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# ME2304 - Notes on Lesson

Unit 1

Basic Concepts of Measurements
Metrology is the name given to the science of pure measurement. Engineering Metrology is restricted to measurements of length & angle. Need for Measurement      to ensure that the part to be measured conforms to the established standard. to meet the interchangeability of manufacture. to provide customer satisfaction by ensuring that no faulty product reaches the customers. to coordinate the functions of quality control, production, procurement & other departments of the organization. to judge the possibility of making some of the defective parts acceptable after minor repairs.

Precision & Accuracy of Measurement Precision : It is the degree which determines how well identically performed measurements agree with each other. It is the repeatability of the measuring process. It carries no meaning for only one measurement. It exists only when a set of observations is gathered for the same quantity under identical conditions. In such a set, the observations will scatter about a mean. he less is the scattering, the more precise is the measurement. Accuracy : It is the degree of agreement between the measured value and it!s true value. he difference between the measured

value & the true value is known as ‘Error of measurement’. "ccuracy is the quality of conformity. o distinguish the #recision from "ccuracy, the following simple example can be said. " repaired needle\$watch will give #recision readings %same time& all the times, but will give "ccurate readings %correct time& only ' times in a day. (f the two, #recision & "ccuracy, only the former is required though the latter is usually sought for in a measuring process. "chieving high precision is easier & cheaper than achieving high accuracy. If the measuring instrument is of high precise & is calibrated for its error, then the true value can be easily obtained from the measured average value after deducting the instrument error. )o, high precision \$ instrument is required rather than the high accurate * instrument, considering cost and reliability of the measuring instrument. +owever, of the two, precision & accuracy, which one is more vital, depends on the situation. ,or example, for a carpenter entrusted with the job of fitting a shelf into cupboard, precision is more important. his can be achieved only when he uses the same scale to measure the cupboard & the board for shelf. It hardly matters whether his scale is accurate or not. If however, such a board is ordered for purchase from a pre\$cut board from outside, accuracy becomes more vital than precision. +e must measure the size of the cupboard very accurately before placing the order. -Interchangeability! is the call of the day. .ot only a nut from its lot should fit on any bolt of its lot, both manufactured in the same plant by same men, but also, it should fit on a bolt from some other manufacturer. he simplest way to maintain compatibility of parts for interchangeable manufacture is by adopting accuracy in measurement everywhere. Factors affectin t!e accuracy of measurin system a& ,actors affecting the standard of measurement/  co\$efficient of thermal expansion  elastic properties

 stability with time  geometric compatibility b& ,actors affecting the work piece to be measured/  co\$efficient of thermal expansion  elastic properties  arrangement of supporting work piece  hidden geometry  surface defects such as scratches, waviness, etc. c& ,actors affecting the inherent characteristics of instrument/  repeatability & readability  calibration errors  effect of friction, backlash, etc  inadequate amplification for accuracy objective  deformation in handling or use d& ,actors affecting person/  improper training 0 skill  inability to select proper standards 0 instruments  less attitude towards personal accuracy measurements e& ,actors affecting environment/  temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, etc.  cleanliness  adequate illumination  heat radiation from lights 0 heating elements

"e#ia\$i#ity of Measurement If a measuring instrument is not precise, it will give different values for same dimension, when measured again and again. )uch an instrument thus is considered non\$trust worthy. he first and fundamental requirement of any good measuring instrument to be effective is that it should have adequate repeatability or precision. he measuring instrument which gives precise %same& values all the times is far reliable than the instrument which gives accurate %true& values rarely but not precise values all the times.

he precise value can be easily converted into accurate value by taking the constant error of precision instrument into account. If the precision measuring instrument is highly calibrated for its error of measurement & the constant error of measurement is known in advance, then the accurate %true& value can be obtained as follows 1 rue value 2 3easured value 4 5rror +ence, calibrated & precision measuring instrument is more reliable and hence is used in metrological laboratories. Met!ods of Measurement 6& 3ethod of direct measurement/ he value of the quantity to be measured is obtained directly without the necessity of carrying out supplementary calculations based on a functional dependence of the quantity to be measured in relation to the quantities actually measured. Example : 7eight of a substance is measured directly using a physical balance. '& 3ethod of indirect measurement/ he value of the quantity is obtained from measurements carried out by direct method of measurement of other quantities, connected with the quantity to be measured by a known relationship. Example : 7eight of a substance is measured by measuring the length, breadth & height of the substance directly and then by using the relation 7eight 2 8ength x 9readth x +eight x :ensity ;& 3ethod of measurement without contact/ he sensor is not placed in contact with the object whose characteristics are being measured. <& 3ethod of combination measurement closed series/ he results of direct or indirect measurement or different combinations of those values are made use of & the corresponding system of equations is solved. =& 3ethod of fundamental measurement/ 9ased on the measurements of base quantities entering into the definition of the quantity.

