer based from perspective equity Aaker brand associations. sumers'memory-based assets brand as "a setofbrand (1991) defined equity linked to a brand, itsnameandsymbol andliabilities from thevalueprovided that add to or subtract bya firm's cusand to the or service to a firm product that brand In addition, Keller tomers." (1993)posited of brand the differential effect can create equity of to the on consumer marketing response knowledge thisstudy a brand. Based on theabove definitions, a novelconstruct, "greenbrandequity," proposed andliabilities it as "a setofbrand assets anddefined conand environmental aboutgreencommitments that add itsnameandsymbol cerns linked toa brand, or from thevalueprovided toorsubtract bya product that Previous studies service." suggested enhancing theincreasing ofbrand is beneficial for brand image In et Biel (Faircloth al, 2001). addition, (1992) equity isdriven that brand bybrand image. equity postulated tothe this above, study proposed According argument thefollowing hypothesis:

is thelevel of pleasurable Satisfaction consumption orso on fulfills customers' which needs, desires, goals, satisfaction is Customer 1994; Olsen, 2002). (Oliver, in marthe discussed one ofthemost topics widely field(Oliver,1996). For example, previous keting satisfaction can customer havedemonstrated studies and intentions lead to consumer's (Mai purchase Ness,1999; Martenson, 2007), and repeat purchase whoare andTu, 2005).Consumers behavior (Chang recall its name with a brand satisfied may highly who are less satisfied to consumers directly, compared the with it. Brandequitycan precisely represent behavior of cusand purchase attitude, preference, tomers fora brand(Yasinet al., 2007). In addition, brandequityis a set of the associations developed of a brandand thebenefits betweenthe attributes itscustomers from 1993;Krishnan, (Keller, perceived for a brand would Satisfaction 1996). impact posiofassociations on thestrength andfavorability tively andQuester, minds toward itinits consumers' (Pappu 2006). Hence, thereexistsa positive relationship witha brand and its customer satisfaction between brand and 2006).Moreover, Quester, equity (Pappu consumers' satKim et al. (2008) demonstrated that and indicated affects brand isfaction equity positively satisfaction. withcustomer varies thatbrandequity novel two This study constructs, "green proposed satisfaction" and "greenbrandequity"in theprior satisfaction In turn, themorethegreen hypotheses. this thelevelofgreen themore Hence, grand equity. the hypothesis: study implied following is positively 4 (H4): Green satisfaction Hypothesis brand withgreen associated equity.
on greenbrandequity The positiveeffect ofgreentrust

The literature of relationship marketing suggested on whicha relationship is themainfactor that trust and Munuera-Alemn, is based (Delgado-Ballester that haveattracted is one of thetopics 2005). Trust

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Brand TheDrivers Equity ofGreen This is in theacademic community. majorinterest action isthought asa strategic that trust duetothefact in field and an essential in themarketing ingredient the successof relationships (Flavianet al, 2005; a brand to trust etal.,1992).Furthermore, Moorman or is a that there highprobability implies implicitly such thatthe brand forits consumers expectancy brand evaluation. wouldobtain Considering positive belief itisbased on theconsumer's asexpectancy, trust and is consistent, that thebrand honest, competent, (Doney and Cannon, 1997). Social responsible would trust that customer indicated exchange theory of theconsumerenhance thesocialembeddedness increasethe custo further relationship provider and totherelationship tomer's commitment (Grayson 1999; Moormanet al, 1992; Singhand Ambler, as a is considered Sirdeshmukh, 2000). Brandequity to a and it is attached relational market-based asset, with its brand and embedsin the relationships asresearch et al., 1998).Prior customers (Srivastava for the is that brand trust serted increasing important is thatbrandtrust of brandequityand indicated brand with associated equity(Delgadopositively Ballesterand Munuera-Aleman, 2005; Ganesan, customer andHunt,1994).Therefore, 1994;Morgan of brandequity determinant trust is a significant brand trust affects In customer turn, 1997). (Ambler, and 2000; Kim (Jevons Gabbott, equitypositively launchtheirnew et al., 2008). Some companies environmental whichembodyunreliable products functions the environmental and fabricate promises, to are not so customers and oftheir willing products, brand thattheir withtheresult trust their products and be would Pollard, (Kalafatis impaired reputation two novel constructs, 1999). This study proposed in theprior and brand trust" equity" "green "green oftherelationtheconcept Connecting hypotheses. to brand with a trust-based approach shipmarketing this in the environmental context, study proequity hypothesis: posedthefollowing associated is positively 5 (H5): Greentrust Hypothesis withgreen brand equity. brand that Thisstudy image, green green postulated to related are positively and greentrust satisfaction, that In this brand addition, study argued green equity. brand between thepositive image green relationship ispartially mediated andgreen brand bygreen equity


