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AS Biology Unit 1- Cells, Exchange and Transport (F211)

Microscopes
Magnification- the number of times bigger an image is than the object. Resolution- the ability to distinguish to close together points as distinct from each other Light Microscope Magnification Resolution Advantages X1,500 200nm Inexpensive Transmission Electron Microscope X500,000 0.1nm Good magnification and resolution Scanning Electron Microscope X100,000 0.1nm Good magnification and resolution, 3D images produced Samples have to be dead, samples have to be in a vacuum, extremely expensive and require high degrees of skill and training.

Disadvantages

Low magnification and resolution

Sample staining- any process that helps to reveal or distinguish different features. In light microscopy, stains may be colours of fluorescent dyes. In electron microscopy, they are metal particles or metal salts. Sectioning- specimens are embedded in wax. Thin sections are then cut without distorting the structure of the specimen. This is particularly useful when making sections of soft tissue, such as brain.

Magnification=Image Size (m) Actual Size (m) To convert from mm to m times by 1000.

Organelles
Nucleus- Contains the genetic information of the cell Nucleolus- Makes RNA and ribosomes Nuclear envelope- Contains holes called nuclear pores, which allow relatively large molecules to pass through Rough endoplasmic reticulum- Transport proteins that were made on the attached ribosomes. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum- Makes lipids and steroids. Golgi apparatus- Modifies proteins and packages them into vesicles. They can then be transported to the surface for exocytosis. Ribosomes- Site of protein synthesis Mitochondria- Where ATP is made Lysosomes- Contain digestive enzymes that break down waste material in the cell Chloroplasts- Site of photosynthesis in plant cells Centrioles- Form spindle fibres during cell division Flagella and cilia- Cellular extensions, which move in a wave like manner. Flagella are long and few in number and cilia are short and numerous. Cell surface membrane- Controls the entry and exit of substances into and out of the cell.

Production and Secretion of Proteins


1. The instructions to make proteins are in the nucleus of the cell 2. The gene containing the instructions for the production of the hormones is copied onto a piece of mRNA 3. The mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores and attaches to a ribosome. 4. The ribosome uses the codes to assembled the protein 5. The assembled proteins inside the rough ER is pinched off in a vesicle and transported to the Golgi apparatus. 6. Golgi apparatus processes and packages the molecules, ready for release. 7. The molecules are pinched off in vesicles from the Golgi apparatus and moves towards the cell surface membrane. 8. Vesicles fuse with the cell surface membrane and the membrane opens to release the molecules outside- this is exocytosis.

Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is made up of 1. Microfilaments 2. Microtubules 3. Intermediate filaments Its function is to 1. Keep the cells shape and strength and stability 2. Whole cell movement 3. Movement of organelles Microtubules do not move, but they provide an anchor for protein to move along e.g. kinesin attach one end to an organelle and the other end to a microtubule. Using ATP it swivels, pushing the organelle along. The head then reattaches itself to the microtubule and the process is repeated. Flagella and cilia are each made from one cylinder containing 9 microtubules. Flagella move with the aid of the protein, Dynein. When a molecule of dynein swivels it pulls one microtubule past the next, causing the cilium to bend. Cilia move out of time with each other to create a wave.

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes


Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

No nucleus (DNA suspended freely) No membrane bound organelles

Nucleus (contains DNA)

Membrane bound organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast etc.) Peptidoglycan cell wall Cellulose cell wall Spiral flagella Waved flagella Smaller ribosomes Larger ribosomes Single-loop chromosomes Linear chromosomes Single-celled One or more cell Contains plasmids Do not contain plasmids

Cell Membrane

Cholesterol- Gives the membrane stability by sitting between the fatty acid tails and therefore making the barrier more complete, preventing molecules like water and ions passing through the membrane. Glycolipids- Phospholipid molecules that have a carbohydrate part attached. They are used for cell signaling, cell surface antigens and cell adhesion. Glycoproteins- Protein molecules with a carbohydrate attached: Act as antigens Enable the identification of cells as self or non-self Used in cell signaling Act as receptors or binding sites for hormones. They have a specific shape that is complementary to the shape of the communicating molecule which binds to the receptor Act as receptors on transport proteins to trigger movement Allow cell adhesion to hold cells together in a tissue Attach the water molecules to stabilize the membrane Channel proteins- Allow the movement of some substances, such as the large molecule sugar, into and out of the cell as they cant travel directly through the cell surface membrane. Carrier proteins- Actively move substances across the cell surface membrane.