selected in such a way that the sum of these two values is equal to a certain value of comparison fixed in advance. balanced by a first known value " of the same quantity. 6B& 3ethod of measurement by complement/ he value of the quantity to be measured is complemented by a known value of the same quantity. with a value known to be slightly difference from that of the quantity to be measured.>& 3ethod of measurement by comparison/ 9ased on the comparison of the value of a quantity to be measured with a known value of the same quantity %direct comparison&. and the measurement of the difference between the values of these two quantities. the value to be determined lying between two known values. . the value of the quantity measured is equal to " & 9. then the value of the quantity to be measured is put in place of this known value and is again balanced by another known value 9. If the position of the element indicating equilibrium is the same in both the cases. the value to be determined lying outside the known values. 66& 3ethod of measurement by interpolation / It consists of determining value of the quantity measured on the basis of the law of correspondence & known values of the same quantity. so selected that the effects produced in the indicating device by these two values are the same %a type of direct comparison&. ?& 3ethod of measurement by substitution/ he value of a quantity to be measured is replaced by a known value of the same quantity. or a known value of another quantity which is a function of the quantity to be measured %indirect comparison&. @& 3ethod of measurement by transposition / he value of the quantity to be measured is in the beginning. 6'& 3ethod of measurement by extrapolation / It consists of determining the value of the quantity measured on the basis of the law of correspondence & known values of the same quantity. A& 3ethod of differential measurement/ 9ased on the comparison of the quantity to be measured with a quantity of the same kind.

ominal value of a physical measure/ he value of the quantity reproduced by the physical measure and is indicated on that measure. his process is known as -calibration!. he -input! affects some -parameter! which is the -output! & is read out. 9efore we can read any instrument. >& )ensitivity of instrument/ he ability of the instrument to detect small variation in the input signal. a -scale! must be framed for the -output! by successive application of some already standardised %inputs& signals. '& . there should be a unit to express the result of the measurement & a standard to enable the measurement. <& )tandard/ It is the physical embodiment of a unit. &tandards of Measurement . . determined by a measurement carried out with the help of measuring instruments. =& Calibration/ It is the process of determining the values of the quantity being measured corresponding to a pre\$established arbitrary scale. ?& Deadability of instrument/ he susceptibility of a measuring instrument to having its indications converted to a meaningful number. It is the measurement of measuring instrument. he amount of -output! is governed by that of -input!. which show a total error which is practically negligible.or every kind of quantity to be measured.& Conventional true value of a physical measure/ he value of the quantity reproduced by the physical measure. .%erms in Measurement 6& Constant of a measuring instrument/ he factor by which the indication of the instrument shall be multiplied to obtain the result of measurement. It implies the ease with which observations can be made accurately. he quantity to be measured is the -input! to the measuring instrument.

#ound %or )lug&.#) )ystem/ In this system. the main departure from the traditional metric system is the use of -. India by "ct of #arliament . 6A=> switched over to )I system. mass. In )I. weight & time respectively. time. b& 3etric )ystem/ It is a decimal system of weight & measurement is based on the 3etre as the unit of length.oot %or Eard&.rance. CF) prescribes Centimetre. %:efinition by wavelength standard& 9y 8ine standard.@A.orce. .or 8ength / 3etre %m& which is equal to 6>=B?>. wavelengths in vacuum of the red\$orange radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 'p 6B & =d= of the krypton\$@> atom. )econd for length.o. )econd for length. Dankine %or .?. the units of length. )econd. Feneral Conference on 7eights & 3easures %CF#3& formally gave the 3G)". temperature are . the bar kept under normal atmospheric pressure.ewton! as the unit of . Its basic unit is 3etre. the title -!)ystems International d! unites!! with the abbreviation -)I! %also called as International )ystem of units&. weight & time respectively. It is common in 5nglish speaking countries and is developed by 9ritain. It was first used in . Fram. Basic units in &' system 6& . supported by two rollers of at least 6 cm diameter symmetrically situated in the same horizontal plane at a distance of =@@.. the unit of electrical current to 3G) system. Gilogram.A mm %"iry points& so as to give minimum deflection. 3etre is the distance between the axes of two lines engraved on a polished surface of the #latinum * Iridium bar -3! %ABH platinum & 6BH iridium& kept at 9ureau of 7eights & 3easures %9I#3& at )evres near #aris at B °C.a& . 3G) prescribes 3etre. 3G)" %Fiorgi& system added "mpere. c& )I system/ In 6A>B.ahrenheit& respectively.

orce/ .or 8uminous intensity/ Candela %cd& is the luminous intensity in the perpendicular direction of a surface of 60>. . 2 6 kg\$m0s'& .or 3ass/ Gilogram %kg& which is equal to the mass of International prototype of the kilogram.or emperature/ Gelvin %G& is the fraction 60'?.B6' kg of Carbon\$6'.ewton per unit length. =& ..requency/ +ertz %6 +z 2 6 cycle per second& '& .& .'& .or amount of substance/ 3ole %mol& is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in B. a force equal to ' x 6B\$? .BBB m ' of a black body at the temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure of 6B6. <& . ?& .or )olid angle/ )teradian %sr& :erived )I units/ 6& .BB.'= . )upplementary )I units/ 6& .or .& .or . >& . atom. of thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.or 5nergy/ Ioule %6 I 2 6 .or #lane angle/ Dadian %rad& '& .or #ower/ 7att %6 7 2 6 I0s& . if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length of negligible circular cross section & placed one metre apart in vacuum would produce between these conductors.or Current / "mpere %"& is that constant current which.or ime / )econd %s& which is equal to the duration of A6A'>.\$m& <& .ewton %6 .0m'.6??B periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the hyper fine levels of the ground state of the Caesium 6.

