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HEAVY DUTY - Is it Really Based on Science?

Shane Provstgaard, Masters Degree in Exercise Science (17 Years Experience as a High-Intensity Trainer HE!"Y D#TY$, High-Intensity Training, Mi%e Ment&er -- Say any o' these na(es in the presence o' any seasoned strength trainer, and yo) *i++ )ndo),ted+y get a strong response- .hi+e the opinions - either 'or or against - r)n deep, *hat can ,e said o' the science that ,ac%s HighIntensity Training/ Is there eno)gh to +end any s)pport to Mi%e Ment&er0s c+ai(s o' ,rie' and in're1)ent training/ Is there any research that s)pports the need o' training to 'ai+)re, o' doing on+y one set per exercise, o' ,ac%ing o'' the 're1)ency o' training in accordance to the intensity o' the ()sc)+ar contraction/ M)ch research has ,een done over the +ast severa+ decades in the rea+( o' strength training- Does any o' it s)pport HE!"Y D#TY$/ 2ne o' the 'irst and (ost controversia+ aspects o' HE!"Y D#TY$ training is its e(phasis on sing+e sets o' each exercise- "o+)(e proponents decry the +o* vo+)(e o' training prescri,ed ,y HIT in genera+ and HE!"Y D#TY$ in partic)+ar- 3eca)se o' the pop)+arity o' vo+)(e training, (any are s*ayed to ,e+ieve that the (ethodo+ogy o' (ore is ,etter ()st ,e correct- !'ter a++, the ()sc+e (aga&ines and the cha(pions espo)sing these c+ai(s can0t ,e *rong can they/ .hat does the research say/ In st)dy a'ter st)dy, one set o' exercise ta%en to (o(entary concentric 'ai+)re has ,een sho*n to ,e as prod)ctive or (ore prod)ctive than training *ith ()+tip+e sets o' the sa(e exercise (4arpine++i and 2tto, 15567 2stro*s%i, 8-9-, et a+-, 15577 :incher ;- E-, <===7 Hass, 4- 9-, ;ar&are++a, >, de Hoyos, D-, ? Po++oc%, M- >-, <===7 :incher, ;- E-, <==17 .o+'e, 3- >-, "aerio, T- !, Strohec%er, 8-, ? S&(edra, >-, <==17 9o)rna+ o' Exercise Physio+ogy on+ine, <==@ - This is not to say that there has not ,een research to ,ac% ()+tip+e sets, ,)t in (any cases, the research has ,een poor+y r)n or had con'o)nding varia,+es that ,ro)ght the res)+ts )nder scr)tiny (9o)rna+ o' Exercise Physio+ogy on+ine, <==@ - This ,eing the case, (ost o' the credi,+e research points to the s)perior e''icacy o' a high intensity ro)tine ,ased on sing+e ,o)ts o' exercise ta%en to (o(entary ()sc)+ar 'ai+)re- !s one o' the (ain pre(ises o' HE!"Y D#TY$ is the tight+y reg)+ated )se o' set vo+)(e, HE!"Y D#TY$ is ,ac%ed ,y science- Mi%e Ment&er ,e+ieved that the greater the vo+)(e o'

sets in a *or%o)t, the +onger it *o)+d ta%e A)st to recover 'ro( the exercise +eaving +ess o' the ,ody0s reso)rces 'or gro*th- ! st)dy ran in <==1 'o)nd this to ,e tr)e, 'inding that ()+tip+e sets carried to 'ai+)re can res)+t in extended recovery ti(es o' 5B ho)rs or +onger A)st to recover to preexercise strength (Mc>ester, 9- C-, 3ishop, P, S(ith, 9-, Da+e, 3-, ? 