Function of membranes: Separate cell contents from outside environment Cell recognition and signaling Holding the components of some metabolic pathways in place Regulating the transports of materials into or out of the cell Allow compartmentalisation Isolate harmful substances (e.g. lysosomes) Provide a surface (attachment of ribosomes) Temperature and permeability: A high temperature boosts the kinetic energy of the component molecules of the membrane and the transported substance. The membrane becomes more permeable. Very high temperatures will denature the protein molecules, changing their shape and making the membrane permeable. Eventually the membrane will be destroyed.

Cell communication and signaling


Most messenger molecules are unable to directly cross the membrane and must bind to the membrane bound receptors in order to communicate with a cell. Some integral proteins are receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters. Different cells have specific receptors depending on the role in our body. Via receptors and complementary shaped molecules on the target cell. Insulin Pancreas liver and muscle cells Purpose- regulate glucose Transport- via the blood Chemical message- insulin (protein) Serotonin Neurons Purpose- nervous system Transport- via the blood Chemical messenger- serotonin Drugs that bind to receptors and mimic the bodys normal messengers are called agonists (e.g. HIV Virus) Drugs that bind and block the bodys normal messengers are called antagonists (e.g. beta blockers)

Diffusion
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration of that molecule, to an area of low concentration, down a concentration gradient. Factors that affect diffusion Temperature Concentration gradient Stirring/ mixing Surface area Distance/ thickness Size of molecule
Passive Processes
Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion

Osmosis

Active Processes

Active Transport

Endo/exocytosis

Down a concentration gradient. Small molecules/ lipid soluble. Down a concentration gradient. Charged/ hydrophilic molecules. Through channel or carrier proteins. Down water potential gradient through bilayer or protein pores. Against concentration gradient via carrier proteins that use ATP to change shape. Bulk transport via vesicles that can fuse or break from cell surface membrane.

Osmosis Osmosis is the passage of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane, from a region of high water potential, to a region of lower water potential (down a water potential gradient.) Water potential is denoted by the symbol and is measured in kilopascals (kPa). Pure water has a value of 0, the more solutes that are dissolved the more negative the water potential gets. Animal cell When water osmosis into an animal cell it can burst- this is called haemolysis. When water leaves the cell it shrinks- it becomes crenated. Plant Cell When water enters the cell, the cell wall prevents it from bursting- the cell becomes turgid. When water leaves the cell it pulls away from the cell wall- this is called plasmolysis.
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Mitosis
Interphase 1. G1 Phase- Cells increase in size and ensure everything is ready for DNA synthesis. 2. S Phase- DNA in the cell is duplicated 3. G2 Phase- Cell continues to grow and duplicated DNA is checked. Mitosis 1. Prophase- DNA shortens and condenses by coiling to form chromosomes 2. Metaphase- the spindle fibres attach themselves to the centromeres of the chromosomes and align the chromosomes along the middle. 3. Anaphase- the spindle fibres shorten and the centromere splits. Sister chromatids are pulled apart. 4. Telophase- the nuclear envelope reforms before the chromosomes uncoil. The spindle fibres disintegrate. Cytokinesis Daughter cells split apart. A furrow forms and the cell is pinched in two. Homologous pair of chromosomes- The chromosomes that have the same gene sequence pair up during the cell cycle. This pairing happens between chromosomes that are homologous i.e. Chromosomes having the same genes at the same loci but possibly different alleles. Why mitosis is so important Asexual reproduction Growth- multicellular organisms grow by producing new extra cells. Repair- damaged cells need to be replaces by new ones. Replacement- red blood cells and skin cells are replaced by new ones. Budding in Yeast The nucleus divides by mitosis. The cell swells on one side and bulges. The nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles move into the bus and it pinches off as the cell wall forms so the bud becomes a separate cell. Meiosis Meiosis produces 4 genetically un-identical cells. This is because the genes from the father and mother wrap around each other and exchange chromosomes.