of the The antecedent and greentrust. satisfaction inthis is brand framework research image study green while isgreen brand andtheconsequent equity, green The trust arepartial mediators. andgreen satisfaction 1. in Figure is shown research framework Methodology and measurement
and the sample Data collection

level. inthis istheconsumer The unit ofanalysis study to the Thisstudy survey verify applied questionnaire The object and research framework. thehypotheses andelectronics wasinformation research ofthis study wereranThe in Taiwan. questionnaires products who had the consumers mailed to experience domly and electronics information ofpurchasing products. to previousstudiesto design The studyreferred Prior to mailing to theresponitems. questionnaire asked to modify were and scholars six dents, experts in the first the questionnaire Subsequently, pretest. to 10 conmailed wererandomly thequestionnaires inforofpurchasing who hadtheexperience sumers asked were and and electronics mation products they theambiandto identify in thequestionnaire to fill in second the and issues in terms, meanings guities had of this the Therefore, questionnaire study pretest. second the After a highlevel of content validity. from 2008 selected wasrandomly thesample pretest, In the order to Taiwan Yellow Book heighten valid of to each team called this research rate, survey response whohadtheexperience consumer selected randomly and electronics information of purchasing products, and the of the the study quesexplained objectives the namesand and confirmed tionnaire contents, of the respondents addresses priorto questionnaire the wereaskedto return The respondents mailing. 2 within weeks through questionnaires completed is a necessary requisivalidity Highcontent mailing. tion for the questionnaire surveyin this study. facethehighly andelectronics Information products lawsorregulations, environmental international strict such as MontrealConvention,Kyoto Protocol, SubHazardous of the Use of Certain Restriction stancesin EEE (RoHS), and Waste Electronics consumandElectrical (WEEE), so that Equipment and electronics information ers need to purchase

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Hi /^^~~

Yu-Shan Chen
Green Satisfaction ^)
^^^'H4 H3 S" ( ~~"^^ GreenBrandEquity )

S^ ^^^ ( GreenBrandImage


Figure 1. Research framework.

products which are environmental friendlyto satisfy their environmental needs (Chen et al., 2006). This study sent 650 questionnaires to the consumers who were sampled. There were 254 valid questionnaires and 30 invalid questionnaires, and the effective response rate was 39.1%.