8o&)s%o, 9-, <==1 - So(e o' the participants in the st)dy had not recovered pre-*or%o)t strength even at the +ast testing o' 5B ho)rs (@ days postexercise session- It see(s that the (ore sets added to the ro)tine, the +onger the *indo* 'or recovery- This st)dy a+so 'o)nd that peop+e recovered at di''erent rates- Mi%e Ment&er *as a*are o' this and HE!"Y D#TY ca++s 'or the reg)+ation o' vo+)(e, 're1)ency, and intensity o' training ,ased on each person0s innate response to exercise!nother controversia+ iss)e *hen dea+ing *ith HE!"Y D#TY$ is the 're1)ency *ith *hich it is carried o)t- Mi%e Ment&er *as a sta)nch advocate o' doing not +ess, not (ore, ,)t the precise a(o)nt o' strength training needed to e+icit the (axi()( physio+ogica+ response- Cesearch on this aspect o' strength training has ,een sore+y over+oo%ed ,y the exercise science co(()nity- .hat +itt+e that has ,een done has sho*n that a 're1)ency o' once to t*ice per *ee%, or +ess, *as as e''ective as training 'or three or (ore sessions per *ee%- St)dies regarding the ()sc+es o' the +)(,ar area (+o*er ,ac% have sho*n that training 're1)encies o' once per *ee% to once every other *ee% *ere as prod)ctive in the ac1)isition o' +)(,ar ()sc+e strength as training 're1)encies o' < to D ti(es per *ee% (4arpenter et a+-, 15517 ;raves et a+-, 155= - 2nce the strength o' these ()sc+es i(proved, the increased strength co)+d ,e (aintained *ith ,)t one set o' 6 to 1= repetitions every t*o to 'o)r *ee%s (T)cci et a+-, 155< The ()sc)+ar rotators o' the hip area have sho*n si(i+ar strength gains *hen training at < days per *ee% as opposed to D days per *ee% (DeMiche+e et a+-, 1557 - Training once per *ee% *ith one set a+so res)+ted in i(pressive gains in ()sc)+ar strength 'or the cervica+ spine (High+and, C-H-, "ie, >- >-, Dreisinger, T- E-, C)sse++, ;- S-, 155< - Cesearch carried o)t ,y the MedE 4orporation on 1)adriceps training via a +eg extension (achine sho*ed a B=F to 6=F increase in 1)adriceps strength *ith training 're1)encies o' once per *ee% or +ess (9ones7 et a+-, 155D - The ta%e ho(e (essage o' a++ o' this research is that even *ith one set o' one exercise once or t*ice per *ee% participants *ere a,+e to gain strength and hypertrophy- In o+der ad)+ts training A)st once per *ee% *ith a sing+e set high intensity ro)tine res)+ted in the sa(e strength gains as training t*ice

per *ee% (9 Di:rancisco-Donogh)e, . .erner, P 4 Do)ris, <==7 .ith HE!"Y D#TY$ high-intensity training, the 're1)ency o' training is adA)sted to the individ)a+- !gain, as *ith the other precepts o' HE!"Y D#TY training, the research ,ears this o)t- ! st)dy carried o)t at Ga)ti+)s Gorth in 3race,ridge, 2ntario, 4anada 'o)nd that a+tho)gh it too% the average trainee seven days to recover and gro* 'ro( a sing+e session o' high intensity exercise so(e participants re1)ired nine to e+even days to recover and gro* 'ro( one training session (>itt+e, <==B - This st)dy ,ac%ed )p the 'indings 'ro( the previo)s+y cited st)dy (Mc>ester, 9- C-, 3ishop, P, S(ith, 9-, Da+e, 3-, ? 8o&)s%o, 9-, <==1 sho*ing that the opti(a+ recovery interva+ ,et*een hard training sessions is ()ch +onger than previo)s+y tho)ght and that peop+e recover at di''erent rates, so(e ta%ing ()ch +onger than othersHE!"Y D#TY$ a+so ca++s 'or the A)dicio)s )se o' advanced highintensity techni1)es and then on+y *ithin the para(eters o' a tight+y reg)+ated ro)tine- :)++ negative training is one s)ch 'or( o' advanced HE!"Y D#TY training, and the research regarding its )se has sho*n that extended periods