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Stem Cells
A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that is capable of becoming differentiated to a number of possible cell types. Cells becoming specialised to carry out a particular function is known as differentiation. Cells can differentiate with changes to: The number of a particular organelle The shape of the cell Some of the contents of the cell Erythrocytes and Neutrophils Erythrocytes (red blood cells) and neutrophils (white blood cells) both begin with the same set of chromosomes, produced from undifferentiated stem cells in bone marrow. Erythrocytes loose their nucleus, golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in order to make room for haemoglobin. Their shape changes to become biconcave to increase the surface are for picking up oxygen. Neutrophils keep their nucleus. Their cytoplasm contains lots of lysosomes to digest microorganisms. They are flexible for phagocytosis. Xylem and Phloem Both come from dividing meristem cells such as cambium meristem cells. Undergo differentiation to form the different kinds of cells in the transport tissues, Xylem walls become waterproofed and reinforced (lignin.) This kills the cells contents. The xylem therefore becomes a long, dead, hollow tube. Sieve plates are formed between cells, companion cells on the side of the phloem with lots of mitochondria. Sperm Cell Mitochondria- Energy needed for the movement of undulipodium Acrosome- a lysosome that releases enzymes onto the outside of the egg so that the sperms nucleus can penetrate the egg in order to fertilise Undulipodium- helps to propel the cell towards the egg. Shape- Long, thin to help ease movement.

it.

Tissues- A collection of cell that are similar and preform a common function. Examples- Xylem/ phloem. Organs- A collection of tissues working together to preform a particular function. Example- Plant leaves. Organ System- Organs working together to preform an overall life function. Example- Reproductive system.

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Squamous and Ciliated Epithelium Tissue


Squamous- made up of cells that are flattened, so they are very thin. The cells together form thin, smooth, flat surfaces. This makes them ideal for the lining inside of tubes such as blood vessels/ walls of the alveoli. It provides a short diffuse ion pathway for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Ciliated- made up of column-shaped cells. This type of tissue is often found on the inner surface of tubes, for example, in the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.

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Special Surfaces for Exchange


Three factors affect the need for a transport system: 1. Size- as an animal has several layers of cells, any oxygen or nutrients diffusing from the outside are used by outer layers of cells. 2. Surface area to volume ratio- in larger animals the surface area to volume ratio is not large enough to supply all the oxygen and nutrients needed by the internal cells. (As the organism gets larger the SA: V ratio gets smaller.) 3. Level of activity- an active animal needs a good supply of nutrients and oxygen to supply energy for movement. Good exchange surfaces Have a large surface area to provide more space for molecules to pass through. (Alveoli increase surface area in the lungs.) Short diffusion pathway to reduce the diffusion distance. (Squamous epithelium in the alveoli only one cell thick.) Fresh supply of molecules to maintain concentration gradient. Tissues in the Lungs Cartilage- Supports the trachea and bronchi, holding them open. This prevents collapse when the air pressure inside is low during inhalation. Ciliated Epithelium- These cells have cilia (tiny hairs) that waft mucus up the airway to the back of the throat. The mucus is swallowed and the acid in the stomach kills any bacteria. Goblet Cells- Secretes mucus to trap tiny particles from the air (including pollen and bacteria) to reduce the risk of infection. Smooth Muscle- When it contracts it constricts the airway. This makes the lumen narrower and restricts the flow of air to and from the alveoli. This may be important if there are harmful substances in the air. Elastic Fibres- When the smooth muscle contracts it can not reverse the effect of the narrowing the lumen. When it relaxes the elastic fibres recoil to their original size and shape. This helps to dilate (widen) the airway.

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Inspiration
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Diaphragm contracts and flattens External intercostal muscles contract to raise the ribs Volume of the chest cavity increases Pressure decreases Air moves down the pressure gradient into the lungs.