Example : for 8ine standard is 3easuring )cale. Errors in Measurement 5rror in measurement is the difference between the measured value and the true value of the measured dimension. 7orking standard/ It is used daily in laboratories and workshops. 5rror in measurement 2 3easured value * rue value he error in measurement may be expressed as an absolute error or as a relative error. b& "pparent absolute error/ It is the algebraic difference between one of the measured values of the series of measurements and the arithmetic mean of all measured values in that series. the length is the distance between the centres of engraved lines whereas in 5nd standard. 6& "bsolute error/ It is the algebraic difference between the measured value and the true value of the quantity measured. it is the distance between the end faces of the standard. 8ow grades of materials may be used. )econdary standard/ It is similar to #rimary standard as nearly as possible and is distributed to a number of places for safe custody and is used for occasional comparison with ertiary standards. for 5nd standard is 9lock gauge. '& #rimary. .C#assification of &tandards 6& 8ine & 5nd )tandards/ In the 8ine standard. )econdary. ertiary & 7orking )tandards/ #rimary standard/ It is only one material standard and is preserved under the most careful conditions and is used only for comparison with )econdary standard. It is further classified as1 a& rue absolute error/ It is the algebraic difference between the measured average value and the conventional true value of the quantity measured. ertiary standard/ It is used for reference purposes in laboratories and workshops and is used for comparison with working standard.

. made under the same conditions. find absolute and relative errors.& #arasitic error/ It is the error. he errors may be constant or variable. remains constant in absolute value and sign or varies in a predictable way in accordance with a specified law when the conditions change. Example : If the actual %true& value is =. often gross. Dandom errors are non\$consistent.=BB 2 =BB units Delative error 2 "bsolute error 0 3easured value 2 =BB 0 <.BBB * <. he causes of these errors may be known or unknown.BBB and estimated %measured& value is <.66 %66H& %ypes of Errors A( Error of Measurement 6& )ystematic error/ It is the error which during several measurements. which results from incorrect execution of measurement. Solution : "bsolute error 2 rue value * 3easured value 2 =.'& Delative error/ It is the quotient of the absolute error and the value of comparison %which may be true value. Dandom errors are normally of limited time duration. conventional true value or arithmetic mean value of a series of measurements& used for the calculation of that absolute error. '& Dandom error/ his error varies in an unpredictable manner in absolute value & in sign when a large number of measurements of the same value of a quantity are made under practically identical conditions.=BB 2 B. B( 'nstrumenta# error .=BB. )ystematic errors are regularly repetitive in nature. of the same value of a certain quantity.

& Jero error/ It is the indication of a measuring instrument for the zero value of the quantity measured. ?& 5rror due to temperature/ It is the error arising from the fact that the temperature of instrument does not maintain its reference value. <& Calibration error of a physical measure/ It is the difference between the conventional true value reproduced by the physical measure and the nominal value of that measure. '& 5rror of a measuring mechanism/ It is the difference between the value indicated by the measuring mechanism and the conventional true value of the measured quantity. C( Error of o\$ser)ation 6& Deading error/ It is the error of observation resulting from incorrect reading of the indication of a measuring instrument by the observer. . with the index at a certain distance from the surface of scale. the . >& 5rror of indication of a measuring instrument/ It is the difference between the measured values of a quantity. '& #arallax error/ It is the reading error which is produced. @& 5rror due to friction/ It is the error due to the friction between the moving parts of the measuring instruments. when. =& Complementary error of a measuring instrument/ It is the error of a measuring instrument arising from the fact that the values of the influence quantities are different from those corresponding to the reference conditions. thermal or otherwise& of the parts of the measuring instrument.6& 5rror of a physical measure/ It is the difference between the nominal value and the conventional true value reproduced by the physical measure. when an influence quantity takes successively two specified values. A& 5rror due to inertia/ It is the error due to the inertia %mechanical. without changing the quantity measured.

