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Creativity or Conformity?

Building Cultures of Creativity in Higher Education A conference organised by the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff in collaboration with the Higher Education Academy Cardiff January 8 !" #""$

By measure: Creativity in design Brad Hokanson

University of Minnesota e-mail brad@umn.edu

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Abstract Creativity may re-uire s%ecific training to develo% within design students. at the very least, training is valuable in develo%ing creativity in early design students( Creativity is a s*ill which can be e,amined, used, and taught and one which is central to design( /his %a%er %resents the results of em%irical research from a class for design students in creative %roblem solving( /he nature of creativity and the structure of the class will be described, followed by an outline of the research methodology and the use of the verbal /orrance /est of Creative /hin*ing( Creativity, as measured through the test, significantly increased( Key ords: creativity, design education. innovation. thin*ing

By measure: Creativity in design
!ntroduction

collaborate and create( We *now that generating new ideas is a critical s*ill in any field( 3ur educational system. the *nowledge wor*er is being em%owered to invent and change. creativity never( /here are numbers of techni-ues for im%roving creativity( /here are many %ragmatic and incidental 4creative4 techni-ues that are %art of the larger field. it5s mostly uncontrollable. i(e(. but one which must be nurtured. #""!'( Creativity can be evident in the recogni1ed genius. it5s an irritation. and a %ilot test are discussed %rior to an e. a widely used standardi1ed e. are other as%ects of a university education with commonly offered courses in writing. which raised the -uestion of why =then> current # . differentiating creativity from 4innovation4 and 4intelligence4( /he main as%ect of creativity. com%uter use. are widely viewed as economic %anaceas for countries. #""7. innovation. or %rocess( Creativity is a com%le. wrongly. however.amination of results( Im%lications include a recognition of the value of s%ecific instruction in creativity in the design curriculum( Creativity" innovation" and intelligence Creativity can be and has been described and defined in many ways( In general. or research methods( /his study begins with an e. but it is also evident in most %eo%le. method. the to%ic of creativity is revered. the ability to ra%idly develo% divergent and a%%licable ideas. and that is the focus of this study( :ost academic research in the field can be traced to . but infre-uently taught outside of the traditional studio classroom( It is a%%arently assumed by design educators that wor* in the studio will develo% the learner5s creativity( /hin*ing s*ills are often not directly taught as are %ragmatic and %rocedural to%ics( In contrast. even design education is not always a source for the develo%ment of creativity( We e. however.Creativity. however. methods of creative instruction. s*ill com%arable to research or writing. and %articularly so in the design fields( It is a s*ill that can be em%loyed on small tas*s or large %ro0ects. the same is true of creativity( Creativity. creativity is seldom taught or cherished( Ironically. is central to the use of the /orrance /est of Creative /hin*ing. com%anies. it5s messy.tensive %ractice. develo%ment of one5s s*ills is a long term endeavor and re-uires s%ecific attention( Creativity is a dangerous thing.isting %roblems. off the charts. em%hasis should be on active learning and e.am( /he demogra%hics of study %artici%ants.. facts yes. and all over the %lace( Within education. has highly develo%ed abilities to de s*ill. and organi1ations( 2ow %ost industrial and %ost information age. or of seeing new o%%ortunities64 &Co. that designers become more creative as they %rogress in their learning( Within the creative fields. 8'( 4/he creative %rocess6 refers to the se-uence of thoughts and actions that leads to novel.uilford5s %residential address to the American )sychological Association in !<7".amination of definitions of creativity. creativity is coloring far outside the lines. such as 9eethoven or Einstein. creativity as a human trait cannot be summari1ed into a -uic* tric*. ada%tive %roductions4 &8ubart. and it doesn5t abide by the rules( When %ro%erly done. develo%ed. is a critical s*ill in any field. it5s coloring off the %a%er. while there are intermediate activities. drawing. and %racticed( /o learn a s*ill.%ect. and its %rogeny. creativity is a cognitive and generative ability( 4Creativity is the generation of new ideas ‒ either new ways of loo*ing at e. how we generate new ideas.