o' recovery are necessitated 'o++o*ing its )se- Ho*e++, 4h+e,o)n, and 4onaster, (155D 'o)nd that recovery 'o++o*ing a sing+e ,o)t o' three sets o' ')++ negative training 'or the ,iceps ()sc+es re1)ired over B *ee%sH 2nce recovered, the ,iceps 'or a++ participants averaged a IF increase in strength at a ')++ t*e+ve *ee%s post training session- :)++ negative training is tho)ght to ,e ()ch (ore intense than standard strength training ca)sing a deeper inroad into the ,ody0s +i(ited rec)perative reso)rces necessitating +onger recovery ti(es- :)rther research into the e''ects o' ()+tip+e sets o' extre(e+y intense negative contractions noted si(i+ar decreases in strength 'o++o*ing the training session *ith the corresponding exaggerated rec)perative ti(es (9ones, Ge*(an, Co)nd, and To+'ree, 156B7 Ge*(an, 9ones, and 4+ar%son, 15677 and P+o)t&-Snyder, Tesch, and D)d+ey, 1556 - 3eca)se o' the extre(e nat)re and inroading o' advanced HE!"Y D#TY$ (ethods, s)ch as ')++ negative training, Mi%e Ment&er on+y a++ocated their )se 'or advanced HE!"Y D#TY$ practitioners that have (astered the ')nda(enta+s o' HE!"Y D#TY and that are reaching the end o' their genetic potentia+!nother st)dy e(p+oying a sing+e set o' concentricJeccentric (negative or concentricJ accent)ated eccentric (negative training 'or the %nee extensors

'o)nd that t*o sessions per *ee% 'or 1= *ee%s res)+ted in ro)gh+y a 1==F i(prove(ent in strength (;odard, .ygand, 4arpine++i, 4ata+ano, and 2tto, 1556 - 8eep in (ind that *as one tota+ set o' exercise per *or%o)t t*ice per *ee%- 9)dging 'ro( the a'ore(entioned research, ()+tip+e sets even 'or di''erent ,ody parts *o)+d +i%e+y add to the ti(e necessary 'or ')++ rec)peration 'ro( the training session, as the added vo+)(e *o)+d ca)se deeper inroads *ith each s)ccessive set- It (ight see( 'ro( the a,ove data that training *ith +ess intensity, ,)t *ith (ore vo+)(e (ay a++o* 'or a (ore 're1)ent and prod)ctive ro)tine, ,)t the research s)pports intensity, +eading to ()sc)+ar 'ai+)re, a,ove a++ e+se *hen it co(es to prod)cing strength and hypertrophy (3ig+and-Citchie, :)r,)sh, ? .oods, 156B7 Cooney, Her,ert, ? 3a+nave, 155@7 Drin%*ater et a+, <==I - !s a case in point, the a,ove cited research invo+ving concentricJeccentric training noted a 1==F or greater increase in strength over 1= *ee%s, *hereas a revie* o' 1< other st)dies e(p+oying +ess intense ,)t (ore 're1)ent (oda+ities o' strength training noted on+y a 7F to 71F increase in strength over a period o' ti(e ranging 'ro( 6 to <@ *ee%s o' training (:+ec% ? 8rae(er, 1567 !nother 'actor a''ecting the a(o)nt o' 'orce prod)ction prod)ced ,y the ()sc+es contracti+e co(ponents (()sc+e 'i,er and there'ore, the intensity o' each exercise, is the rate o' speed *ith *hich the *eight is act)a++y +i'ted- HE!"Y D#TY training ca++s 'or the exec)tion o' each repetition in a s+o* contro++ed (anner- 3io(echanists have 'o)nd that the on+y ti(e a ()sc+e ,)i+ds (axi()( contracti+e 'orce is at &ero ve+ocity (Ha(i++ ? 