Chaotic errors are random errors but unlike the latter. 5nvironmental %"mbient 0"tmospheric Condition& 5rrors/ International agreement has been reached on ambient condition which is at 'B°C temperature. . temperature effect is most considerable. hese can be calibration errors. he actual length of standards such as slip gauges will vary from the nominal value by a small amount. computational errors and chaotic errors. errors may creep into final results. If there is any variation in the ambient condition. *( Based on nature of errors 6& )ystematic error/ %already discussed& '& Dandom error/ %already discussed& . Calibration errors/ hese are caused due to variation in the calibrated scale from its normal value.reading is not made in the direction of observation provided for the instrument used. (f the three.& Illegitimate error/ "s the name implies. his will cause an error in the measurement. environmental errors and errors due to non\$ similarity of condition while calibrating and measuring. E( Based on contro# 6& Controllable errors/ he sources of error are known and it is possible to have a control on these sources. his will cause an error of constant magnitude. ?>B mm of +g pressure and 6B mm of +g humidity. it should not exist. this is sufficient enough to cause appreciable deformation of both the stylus and the work piece. Instruments are calibrated at these conditions. they create chaos in the final results. )tylus pressure errors/ hough the pressure involved during measurement is generally small. hese include mistakes and blunders. .& Interpolation error/ It is the reading error resulting from the inexact evaluation of the position of the index with regard to two adjacent graduation marks between which the index is located.

"voidable errors/ hese errors may occur due to parallax in the reading of measuring instruments.=?? 8 %suitable for line standards and end bars&. his problem was considered by )ir F. then for no slopes at the ends. supported equidistant from the centre on supports by distance . . )lope and deflection at any point can be calculated from the theory of bending. etc. wo conditions are considered. ii& a mirror is placed behind the pointer to ensure normal reading of the scale in all the cases. K the axis or line of measurement of the measured part should coincide with the line of measuring scale or the axis of measurement of the measuring instrument”. as follows1 . his occurs when the scale and pointer are separated relative to one another. l 2 B. he two common practices to minimise this error are/ i& reduce the separation between the scale and pointer to minimum. they get deformed or deflected.on\$controllable errors/ not controllable. improper location of measuring instruments.9. l 2 B. hese avoidable errors occur also due to non\$alignment of work piece centres. hese are random errors which are . Causes of Errors 6& 5rrors due to deflection %5rrors of supports&/ 7hen long bars are supported as beam. sine errors. "iry. "ccording to "bbe!s principle.=<< 8 %suitable for straight edges& '& 5rrors due to misalignment/ "bbe!s principle of alignment should be followed in measurements to avoid cosine errors.or a bar of length 8.or minimum deflection of the beam. who showed that the positions of the supports can be arranged to give a minimum error. he amount of deflection depends upon the positions of the supports. etc.l! apart. '& . his elastic deformation occurs because long bars. supported as to ends sags under their own weight.

)imilarly. b2 D 6h ' ' %D 6 + D ' & ' D'h ' ' %D 6 + D ' & ' %D 6 + D ' &h ' ' %D 6 + D ' & ' very nearly herefore. . it is known that a 2 D6 % 6 \$ Cos θ & 2 D6 % 6 \$ 6 − sin 2 D 6 6 − 6 − ' θ&      h' 2 D 6 6 − 6 +  '%D 6 + D ' & '    h'  %D 6 + D ' & '   2 )imilarly. the error in length will occur this is equal to %aLb& as shown below. are not square with the axis. or if its ends.rom the above figure. If the axis of the two spherical end gauges are not aligned. his is shown below. If the gauge is not supported so that its axis is parallel to the axis of measuring anvils. the same error occurs when measuring an end gauge in the horizontal comparator. %aLb& 2 2 h' ' %D 6 + D ' & . he above combined Cosine & )ine errors can be avoided by using gauges with spherical ends. though parallel to each other.he combined Cosine and )ine error occurs if the micrometer axis is not truly perpendicular to the axis of the work piece as shown below.

etc are present between the datum and the work piece surface. then error will be introduced in the reading taken.. >& 5rror due to poor contact/ o avoid this type of error. he deformation of the work piece and the anvils of instrument depend upon the contact pressure and the shape of the contact surfaces. =& 5rror due to dirt/ If the datum surface is not flat or if the foreign matter such as dirt. the gauge with lesser area of contact should be used while measuring . rubber pads under the gauge c& mounting the gauge pedestal or floor sections on tar mastic d& putting a gauge on a surface plate resting in turn on a heavy plate. felt. )ty lu s 7 or kp ie ce d efo rm a tion )ty lu s d efor m a tion 7or k p iece <& 5rror due to vibrations/ he errors due to vibrations can be avoided by a& locating the laboratory away from the sources of vibration b& keeping slipping cork. chips.& 5rror due to contact pressure/ he variations in the contact pressure between the anvils of the instrument and the work piece being measured produce considerable difference in reading.

d 2 separation of scale and pointer : 2 distance between pointer and observer!s eye θ 2 angle which the line of sight makes with the normal to scale Unit 2 Linear & An u#ar Measurements Measurement of En ineerin Components . where looseness might be expected and noting the reading again.igure drawn below shows how imperfect location of surface causes errors. his error can be avoided by hardening the surfaces or by using chrome plated parts for contact surfaces. @& 5rror due to looseness / 8ooseness can be tested by setting the gauge contact on gauge anvil and zeroing the meter1 and then applying finger pressure or a light tab to each location. ?& 5rror due to wear in gauges/ 7ear of measuring surfaces of instrument occurs due to repeated use. Deading 2 a L b 2 c tan θ L t sec θ 5rror 2 a L b \$ t 2 c tan θ L t %sec θ \$ 6& 6B& 5rror due to parallax effect/ #arallax error occurs when1 i& the line of vision is not directly in line with the measuring scale. ii& the scale and the pointer are separated from each other.irregular or curved surface and correct pressure should be applied while making the contact. A& 5rror due to location/ . In the figure shown below.