#""F'( :ost recently.!<<<. actively su%%ort the develo%ment of creativity &see for e. raw cognitive ability. !!'( Innovation. #""7' and The Rise of the Creative Class &+lorida. but is more concerned with the ado%tion and acce%tance of new or different ideas( Co. which is similar to creativity. although there are a range of other research methods to investigate creativity( /hese include biogra%hical research on 4eminent creators4 and biological measurements involving brain glucose levels( &)luc*er @ ?en1ulli. new services. most in the field se%arate creativity from intelligence and recogni1e that retained *nowledge. &#""7' holds that 4‘Innovation’ is the successful e. the ability to recall and use ideas from learning and e. %articularly as tied to innovation. whereas creativity can be described as the individual s%ar*s that %recede innovation( Creativity is also distinct from intelligence. they are inde%endent as%ects of cognition &?unco. #""C'( /he United Eingdom. /ischler.%erience( While there is some connection between remembering information and new ideas. but in modern business it has become a synonym for brain%ower &both natural and trained' and es%ecially the ability to thin* creatively(4 &3ctober $. 8ego concentrates its efforts on the develo%ment of new and highly innovative toys as a means to retain national economic health &2ielson. creativityG 4=/alent> used to mean innate ability. does not fully correlate with creativity( :any studies recogni1e creativity as a cognitive ability se%arate from other mental functions and %articularly inde%endent from the com%le. i(e( intelligence. B'( ?ecent %o%ular boo*s such as The World Is Flat &+riedman. of abilities grou%ed under the word 5intelligence5( Although intelligence the ability to deal with or %rocess large amounts of data favors creative %otential. ?e%ort &#""7'.em%lified by the Co.am%le. !<<7'( Aome research considers creativity an as%ect of an inclusive definition of intelligenceG smart %eo%le are more creative( However. with the search for one as%ect. as a means to maintain or im%rove economic status( +or e. et al( #""C'( /here is a wide range of methods within B . in Denmar*. 8. to which it is often com%ared( Intelligence. #""C' both illustrate the broad value of creativity( Cor%orations and governments on a variety of levels fre-uently loo* to su%%ort and encourage the develo%ment of creativity. and the government of the )eo%le5s ?e%ublic of China. new ways of running the business or even new ways of doing business4 &8'( Innovation is concerned with societal change or acce%tance &?odgers.am%le. it is not synonymous with creativity &)reti @ :iotto. #'( #eaching creativity Efforts to increase creativity are wides%read in education and common in industry &Acott. #""F. !<<$. !<<<' Creativity is im%ortant in many fields( 4Creativity is a to%ic of wide sco%e that is im%ortant at both the individual and societal levels for a wide range of tas* domains4 &Aternberg @ 8ubart. deals with the novel or new.educational %ractices did not %roduce more creative %ersons &+as*o. #""!'( ?esearch on individuals through measuring s%ecific as%ects of creativity has been a concentration of most creativity research since that time.%loitation of new ideas( It is the %rocess that carries them through to new %roducts. is the ability to remember and *now. !<<!'. /he Economist e-uated the global search for talent. as e.

and evidence of creativity is e. readings.amined it %rinci%ally through %sychometric methods( As noted earlier. convergent thin*ing. Acott. %ersonal. and ra%id idea generation. e. !<<7'( Addressing different ty%es of learners and different socialHcognitive %references of learners may also encourage the use of varied methods within the structure of a single class( Acott. such as formal brainstorming. et( al. et( al( &#""C' re%orted encouraging and develo%ing 4divergent thin*ing4 was a consistent element in most efforts to increase creativity( Divergent thin*ing can be described as the develo%ment of multi%le answers to stimuli. were more effective than courses that used unconstrained e. et( al( &#""C' observed a number of differentiating factors in creativity training( /ime on tas* and e. there also is a broad range of methods to evaluate and study creativity( )luc*er @ ?en1ulli &#""#' note a variety of current research directions. and is taught by the author( /he nature of the course is consistent with recommendations inherent in +as*o &#""!'. &i(e( each student %ublicly engaged in unorthodo. coursewor* &lectures. the ca%acity to thin* beyond one single answer to a -uestion or %roblem( In a meta analysis involving $" studies of evaluating creativity training. idea generation. it im%lies the ability to develo% different C .ts to increase creativity. %ractical a%%lication.ercises' on methods and theories of creativity. and a%%lication of ideas( /here were four %rinci%le as%ects to the courseG re%eated %ractice at ra%idly generating multi%le and numerous ideas.tensive wor* were generally needed to develo% s*ills in creativity( Courses that stress structured techni-ues. creative behavior on a regular basis'.%loration or creative e.tremely varied. and a standard evaluation method was sought to better understand their develo%ment of creative s*ill( $easuring creativity: #he #orrance #ests of Creative #hinking and other methods As there is a wide range of definitions of creativity.%ression as a means to develo% creative s*ill( /he largest gains in measured creativity occurred through structured techni-ues such as critical thin*ing. et al( &#""C'( /he class was structured around organi1ation. creativity can be recogni1ed as the ability to generate a wide number of ideas addressing a given %roblem or stimulus. collaborative activity. motivational. and social interactive a%%roaches &9ull.uilford and /orrance viewed idea diversification as central to creativity. but note that a ma0ority of research on creativity is based on %sychometric methods. and e.educational conte. including cognitive. and the findings in Acott. and constraint identification( #he research venue /his research focuses on an intact course on creative %roblem solving &C)A'( /he sub0ect course is a blend of theoretical instruction. the 4direct measurement of creativity andHor its %erceived correlates in individuals4 &B7'( 9oth . the basic structure of the course has remained consistent( Anecdotal evidence from students com%leting the course indicated a strong develo%ment of creative abilities. and a series of collaborative activities( While s%ecific activities vary year to year. wee*ly student directed %ersonal activities grounded in the learner5s environment. student directed learning.