8n)t&en, 155I - :)rther research has 'o)nd that +i'ting at high ve+ocities (exp+osive +i'ting did not res)+t in higher +eve+s o' ()sc+e 'i,er recr)it(ent (3)rh+e, Sch(idt,+eicher, and C)sse+, 156D , ,)t can precipitate the onset o' spondy+osis as *e++ as expedite ,one and Aoint da(age (Dang+es ? Spencer, 1567 - Cesearch has a+so 'o)nd that +i'ting at s+o* speeds, or *ith (ini(a+ (ove(ent (iso(etric training , res)+ts in greater strength and ()sc+e (ass gains than standard +i'ting techni1)es or even other high-intensity techni1)es (.estcott, .- >-, .inett, C- !-, !nderson, E- S-, .oAci%, 9- C-, >o)d, C- >-, 4+eggett, E-, ? ;+over, S-, <==17 >itt+e, <==B - 3eca)se 'orce prod)ction and intensity o' ()sc+e contraction are dictated ,y s+o* contro++ed (ove(ent, it is i(perative, as Mi%e Ment&er stated, that any exercise carried o)t 'or the p)rpose o' sa'e (axi()( ()sc+e contraction sho)+d invo+ve s+o* contro++ed +i'ting speeds consisting o' a @ second concentric phase, a < second pa)se in the ')++y

contracted portion o' the exercise, and a @ second eccentric phase:ro( the over*he+(ing a(o)nt o' research, Mi%e Ment&er and his HE!"Y D#TY$ sty+e o' high-intensity exercise esta,+ished sa'e e''ective g)ide+ines 'or those see%ing a stronger, (ore ()sc)+ar, 'it ,odyThe 'o)ndation o' the HE!"Y D#TY$ training syste( is to train intense+y, s+o*+y, and *ith good 'or(, *hi+e %eeping the vo+)(e o' training +o*, *hich (eans doing no (ore than one set per exercise- He a+so rea+i&ed that the strength training process is tri-phasic in nat)re, (eaning yo) ()st 'irst sti()+ate the ()sc+e to gro*, then yo) ()st recover 'ro( the training ,o)t, *hich can ta%e any*here 'ro( <@ to <B@ ho)rs or (ore to acco(p+ish, and on+y then can yo)r ,ody act)a++y strengthen and gro* 'ro( the training session- The recovery rate or period o' ti(e ,et*een training ,o)ts is high+y persona+i&ed, (eaning yo) sho)+d not +et gy( dog(a and c)sto( dictate yo)r training progra(- Ce(e(,er, as per Ment&er, that training ,e'ore yo) have recovered ')++y *i++ not a++o* yo) to act)a+i&e the gro*th prod)ction sti()+ated 'ro( yo)r training ro)tine- !+so, re(e(,er that the 're1)ency o' training can change as yo) get o+der, the intensity o' yo)r training goes )p (*hich co)+d ,e re+ated to yo) getting stronger K(ore ()sc+e (ass ,eing recr)itedL or adding intensity varia,+es , or any other n)(,er o' innate or externa+ in'+)encesYo) sho)+d not get ca)ght )p in training a certain n)(,er o' days per *ee%, ,)t instead sho)+d ,e trac%ing yo)r strength gains *ith a +og ,oo% and adA)st yo)r 're1)ency o' training )nti+ strength gains are noted on the exercises yo) are per'or(ing- !gain, the research has sho*n that exercise sho)+d ,e +oo%ed at in ter(s o' per'or(ing the (ini(a+ dose to achieve the (axi()( ,ene'it- This *i++ +i(it the *ear and tear on the ,ody, a++o* 'or (axi()( recovery, and this, *hen co(,ined *ith a proper diet and s+eep *i++ res)+t in the greatest strength and hypertrophy gains a++o*ed ,y yo)r individ)a+ genetics--- M- Shane Provstgaard, M-ScKEd-M Shane Provstgaard is a trainer specia+i&ing in High-Intensity Training- He ho+ds ,oth 3ache+ors and Masters degrees in Exercise Science and has 17 years experience training a *ide variety o' c+ients ranging 'ro( teenagers +oo%ing to i(prove their sport to post-stro%e patients +oo%ing to regain the strength and 'itness necessary 'or everyday +i'e-L