Comparator It is a precision instrument employed to compare the dimension of a given component with a working standard %generally slip gauges&. It does not measure the actual dimension but indicates how much it differs from the basic dimension %working standard&. Uses of Comparator :    .Fauges are used mainly to check the 5ngineering Components produced on mass scale. where the job is usually handled by semi\$ skilled workers. his type of measurement cannot be relied upon where accuracy is more important.ree from back lash Nuick insertion of work piece #rovision for compensation from temperature effects #rovision for means to prevent damage during use. he different methods and instruments used for precision & accurate %linear & angular& measurements are discussed in this unit.or calibrating the working gauges Msed as working gauges Msed as final inspection gauges Dobust design and construction 8inear characteristics of scale +igh magnification Nuick in results Oersatility 3inimum wear of contact point . Essential characteristics of a good Comparator :           C#assification of comparators 6& 3echanical comparator a& :ial indicator b& Iohansson -3ikrokator! comparator c& )igma comparator d& Deed type mechanical comparator .

ro.o!ansson -Mi. he gauge block %slip gauges& is of dimension which the work piece should have.low * velocity #neumatic comparator In addition. the comparators used in standards room for calibration of gauges are / ?& 9rookes 8evel comparator @& 5den\$Dolt -3illionth! Comparator Basic princip#e of operation of comparator he comparator is first adjusted to zero on its dial or recording device with a gauge block in position. . he work piece to be checked is then placed in position and the comparator gives the difference in dimension in relation to the gauge block. he arm can be adjusted vertically up and down along the column.'& (ptical comparator a& Jeiss Mltra optimeter b& Jeiss optotest comparator .& 3echanical * (ptical comparator <& 5lectrical comparator =& . he arm can be swivelled and the dial gauge also can be locked in any position along its arm. he dimension of the work piece may be less than.ator/ . he whole set up is placed on the surface place which is used as a datum surface. or greater than the standard dimension. Mec!anica# Comparators+ Oarious mechanical comparators are discussed next.luid displacement comparator >& #neumatic comparator a& 9ack pressure comparator b& . It consists of a base with a rigid column and an arm carrying dial gauge %dial indicator&. *ia# indicator It is the simplest type of mechanical comparator. he difference in the dimension will be shown in the dial or in the recording device of the comparator. equal to.

rom the centre. (ne end of the strip is fixed to the adjustable cantilever strip. either upwards or down wards. or untwist. the other being anchored to the spring strip elbow. he setup is diagrammatically shown below . It can be shown that the ratio A. the elbow acts as a bell crank lever and causes the twisted strip to change its length and thus further twist. . the pointer at the centre of the twisted strip rotates an amount proportional to the change in length of the strip. the strip is permanently twisted to form right and left hand helices. "s the measuring plunger moves. 7 is the width of twisted strip n is the number of turns θ is the twist of mid point of strip with respect to end. +ence. one arm of which is carried on the measuring plunger. measured along its neutral axis.6  dθ = amplificat ion = − d 7 'n where l is the length of twisted strip." thin metal strip carries at the centre of its length a very light glass tube pointer.

It can be shown that if an external force is applied to the moving member. as would a hinge. it will pivot. mounted on a pair of slit diaphragms to give a frictionless linear movement.ro. then the first stage of the magnification is 80x. o the extremities of the -E! arm is attached a phosphor*bronze strip which is passed around a drum of radius -r! attached to the pointer spindle. If the pointer is of length -D! then the second stage of magnification is D0r and the magnification is 8D0%xr&.ator/ &i ma comparator he plunger. . about the line of intersection of the strips..o!ansson -Mi. If the effective length of this arm is 8 and the distance form the hinge pivot to the knife edge is x. connected by thin flexible strips alternately at right angles to each other. has mounted upon it a knife edge which bears upon the face of the moving member of a cross strip hinge. "ttached to the moving member is an arm which divides into a -E! form. It consists of the moving component and a fixed member.