about environmental (2) the brandis professional about envi(3) the brandis successful reputation; ronmental is wellestab(4) thebrand performance; lishedabout environmental concern;and (5) the is trustworthy brand aboutenvironmental promises. Green This studyreferred to Oliver satisfaction. and defined satisfaction" as "a plea(1996) "green surable level of consumption-related fulfillment to and measurements a customer's environmental sustainable desires, Definitions satisfy of the constructs andgreen needs."The measurement of expectations, The measurement ofthequestionnaire items wasby satisfaction includes four items: You are (1) green 1 to 5" rating happy use of "five-point Likert scalefrom about thedecision tochoose this brand because from to "strongly ofitsenvironmental commitments; (2) You believe "strongly disagree" agree."This - green itisa right article four novelconstructs brand that topurchase this brand because of proposes thing its and brand environmental are satisfaction, trust, Overall, (3) image, green green green performance; you equity - and refersto previousstudiesabout glad to buy thisbrandbecauseit is environmental brand and brand to and (4) Overall, withthis satisfaction, trust, friendly; you are satisfied image, equity thedefinitions andmeasurements ofthefour brand because ofitsenvironmental concern. develop constructs. This studyasked everyrespondent to Green trust. to Blau (1964),Schurr and Referring out a Taiwanese brand of information and Ozanne and Ganesan this (1985), (1994), point study electronics which is themost for defined trust" as"a willingness todepend on a products "green impressive heror him.Then,every consumer wasrequested to or brandbased on the beliefor service, product, thisbrandas the focalbrandto fillin the benevofromits credibility, regard expectation resulting The definitions and measurements of and about its environmental lence, ability questionnaire. perfortheconstructs in this of greentrust areas follows: mance."The measurement includes study Green brand This study referred to Padgett fiveitems:(1) You feelthatthisbrand's environimage. andAllen(1997),andCretuandBrodie(2007),and mental commitments are generally reliable; (2) you defined brand environmental is "green image"as "a setofperceptions feelthatthisbrand's performance of a brandin a consumer's feel that mindthatis linkedto this brand's (3) you generally dependable; environmental commitments and environmental environmental isgenerally (4) argument trustworthy; The measurement concernmeetsyour concerns." of the greenbrand This brand'senvironmental five includes items: isregarded as and (5) Thisbrand and (1) thebrand image keepspromises expectations; thebest benchmark ofenvironmental commitments for environmental commitments; protection.

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Brand TheDrivers ofGreen Equity to Aaker(1991) and Green brand equity. Referring this defined brand Keller (1993), study equity" "green and liabilities aboutgreen as "a set of brandassets linked toa andenvironmental concerns commitments thatadd to or subtract itsnameand symbol brand, or service." from thevalueprovided by a product brandequity of overall Based on themeasurement from Yoo etal. (2000),Yoo andDonthu(2001),and andMunuera-Alemn (2005),the Delgado-Ballester of greenbrandequityin thisstudy measurement fouritems:(1) It makessenseto buy this includes ofother brands becauseofitsenvironbrand instead if even arethesame;(2) mental commitments, they brand has the sameenvironmental Even if another to buythis as this features brand, you wouldprefer environmental If is brand's there another brand; (3) tobuy asgoodasthis brand's, youprefer performance concernof this brand;(4) If the environmental in brand from that ofthis brand isnotdifferent another this brand. it seems smarter to purchase anyway,
Empirical results


andgreen brand The trust, satisfaction, equity. green in is shown factor of the four constructs analysis in II. construct this can be classiTable Every study The study referred to the fiedintoonlyone factor. Before to items. studies design questionnaire previous two this to therespondents, study employed mailing the revisions. for thequestionnaire Therefore, pretests in content of thisstudy is acceptable measurement to Besides,thereare two measurements validity. one of the constructs. confirm the reliability First, of istoexamine theloadings measure ofthereliability Withrespect to the individual items. eachconstructs' the model for thesample, ofthemeasurement quality in the four constructs listed of all items of () loadings is the Cronbach's Table III aresignificant. Second, Table III lists Cronofthereliability. other measure In general, theminimum theconstructs. bach's for coefficient is 0.7 (Hair ofCronbach's requirement that theCronbach's etal, 1998).Itcanbe observed of is that coefficient of "greenbrand 0.744; image" is of "green trust" is 0.724; that satisfaction" "green 0.768; and thatof "greenbrandequity"is 0.837. of all four Because the Cronbach's coefficients

frametheresearch Thisstudy utilized SEM toverify TABLE II and appliedAMOS 7.0 to workand hypotheses, results. SEM of this study obtain the empirical ofthisstudy Factor analysis themeasurement ofanalysis, examined thetwolevels are results Number Number Accumulation Constructs modelandthestructure model,and their of ofitems offactorspercentage shown herebelow.
explained variance 51.1 56.4 52.5 67.4 model The results ofthemeasurement

and correlation The means,standard deviations, are are shownin Table I. In Table I, there matrix brand correlations image, green green among positive