is the ability to develo% a large number of relevant res%onses to a given stimulus. B<'( Data based on the wide a%%lication of the test is substantial and can be used to com%are results with other broader %o%ulations( /he /orrance /est does have its limitations( It measures only one as%ect of creativity &divergent thin*ing' over a brief %eriod of time( While substantial longitudinal studies by /orrance have been su%%ortive of the validity of the test. and also the ability to generate une. %artici%ants could res%ond with answers such as food of a different culture or something not normally considered as food but still edible.ty%es of ideas for any given instance. one section of the test lasts for ten minutes( /he written test have two versions. such as leaves from a tree( /hese answers are categorically different from each other( 'riginality evaluates the %artici%ants5 answers against a list of common res%onses to the same %roblem( Creativity is often understood to %rovide answers that are outside common societal e. and is designed to be used before and after treatment( /he versions have been designed to be com%arable to each other and can be administered in any order. B'( /his testing method is but one measure within a broad s%ectrum.ibility.ibility( His standardi1ed tests.%erience( +or e.am%le. or singly( Creative %eo%le are e. but it does %rovide insight into certain as%ects of creative abilities( It measures one as%ect of creativity as it a%%ears in the general %o%ulation( )ragmatically. and are categori1ed as fluency. !<<<. the written form was used in this study( /he written version has si. the /orrance /ests of Creative /hin*ing &//C/' are the most widely used standardi1ed test of creativityG 46 by far the most commonly used test of divergent thin*ing and =which> continues to en0oy wides%read international use4 &)luc*er @ ?en1ulli. i(e( how many different ideas can a %artici%ant develo% that address the -uestion at handI /he tests %ose a series of hy%othetical -uestions and %artici%ants are evaluated in %art by volume of res%onse( +or e. and fle. and res%onses are recorded for five minutes. the first metric. one could be as*ed to eat something different and %ossibilities such as a%%les.%ected to develo% a large number of new ideas( %luency. when as*ed what they could eat. develo% different ty%es of answers( +or e.am%le. but high scores on the tests do not guarantee a %erson behaving creatively &/orrance. and cheese would be e. as demonstrated by their fle.%ected ideas( /hese three areas are the main as%ects of standardi1ed tests of creativity develo%ed by Dr( )aul /orrance.%ected( Each of these answers would count as a%%licable to the -uestion( %le&ibility measures the ability to develo% a wide range of answers that differ from each other( Creativity is seen to encourage answers that go beyond slight differences and to develo% answers that are different from those %reviously develo%ed( Creative %eo%le. sections that as* for written res%onses to illustrations and verbal %rom%ts( Each section is timed. to eat something different would also include eating one5s own words or foot( /he answers are une. creative motivation and s*ills as well as creative abilities are necessary for adult creative achievement to occur4 &Eim. #""F. it is moderately easy and -uic* to administer.%ected res%onses and often described as novel or new( 7 . originality. hot dogs.am%le. and tests can be scored by the researcher or the test %ublisher( Elements of the #orrance #ests of Creative #hinking /he /orrance /ests of Creative /hin*ing &//C/' are available in written and visual form. !<$C'( 4According to /orrance. %i11a.