a small displacement of the measuring plunger is amplified first by a mechanical system consisting of pivoted levers.ine adjustment is possible d& #arallax error is avoided e& Constant measuring pressure by the use of magnet plunger. he setup is shown below. Mec!anica# 2 1ptica# Comparator In this system.&i ma Mec!anica# Comparator he magnification can be adjusted by slackening one and tightening the other screw attaching the knife edge to the plunger and thus adjusting distance -x!. he other interesting features of this instrument are/ a& 3ore safety b& :ead beat readings can be obtained c& . he amplified mechanical movement is further )creen & )cale amplified by a single optical system involving the projection of an image. 8ight )ource Cond ensers =B #rojection 8ens 3irror 8ever 6 #lunger #ivot 'B 6 #ivot Fi 0 204 Princip#e of 1ptica# Comparator . while a range of instruments of differing magnifications can be produced by having drums of different radii -r! and suitable strips.

either during or immediately after the operating cycle of a machine tool. but also geometric form. . not only with respect to tolerance boundaries. the system lends itself to the inspection of a single. and that internal dimensions may be readily measured. 3echanical amplification 2 6 x 'B x 6 2 'B units (ptical amplification 2 =B x ' 2 6BB units otal amplification 2 'B x 6BB 2 'BBB units Pneumatic Comparator In this system.urther.In such a system. or a number of dimensions simultaneously. . no physical contact is made either with the setting gauge or the part being measured.

B mm for sizes up to 6B mm and A x . "mplifications of up to =BBBB are obtainable with this system. he cross sections of these gauges are A x . he air at reduced pressure then passes through the control orifice. &#ip au es hese gauges are other wise called as Fauge blocks or 9lock gauges and are universally accepted as end standards of length in industry. he air from its normal source of supply is filtered and passes through a flow valve. "fter hardening.Pneumatic Comparator 9ack\$pressure %#neumatic& comparator/ It uses a water manometer for the indication of back pressure. " calibrated manometer tube is connected between the cylinder and control orifice as shown in fig. 7ringing of )lip gauges/ he slip gauges are wrung together by hand through a combined sliding and twisting motion.= mm for larger sizes. and escapes from the measuring orifice. he dimension %height& is marked on one of the measuring faces of gauge blocks. flatness and accuracy. the pressure value being determined by the head of the water displace. Its pressure is then reduced and maintained at a constant value by a dip tube into a water chamber. they are subjected to lapping to a high degree of finish. he air gap between the gauge faces is expelled out and the adhesion is caused partly by molecular .=. It consists of a vertical metal cylinder filled with water upto a certain level and a dip tube immersed into it upto a depth corresponding to the air pressure required. excess air escaping to atmosphere. )lip gauges are rectangular blocks of high grade steel %or tungsten carbide& with less co\$efficient of thermal expansion. he back pressure in the circuit is indicated by the head of water displaced in the manometer tube. '. he tube is graduated linearly to show changes of pressure resulting from changes in dimension-d!. hese blocks are highly hardened %more than @BB +O& through out to ensure maximum resistance to wear and are then stabilised by heating and cooling successively in stages so that the hardening stresses are removed.

or checking gap between parallel locations such as in gap gauges or between two mating parts. he gap between the two wrung slip gauges is only of the order of B.= µ m which is negligible. Frade BB / Gept in standard room and used for high precision work such as checking Frade I and Frade II slip gauges. checking gap gauges and setting dial test indicators to zero. micrometers. )elect the next smallest figure in the same way.BB>. Frade B / Msed in tool room and inspection department.or angular measurement in conjunction with sine bar . ii& (ne slip gauge is then placed at AB ° to other by using light pressure and then it is rotated until the blocks are brought in one line. find the remainder and continue this until the required dimension is completed. "o##er au es . Frade I / Msed for setting up sine bars. hen ta!ing the slip gauges apart" the gauges are slid apart.or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension .or calibration of vernier callipers. #rocedure for wringing/ i& he slip gauges are first cleaned using a lint free cloth or chamois leather or a cleansing tissue. Indian )tandards on )lip gauges/ Frade II / 7orkshop grade for rough checks. 3inimum number of slip gauges should be selected to build up the given dimension. )election of )lip gauges for required dimension/ "lways start with the last decimal place and deduct this from the required dimension. and other measuring instruments. . "pplications of )lip gauges/      :irect precise measurement .attraction and partly by atmospheric pressure.

Fauges do not indicate the actual value of the inspected dimension on the work. hese are produced to fine tolerances. hese gauges are made up of suitable wear resisting steel and are normally hardened to not less than ?=B +O and suitably stabilised and ground and lapped.o Fo! limits respectively. he -Fo! and -. secondary to block gauges %slip gauges&. without a scale.Cylindrical rollers with their lengths equal to their diameters may be used as gauges. #rogressive gauge is the single ended gauge with one gauging member having two diameters to the -Fo! and -. . " typical limit plug gauge and limit snap gauge are shown in the next page. which serve to check the dimensions of manufactured parts.o Fo! gauges may be in the form of separate single ended gauge. or may be combined on one handle to form a double ended gauge. Limit au es hese are inspection tools for rigid design. hey can only be used for determining as to whether the inspection parts are made within the specified limits.