Greenbrand image Greensatisfaction Greentrust Greenbrand equity

5 4 5 4

1 1 1 1

TABLE I of theconstructs and correlations deviations Means,standard Constructs A. Greenbrand image B. Greensatisfaction C. Greentrust D. Greenbrand equity < 0.01. **/? Mean 3.935 4.359 3.836 4.054 Standard deviation 0.601 0.471 0.584 0.640 A 0.369** 0.394** 0.418** B CD

0.423** 0.366**


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Yu-ShanChen TABLE III andAVEs coefficients Cronbach's The items' () and theconstructs' loadings

Constructs A. Greenbrand image


0.771 0.790** 0.786** 0.804** 0.819** 0.835 0.902** 0.911** 0.907** 0.817 0.824** 0.835** 0.840** 0.823** 0.803 0.834** 0.822** 0.839**

Cronbach's 0.744

AVE 0.641

The squarerootofAVE 0.801

B. Greensatisfaction




C. Greentrust




D. Greenbrand equity




**p < 0.01. ofthis constructs aremorethan0.7, themeasurement is acceptablein reliability. study whether In addition,it is also important to verify the validityof the measurementin this study is to confirm acceptable.There are two measurements thisstudy of the constructs. thevalidity First, applied Fornell and Larcker'smeasure of average variance extracted validity (AVE) to access the discriminative ofthemeasurement 1981). The (Fornelland Larcker, theamountofvariance AVE measures captured bythe of the amount its items relative to construct through error.In orderto variancedue to the measurement of the discriminative the requirement validity, satisfy AVE mustbe greater the squareroot of a constructs and other betweentheconstruct thanthecorrelations in themodel. For example,thesquareroots constructs oftheAVEs forthetwo constructs, greenbrandimage are 0.801 and 0.851 in Table III and green trust, between them, which are more thanthe correlation thattherewas 0.394, in Table I. This demonstrates the two between discriminative validity adequate AVEs in The squarerootsofall constructs' constructs. thanthecorrelaare all greater Table III of thisstudy in Table I. Therefore, the tionsamong all constructs in this discriminative validityof the measurement is isacceptable. Second,iftheAVE ofa construct study is convergent there than0.5, thenitmeansthat greater in shown Table the construct. As for III, the validity are 0.641, 0.734, 0.725, AVEs of the fourconstructs than0.5. whichareall greater and 0.692, respectively, in this It indicatesthatthereis convergent validity of this the measurement Thus, study is study. and in discriminative validity convergent acceptable and tests ofreliability to theseveral validity. According relithere are it demonstrates that adequate validity, in thisstudy. and validity ability
model The results of thestructural

modelin ofthestructural theresults Table IV shows inthis measures of the SEM The overall fit this study. thefit ofthemodelis very indicate that good study = = = NFI RMSEA 0.058, 0.902, 0.880, (GFI aresignifiestimated CFI = 0.906). All ofthepaths in are and all cant, study. hypotheses supported this would in theresearch framework more paths Adding The residuals ofthe thefit. notsignificantly improve

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The Drivers of GreenBrandEquity TABLE IV The results of thestructural model Hypothesis Ht H2 H3 H4 H5 *p <0.05, **p<0.01. effect Proposed + + + + + Pathcoefficient 0.266* 0.297** 0.294* 0.238* 0.203*


Results Ht is supported H2 is supported H3 is supported H4 is supported H5 is supported

GSl| [gS2| |GS3| JGS4 *No.902*V f /

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X 'v L I / 1GBI1 ' 77 0.266^ * ^^<f GBI2 Uqjw*J5^ Green BrandX T^f ) GBI3*'/K Image

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'X Brand Green


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0.8341^ 0.822** 0.839^*


|gbei| |gbe2| |gbe3| [gbe4|

CFI=0.906 RMSEA=0.058, NFI=0.902, GFI=0.880, ofthefull model. 2. Theresults Figure andcentered near0. Morecovariance arealsosmall discussion would focuson every over,subsequent path. are The results of the fullmodel in thisstudy 2. All fivepaths estimated are sigshownin Figure brands withhigh Thisstudy found out that nificant. and brand levelsof green image, greensatisfaction, not meet the strict international trust can only green and the popularenvienvironmental regulations their but also enhance ronmentalism of consumers, also verified this brand Besides, study equities. green mediaand green trust had partial satisfaction green between tion effects on the positiverelationship Therebrand brand equity. imageand green green inthis fore, Hi, H2,H3,H4,andH5 areallsupported study.