Spirometers

Tidal Volume- The volume of air moved in and out during the breathing when you are at rest. Vital capacity- The largest amount of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs in one breath. Soda lime is added to the spirometer to remove carbon dioxide when it is breathed out. When air is breathed in the spirometer data logger moves downwards. Oxygen uptake can be calculated: Change in volume Change in time

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Circulatory Systems
Sing circulatory system- Blood flows through the heart once during each circulation of the body Double circulatory system- The blood flows through the heart twice. Once to pick up oxygen (pulmonary circulation) and then to carry oxygen to the body (systemic circulation.) Open circulatory system- The blood is not always in vessels (i.e. insects.) Closed circulatory system- The blood is always contained within vessels (i.e. fish)

Thickness of walls The left ventricle has the thickest cardiac muscle as it has to pump blood around the body. Next is the right ventricle which has to pump the blood to the lungs. The atriums have the least cardiac muscle as they only have to pump blood into the ventricles.

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Cardiac cycle When the atria are in diastole they fill with blood from the vena cava/ pulmonary vein. They then contract (systole), increasing the pressure. As the pressure is higher in the atria then it is in the ventricle, the atroventricular valves (bicuspid and tricuspid) open and blood flows into the ventricles. The ventricle then contracts, increasing the pressure and therefore causing the AV valve to close. This also causes the semilunar valves to open and blood flows into the pulmonary artery/ aorta. Electrical Impulses The sino-atrial node starts the excitation wave, which spreads over the wall of the atria until it reaches the atrioventricular node. The atria contract (atrial systole) and this contraction is synchronised. There is a delay at the atrioventricular node when the wave of excitation spreads down septum and into the bundle of His and the Purkyne fibres. This causes the ventricle to contract (ventricular systole) from the apex of the heart.

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Blood Vessels
Arteries Carry blood at a high pressure, so in order to withstand the pressure the wall is thick, with a thick layer of collagen to provide strength. The endothelium is folded which prevents damage as it can stretches under pressure Must be able to maintain that high pressure. There is a thick layer of elastic tissue to cause recoil and a return to original size. There is a thick layer of smooth muscle, which narrows the lumen. Veins Carry blood at low pressure so do walls do not need to be thick. Lumen is relatively large to ease the flow of blood. The walls have thinner layers of collagen, smooth muscle and elastic tissue. They do no need to stretch and recoil and are not actively constricted to reduce blood flow. Contain valves to prevent blood flowing in the wrong direction. As the walls are thin, the vein can be flattened by the action of the surrounding skeletal muscles. Pressure is applied to the blood, forcing it to move along in the direction dictated by the valves. Capillaries Walls consist of a single layer of flattened endothelial cells that reduces the diffusion distance for the materials being exchanged. The lumen is the same diameter as the red blood cell (about 7m). This ensures that the red blood cells are squeezed as they pass along the capillaries. The diffusion distance is shorter, so they are more likely to give up their oxygen.

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Blood, Tissue Fluid and Lymph


Blood- The main transport fluid for substances to and from all regions of the body. Tissue Fluid- Leaks from the capillaries and passes around the cells. Oxygen and nutrients such as glucose can diffuse from the tissue fluid into the cells and carbon dioxide and waste products such as urea diffuse out of the cell. Lymph- The fluid that drains from the tissues into lymph vessels and eventually back into the blood. Hydrostatic pressure is caused by the heart pumping blood. This hydrostatic pressure pushes the blood fluid through the tiny gaps in the capillaries walls. The fluid that leaves the blood consists of plasma with dissolved nutrients and oxygen. All the red blood cells and platelets remain in the blood. They are too large to fit through the gaps. The fluid that leaves the capillaries is known as tissue fluid.

Feature Cells Proteins Fats Glucose Amino acids Oxygen Carbon dioxide

Blood Erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets Hormones and plasma proteins Some transported as lipoproteins 80-120mg per 100cm3 More More Little

Tissue Fluid Some phagocytic white blood cells Some hormones, proteins secreted by body cells None Less Less Less More

Lymph Lymphocytes Some proteins More than in blood Less Less Less More
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Haemoglobin
The ability of haemoglobin to take up and release oxygen depends on the amount of oxygen in the surrounding tissue. The amount of oxygen is measured by the relative pressure that it contributes to a mixture of gases. This is called partial pressure. Fetal haemoglobin Fetal haemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen then the adult haemoglobin. This means fetal haemoglobin can bind to oxygen in the placenta at relatively low partial pressure of oxygen, where the mothers haemoglobin is dissociating (releasing oxygen.) (The curve shifts to the left.) Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide is transported: 5% directly dissolved in the plasma 10% combined with haemoglobin to form carbominohaemoglobin. 85% transported in the form of hydrogencarbonate ions (HCO3-)

The Bohr effect- the change in the shape of the oxyhaemoglobin curve when the carbon dioxide is present- this causes the oxyhaemoglobin to release oxygen more readily. (The curve shifts to the right.)