o Fo! limit/ his is applied to lower limit of a shaft and the upper limit of a hole. he bush is check by a plug gauge which in so far as the form of its surface and its size is concerned. . #aylor’s principle states that the ‘\$o’ gauges should chec! all the possi%le elements of dimensions at a time &roundness" si'e" . aylor!s principle/ "ccording to aylor. a bush is made which is to mate with a shaft1 in this case. the shaft is the mating part.o Fo! gauges should be designed to check maximum and minimum material limits which are checked as below/ -Fo! limit/ his is applied to upper limit of a shaft and lower limit of a hole.or example. -Fo! and -.Limit P#u 3au e Limit &nap 3au e 3au e *esi n 5very gauge is a copy of the part which mates with the part for which the gauge is designed. -. is a copy of the mating part %shaft&.

mm I @ fundamental deviation of shaft 2 \$ =.B'6.B 2 between 6@& .'.BB6 : %ii& fundamental deviation of -f! shaft 2 \$=.B.?A&60.?A mm i 2 B.BB6 : microns 2 B..BBB mm 8imits for shaft 'B f@ / +igher 8imit of shaft 2 'B L fundamental deviation 2 'B * B.A6@ microns 2 B..<= %:&60.B mm.B'6 mm 2 '= i microns 2 '= x 6.'..rom the standard table.?A B.?A& 2 6.BB6 %'. 9ased on aylor!s principle. L B. 8imits for hole 'B +? 2 'B L B.B' mm 8ower deviation of + \$ hole 2 zero +ence. : 2 : 6 x: ' 2 '.<= %:&60. L B.o Fo! gauge is designed for minimum material condition..B?< microns 2 .= %:&B. -Fo! gauge is designed for maximum material condition and -..B +ence. L B. it is found that 'B lies 6@ x . Fiven / %i& i %micron& 2 B.B?< microns I ? 2 6> i microns 2 6> x 6.<= %'.<6 2 \$ 'B microns 2 \$ B..'.<6 microns 2 \$ =. Problem : :esign a general type F( and . %iv& I ? 2 6> i %v& I @ 2 '= i Solution : .. L B.'.( F( gauge for components having 'B+?f@ fit.( and the ‘)o \$o’ gauge should chec! only one element of the dimension at a time.B' mm .= x '..= :B.B?< microns 2 'B.location" etc.. microns 2 B.<6 %: is in mm& %iii& 'Bmm falls in the diameter step of 6@mm to .

mm 8ower limit of Fo snap gauge 2 'B. \$B.BB * B.B'.6 x B.6 x B.BBB.BB'6 mm 7ear allowance for plug gauge 2 6BH of gauge tolerance %hole& 2 B.A<? 2 6A.. mm +ence. 2 'B * B..B'6 L B..ow. upper limit of .B=.. mm 7ear allowance on snap gauge 2 6BH of gauge tolerance %shaft& 2 B.8ower 8imit of shaft 2 'B L funda deviation * I 2 'B * B..6 x B.B=>.o\$Fo plug gauge 2 'B.B' * B.6 x B.B' * B.BB. 2 'B.BB * B.6 mm lower limit of ..BBB.A<? * B.o\$Fo snap gauge 2 6A.BB'. 2 B.B=.B'. mm *or +ole : Mpper limit of Fo plug gauge 2 'B L B.BBB.BB'6 2 'B. 2 B. * B.o\$Fo snap gauge 2 6A.. 8imits for shaft 'B f@ 2 'B * B.B'B.BBB'6 mm Fauge tolerance for snap gauge 2 6BH of work tolerance %shaft& 2 B. mm 2 'B * B..BBB'6 mm .BB'6 L B.B'.o\$Fo plug gauge 2 'B. 2 'B * B.ow.BBB'6 2 'B L B. mm Fauge tolerance for plug gauge %hole& @ 2 6BH of work tolerance 2 B.>.B mm lower limit of . upper limit of .B'6 2 B..BB.BB * B.BB.BB'6 2 B.B=..B.BB.B'6 mm *or Shaft : Mpper limit of Fo snap gauge 2 'B. mm .B' * B. mm .6 mm 8ower limit of Fo plug gauge 2 'B L B.B.A<? mm 2 'B * B.BBB'6 mm 2 'BL B.

Fenerally a small circumferential groove is cut near the leading end of the gauge and the remaining short cylindrical surface is slightly reduced in order to act as a pilot.%ypes of Limit 3au es he various types of limit gauges used for gauging internal diameters of holes are/ 6& .'.6B& the other form1 external cylindrical form in which segments are formed by removing remaining material.ull form spherical plug or disc gauge/ he gauging surface is in the form of a sphere from which two equal segments are cut off by planes normal to the axis of the handle.ull form cylindrical plug gauge/ he gauging surface is in the form of an external cylinder. Fi 0 205 Fu## form sp!erica# p#u au e . Fi 02060 &e menta# cy#indrica# \$ar au e . '. Fi 0 204 Fu## form cy#indrica# p#u au e '& .ig.ig. %.& )egmental cylindrical bar gauge/ he gauging surface is in one of the two forms/ one form1 external cylindrical form from which two axial segments are made by lowering down surface at other places.66&. %.