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316 Conclusion and implications

Chen Yu-Shan

thehugechallenge tocarry outtheir marketing, green vision their environmental is incorporating for them than to rather intotheir issueshave becomea mainBecauseenvironment seeking strategies corporate brands alone.The main their of conin theworld, theenvironmentalism stream purpose promote green thepositive of thisarticle is to verify in the early1990s such that had increased sumers relationships and itsthree drivers brandequity between which are topurchase arewilling consumers green products trust. andgreen brand more environmental satisfaction, Therefore, image, green green green friendly. identified that the this has also In trends for one of the inevitable is addition, study compamarketing brand and between and has been and its nies, image green relationship positive accepted concept widely mediated by green greenbrandequityis partially greenmaryears. Consequently, appliedin recent This article extended satisfaction and greentrust. to accessto new often allowsthecompanies keting environmental conresearch into the brand to their and to increase markets, equity profitability, enjoy that brand brand and demonstrated For morecompetitive text, image, green green advantages. companies, are positively related to and greentrust it because a competitive canprovide satisfaction, advantage equity Ifcompanies their to enhance brand market green thepowerto capture a larger thebrand try equity. gives the ideas should brand with share and to sellat higher incorporate they equity, profit green higher prices and green of green brand to andSung, itisnecessary satisfaction, image, green 2008).Thus, margins (Jung in environmental intotheir trust into the the idea of greenmarketing strategies long-term incorporate ofstrategy thestage framework ofbrand planning. equity. in the case of inforwas undertaken This discussed about researches study prior widely Although in Taiwan,so that mation and electronics there has been no issues, products study exploring branding on thepurchase litfurther studies canfocus in thebranding theconcept ofgreen experience marketing in and other countries of other In order this article erature. to fill this research compare products gap, This verified the with this brand four novel constructs study. study hypotheses image, green proposed crossandgreen brand witha questionnaire satisfaction, trust, onlyproviding survey, green equity green - and developeda research framework to further sectionaldata, so thatit could not observethe satisthe This article summarizes discuss their image, green dynamic changeof greenbrand relationships. in and brand manon greenmarketing and branding literature faction, equity the greentrust, green in of the environmental The different framework. into a new managerial regulations stages agement data. Therefore, the world through showthat brand results longitudinal image, green empirical green toward thelongitudinal studies can setforth to future arepositively related and green trust satisfaction, of the differences brand to find out In relathe brand green image, study green equity. addition, positive andgreen brand brand brand andgreen between trust, satisfaction, green equity green green image tionship of the environmental in the different and mediated satisfaction is regulastages bygreen equity partially this author the inthis article tions in theworld. Allthehypotheses trust. Finally, hopesthat proposed green to research results are in this are supported thisstudy. researchers, Therefore, study helpful managers, and provide useful and governments, more resources practitioners, should invest that companies suggests studies andfuture researches to relevant contribution satisin theincreasing of green brand image, green as reference. because brand andgreen trust, faction, image, green and trust are positively greensatisfaction, green withgreen brand associated equity. Nowadays,companiesshould exploit popular References their issues toposition concerns aboutenvironmental in brands to obtainnew differentiation advantages on Brand Aaker,D. .: 1991, Managing Equity:Capitalizing can ideas ofgreen newmarkets. Hence,the Name (The Free Press,New York). theValueofa Brand marketing becomea new wayofbrand Although Ambler,T.: 1997, 'How muchofBrandEquityisExplained positioning. Decision to formulate somecompanies 35(4), 283-292. by Trust?', Management strategies try long-term

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