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Transpiration
Xylem Long, thick walls that have been impregnated by lignin. As the xylem develops, the lignin waterproofs the walls of the cell, consequently, the cells die and their end walls and contents break down. This leaves a long column of hollow, dead cells. The lignin strengthens the walls and prevents the vessel from collapsing- the vessels stay open even when water is in short supply. The thickening of the lignin forms patterns on the cell walls. This prevents the vessel from becoming too rigid and allows the stem or branch to be flexible. In some places the lignification is not complete. Pits and bordered pits, like pores in the walls, are left which allow water to leave the vessel to either join another vessel or pass into cells. Transpiration The loss of water by evaporation from the aerial parts of a plant The stomata needs to be open in order for gaseous exchange to take place. Therefore, water can be evaporated through the leaves. Water uptake and movement up the stem Minerals are actively transported into the root hair cell (using ATP.) This reduces the water potential in the root hair cell- therefore water moves down the water potential gradient into the roots (by osmosis.) The water moves across cortex by osmosis. It can move through one of three pathways: 1. Apoplast- through the cell wall, prevented by the casparian strip so it has to eventually join the symplast pathway. 2. Symplast- through the cytoplasm 3. Vacuolar- through vacuoles When going up the xylem vessel the water molecules are attracted to each other due to intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This is called cohesion. Adhesion is the attraction of water molecules to the walls of the xylem. This means that when one water molecule evaporates, the others follow up the xylem.
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Factors that affect transpiration Number of leaves Number, size and position of stomata Presence of cuticle Light (the stomata open to photosynthesis) Temperature Relative humidity Air movement/ wind Water availability Potometer 1. Select plant to be used in experiment 2. Underwater, cut the stem at an angle of about 33oc 3. Keep the cutting beneath water level, thus ensuring the column of water in the xylem is not broken. 4. Fill the photometer with water, being sure to introduce an air bubble. 5. Carefully insert the top of the cutting into the top of the photometer (still under water) and ensure and air tight seal. 6. The plant can now be exposed to different environmental conditions. Leave to acclimatize and then water uptake can be measured. 7. Results can be graphed as followed; rate of water transpired against time. Xerophytes A plant that is adapted to reduce water loss so that it can survive in very dry conditions is called a xerophyte. Adaptations of xerophytes A waxy cuticle to reduce water loss Smaller leaves Closing the stomata when possible Hairs to hold water and therefore reduce water vapour gradient. Pits to trap water (reducing the water potential gradient) Rolled leaves to trap water vapour

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Translocation
Translocation-The transport of assimilates throughout the plant in the phloem tissue. Source-Releases sugars into the phloem. Sink- Removes sugars from the phloem. At the source H+ ions are pumped out of the companion cells and come back with sucrose (using co-transporter proteins.) They are actively transported out and then diffuse back in. At the sink sucrose molecules move by diffusion or active transport from the sieve tube element into the surrounding cells. This increases the water potential in the sieve tube element causing water to diffuse out. Evidence for and against translocation For Radioactive labeled carbon-16 is supplied to the plant and it shows up in the phloem Aphids feed on the sugars in the phloem Ringing a tree to remove the phloem results in a build up of sugars The companion cells have many mitochondria Translocation can be stopped by using a metabolic process, the process inhibits the production of ATP The rate of flow is so high it cant just be diffusion alone The PH of the companion cells are higher than that of surrounding cells (due to H+ ions) The concentration of sucrose it higher in the source than in the sink Against Not all the solutes in the phloem sap move at the same rate Sucrose is moved to all parts at the same rate, despite concentration The role of sieve plates is unclear

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