only freshmenHfirst year students were scored as %art of this study( Acored were C$ first year students and !B first year students with sufficient credits to be classified as 4second term4 &meaning they had earned. and gra%hic design( All design students in the course also ta*e at least one other studio class from a common design curriculum that includes basic drawing and an introduction to color( All students also ta*e an introductory studio class in their disci%line( /he course is o%en to the rest of the university %o%ulation( /here were <7 students who too* both versions of the //C/( /o %rovide a more accurate evaluation of the effects of treatment. increased by BC("K( Aee /ables ! B for additional information( &+or administrative reasons the tests of two students were not scored(' .$ethods: #he pilot test A %ilot test was com%leted in +all of #""C using the verbal /orrance /est of Creative /hin*ing with one section of the creative %roblem solving course( Aeventeen first year students %artici%ated in the testing as %art of their regular class wor*. but rather within the conte. nine of these students were also registered for the creative %roblem solving class and were evaluated as the 4treatment4 grou%. were freshmen. the generation of ideas. a modest amount of college credit'( 7B %artici%ants were female. si.t of a larger class( 2ine students from creative %roblem solving class were enrolled in an introduction to design lecture class. the generation of une. and readings about design( /he class included students from clothing design.%eriment was designed to e. it was hy%othesi1ed that some of the increase in creativity was due to the new e.teen members of the class were women. the diversity of one5s ideas.iven strong results from the first iteration of the test. and three had sufficient credits to be considered 4second term4( All were women. of the students had earned sufficient credits through advanced %lacement or %revious college e.ibility. through means such as advanced %lacement. increased by ##(8K. si.%eriences of entering design students( A -uasi e. and all were in F . all too* the test in the first and last wee* of class( Ai. and 3riginality. increased by a mean of BC(7K( +le. $ male( Within this grou%. %resentations.%erience to be considered second term students( All were in the college honors %rogram( ?esults were inde%endently scored by Acholastic /esting Aervice.%eriences of first year college students. or due to the studio e.%ected ideas. the %ublisher of the test( Creativity was found to have increased across all three metrics( A %aired t test was %erformed for each metric and all changes were found to be statistically significant &test J("7'( +luency.amine the class as com%ared to the larger %o%ulation of first year design students( #he (tudy /he /orrance /est was again administered to the creative %roblem solving class the following year with some differences in administration( /he test was not administered within the C)A class. the other members of the large lecture class were also tested and would serve as a control grou% for the research( /he large lecture course is re-uired of all entering design students at the university and consists of a series of lectures. interior design.

with a standard deviation of (F$( /he effect si1e for this class was calculated at !("F for +luidity.lass Delta was calculated for each area of the /orrance /est( Acott et al( &#""C' lists a mean effect si1e of ($" for all combined instruction methodologies and a mean of ($7 for divergent thin*ing methods.%erienced increases in measured fluency. for the $ . but the change was not significant( Aee /able # for further information( 'riginality /he #""7 grou% e. with an average raw score change of BC(CK( /hese changes were significant at "("7( Aee /able !( /he fluency score for students in the control grou% increased by #(7K over the course of the term.%ected distribution of results( %le&ibility In both tested classes. scores on fle.%erienced a 77(#K increase in the measure of originality &the generation of ideas that are new and uncommon in society at large' a strong and significant increase in this area( /he control grou% increased by !F(BK. or clothing design'( Eight students were white.%erienced slight gains in two measures. but neither was statistically significant( /he gains for 3riginality for the control grou% were significant( %luency All members of the treatment grou% &those enrolled in the creative %roblem solving class' e. and this was statistically significant( Aee /able B for further information( . the #""7 grou% increased by B7(BK( /he increase was significant &at "("7' for each grou% and for the combined C)A grou%s( In contrast.imately (C#AD above the mean.lass5s Delta as calculated for 3riginality for the treatment grou% was !(#!. the control grou% score for fle. $" results of creativity training and testing were evaluated.ibility &the measure of divergent res%onses to -uestions' were found to be significantly im%roved( /he mean of the combined grou%s increased by ##(8K. interior.the college honors %rogram( All were design students &i(e( %ursuing a four year course of study in gra%hic. one was blac*. and the effect si1e was calculated by .lass5 Delta method( /he . which is higher than but com%arable to the mean( It is a%%ro. but this change was not significant( ?esults from the testing were com%ared with a meta analysis of creativity training %rograms as %ublished by Acott et al( &#""C'( In that study.ibility increased by #(<K. well within an e. all had what could be described as middle class bac*grounds( Acholastic /esting Aervices is the current %ublisher of the /orrance /ests( /he tests can be scored by the researcher or by Acholastic /esting Aervices( All tests were scored by Acholastic /esting Aervices to %rovide a consistency of scoring results( )esults /he members of the creative %roblem solving class e.%erienced significant gains in measured as%ects of creativity in all areas tested( /he larger control grou% e.

the two sections were not statistically different than each other( *iscussion Clearly.%erience( Conclusion /his study involved research through the /orrance /est of Creative /hin*ing verbal version( It involved design students at an American university in their first year of a four year %rogram of study( Within a large lecture course.iven that findings did not indicate a gain in most measures of creativity among members of the control grou%. of course. values. the findings of this study are consistent with a number of studies &see Acott. while the students didn5t have more new ideas. in s%ite of significant gains by the control grou%( 9oth sections of creative %roblem solving &#""C and #""7' were also com%ared with each other( In all si. #""C' both in terms of scale and details( /he findings su%%ort the idea that creativity is a trait that can be develo%ed through s%ecific course wor*( ?esults from both the %ilot and the control grou% indicate substantial gains in measured as%ects of creativity( /he nature of the course.ibility. an embedded control grou% of students was involved in an additional class that focused on the training of creative abilities( Aignificant and %ositive differences were found between the treatment and the control grou%s( /he study found that teaching creativity in a se%arate course is effective in develo%ing measured creativity in design students( It also found that design students in a 8 .%ected in a standard course( Creativity is. and originality measured before and after the class. or at least the ability to diversify thin*ing can be develo%ed in students. i(e( fluency. fle. conte. the ideas that they did have were more divergent as com%ared to society as a whole( In other words. and the investigation of creativity as such must understand the full environment surrounding the teaching of creativity( /he academic standing of those in the creative %roblem solving course &as all were honors students'. with a range of teaching methods and a long term a%%roach to develo%ing creativity.control grou% it was (#F#( /his a%%ears to indicate that about #7K of the increase in 3riginality was due to the common activities of the larger class( /he treatment grou% was com%ared to the control grou% for both versions of the test( While there was no significant difference %rior to treatment. creativity can be taught.ibility scores( /his may mean that while the %artici%ants did not have a greater number of new ideas. there was a significant difference after treatment. design classes and the novelty of the college e. et( al(. a%%ears to encourage the develo%ment of creativity beyond that e.%erience do not a%%ear to encourage the develo%ment of creativity( /he lac* of significant im%rovement com%ared to strong gains for the control grou% indicates a value to s%ecific instruction in creativity( /he control grou% did show significant im%rovement for the 3riginality metric. other classes &all too* design courses' and new college environment of the students could have affected their develo%ment of creativity( . but those they had were more diverse after their initial college and design e. des%ite insignificant changes in +luidity and +le.t bound.

ife( 2ew Nor*G 9asic 9oo*s( +riedman. Creativity Resear h !ournal( Creativity Resear h !ournal. BF!LB88( 8ubart. and in fact. !!( +as*o.tensive training o%%ortunities for creativity are common in non design fields of study &Acott. Ireland( ?ogers.t did not inde%endently develo% their creative s*ills to the same degree. J( @ ?en1ulli. but this research indicates that only s%ecific attention to the develo%ment of creativity can %roduce changes in the level of divergent thin*ing( 8ogically. A(E( &#""C'( Director of Communications.tending the observation of design students to learners in other fields is s%eculative but may be valuable( Atudents in the design fields are e. often did not change their level of creative behavior( It would a%%ear that even within a design curriculum. se%arate courses are necessary for full develo%ment of creative s*ills( E. 8( &!<<7'( /eaching creativity at the college levelG A synthesis of curricular com%onents %erceived as im%ortant by instructors( Creativity Resear h !ournal" #" 8BL<"( Co. 2ew Nor*G /he +ree )ress( < . A( @ :iotto. ?( 'andboo+ of Creativity. )( &!<<$'( /he Contribution of )sychiatry to the Atudy of CreativityG Im%lications for AI research( In Meale. E(H( &#""F'( Can we trust creativity testsI A review of the /orrance /ests of Creative /hin*ing. 8ego Cor%oration.iffusion of innovations. Mol( !B.%ected to be creative.. retrieved online "#(#F("F from htt%GHHwww(hm treasury(gov(u*Hco& /he Economist( &#""F. #""B'( )eferences 9ull. E( &!<<7'( .eisure" Community and $veryday . learners in other fields should not be e. et al. :ontgomery. . B8!. 2os( B @ C. #<7LB"8( 2ielson. D( &#""!'( Education and creativity( Creativity Resear h !ournal. D(. Atraus and . J( &!<<<'( )sychometric a%%roaches to the study of human creativity. @ 9aloche. /(I( &#""!'( :odels of the Creative )rocessG )ast.irou. 3ctober $'( /he Aearch for /alent( The $ onomist.( Eim. Mol( !B. this may be why e. 2o( !. /( &#""C'( The (orld is flat% & brief history of the t(enty-first entury( 2ew Nor*G +arrar. B!$LB#$( +lorida. review of creativity in business. Dublin. %ersonal communication B(!F("C( )luc*er. 2os( B @ C. in Aternberg. E( A(. /( Eds( -ro eedin*s Mind II. Mol( !8. CambridgeG Cambridge University )ress( )reti.com%arable conte.%ected to develo% high levels of creative s*ill.( &#""7'( Co. ?( &#""C'( The Rise of the Creative Class% &nd 'o( It)s Transformin* Wor+" . )resent and +uture Creativity ?esearch Journal.

Merbal Edition" 9ensonvilleG Acholastic /esting Aervice. E( )( &!<$#'( Can we teach children to thin* creativelyI !ournal of Creative 0ehavior" 1" !!CL!CB( /orrance. 8erit1. I( &!<<7'( Cognition and creativity. 2o( C. Creativity Resear h !ournal. Mol( !8. /( I(&!<<<' /he conce%t of creativityG )ros%ects and %aradigms( in Aternberg. Mol( !F. $du ational /sy holo*y revie( $=B>. BF!LB88( Aternberg.?unco. 8( @ :umford. 8( &#""F'( /he . Ed( &!<<<'( 'andboo+ of reativity( CambridgeG Cambridge )ress( /ischler. @ Chand. :( &#""C'( /he Effectiveness of Creativity /rainingG A Ouantitative ?eview( Creativity Resear h !ournal. . 2o( B. +orms A and 9( )rincetonG )ersonnel )ress( /orrance. ?(J( @ 8ubart.ucci Eillers. Fast Com/any JanuaryH+ebruary. :(. #CB #F$( Acott. Inc( !" . ?(J(.(. C# C8( /orrance. B !C( Aternberg. E( )( &!<$C'( /he /orrance /ests of Creative /hin*ing 2orms /echnical :anual research Edition Merbal /ests. ?(J( &#""F'( /he nature of creativity. E( )( &!<<"'( /orrance /ests of Creative /hin*ing.

roup )ilot #""C C)A =n P !7> =AD> /reatment #""7 =n P <> =AD> Control #""7 =n P 7!> =AD> %luency )( / A mean 123+4 =!<(#C> 283<5 =#F(8!> 1138: =#$("8> %luency )( / B mean ++5367 =#"($#> +67388 =BB($B> 2:37< =BB("C> +:63879 :382 +4838+9 :3:::85. /reatment v( "(C# :3::6:. = significant at 3:7 !! . Control t test .#able +: %luency scores and comparisons.lass5 Delta :3:<7 Control )( = ra score3 (* = standard deviation3 . effect si-e .lass5 Delta +3:7< /reatment . *ifference +483769 t0test A:B :3:::::45.

lass5 Delta :3:7< )( = ra score3 (* = standard deviation3 . Control t test .roup %luency )( / A mean 7:328 =F(<7> 81344 =!"(8C> 8238: =!!(!F> %luency )( / B mean 71388 =<("#> <4312 =!"(#<> 7:318 =!#($$> *ifference t0test A:B :3::42. +:63269 :34< /reatment v( "(F! :3::+4. = significant at 3:7 !# . effect si-e . )ilot #""C C)A =n P !7> =AD> /reatment #""7 =n P <> =AD> Control #""7 =n P 7!> =AD> +483769 +473659 :3::::54.#able 6: %re>uency scores and comparisons.lass5 Delta +3:66 .

+36+1 . +7736:9 :3:::76.#able 4: 'riginality scores and comparisons. ++<3479 :3:+5. *ifference +663+79 t0test A:B :3:++.lass5 Delta :36<6 )( = ra score3 (* = standard deviation3 . = significant at 3:7 !B . effect si-e .roup )ilot #""C C)A =n P !7> =AD> /reatment #""7 =n P <> =AD> Control #""7 =n P 7!> =AD> /reatment v( Control t test 'riginality )( / A mean <13+4 =!F($C> <<3:: =#B(C!> 723+2 =##($B> "(8" 'riginality )( / B mean 1:3<4 =#"(C!> 2137< =B!(8$> <<3+< =#F(F"> :3::6:.