<& )egmental spherical plug gauge/ It is similar to full form spherical plug gauge but has two equal segments cut off by planes parallel to the axis of the handle in addition to the segments cut off by planes normal the axis of the handle. Fi 0 2064 "od ua e 7 it! sp!erica# ends . Fi 0 2066 &e to menta# cy#indrica# \$ar au e Fi 0 2062 &e menta# &p!erica# p#u au e =& )egmental cylindrical bar gauge with reduced measuring faces/ It is similar to the segmental cylindrical bar gauge but has reduced measuring faces in a plane parallel to the axis of the handle. Fi 02063 &e menta# cy#indrica# \$ar au e >& Dod gauge with spherical ends/ It has spherical end surfaces which form part of one single sphere.

.or testing the external taper of the tanged end shank.'.ull form cylindrical ring gauge/ he gauging surface is in the form of an internal cylinder and whose wall is thick enough to avoid deformation under normal conditions of use. the axis of the two surfaces being parallel to the axis of the shaft being checked. as far as it goes with light pressure. %!e Autoco##imator It is an optical instrument used for the measurement of small angular differences. no part of the tang under test should extend beyond the surfaces ".6?. it will be projected as a parallel beam of light as in fig. it will be reflected back along its own path and refocused at the source (. lie flush with these surfaces.'. the reflected parallel beam will turn through 'δ. the ring gauge is inserted.he various types of limit gauges used for gauging external diameters of shaft are/ 6& . he surfaces constituting the working size may both be flat or both cylindrical also. If the plane reflector is now tilted through some small angle .6@. in the focal plane. a distance x from (. It is essentially an infinity telescope and a collimator combined into one instrument. 9 and C. he distance between the two ring marks -J! corresponds to the permissible deviation of the gauge plane for particular taper. If this parallel beam now strikes a plane reflector which is normal to the optical axis. and will be brought to a focus at (6. "t the extreme position. If the ray passing through the . #rinciple of "utocollimator/ If a point source of light ( is placed at the principal focus of a collimating lens.δ!. he shank surfaces may however. his effect is shown in fig. '& Fap gauge/ It has one flat surface and one cylindrical surface. he gauges %for internal taper& are marked with a ring on the gauge planes another ring to indicate the minimum depth of internal taper.

if. the minimum distance between lens and reflector is essential.or high sensitivity. b& .. it is moved too far back. Point source of #i !t in foca# p#ane of a co##imatin #ens he important points about this collimation of a beam of light are/ a& he distance between the reflector and the lens has no effect on the separation x between source and image. i. where f is the focal length of the lens.e. hus. and no image will be formed. a long focal length is required. a large value of x for a small angular deviation δ. c& "lthough the distance of the reflector does not affect the reading x. for a wide range of readings. as it is. all of the reflected rays will miss the lens completely. it can be seen that x 2 ' δ f mm. at given value of δ. unaffected by refraction. .geometric centre of the lens is considered.

It is invaluable in machine tool alignment testing or for any large scale measurement involving small angular deviations. he instrument normally has a range of readings of 6B min of arc up to a range of 6B m. he setting wires are adjusted by a micrometer until they straddle the reflected image %not the target wire&.6A shows the optical arrangement of the instrument. and given a rigid mounting for the instrument.' sec are possible. which also contains a pair of adjustable setting wires and a scale. he wires and their images are viewed simultaneously in an eyepiece.ig. 7ith care.Pro8ection of a point source \$ein ref#ected form an inc#ined ref#ector %!e Microptic Auto-Co##imator he concept of projecting the image of a point source of light is not practical. and the micrometer drum which moves the wires P min per revolution. he scale is read to the nearest P min. 6 division of the micrometer drum represents an angular deflection of the reflector of one P sec of arc. the projected image striking a plane reflector and the reflection of the image being brought to a focus in the plane of the target wires. is divided into >B equal parts. so in this instrument a pair of target wires in the focal plane of the collimating lens is illuminated from behind and their images are projected. hus.'. . repeat readings of B. .

and the reading on the fixed scale gives the deviation about an axis mutually at right angles to the other two. his feature enables angular errors in two planes to be dealt with. It is then projected as a parallel beam and strikes a plane reflector below the instrument. an illuminated scale is set in the focal plane of the collimating lens outside the field of view of a microscope eyepiece. but across a similar fixed scale at right angles to the illuminated image. to ensure that the . and refocused by the lens so that its image is in the field of view of the eyepiece. or more important. hus.%!e Microptic Auto-co##imator %!e An #e *e.. not across a simple datum line. It is reflected.or In this system. the reading on the illuminated scale measures angular deviations from one axis at AB° to the optical axis. he image falls.

a master. It is now replaced by the work. he work is now slowly rotated until the illuminated scale moves across the fixed scale. he gauge block can usefully be held in place with elastic bands.reading on a setting master and on the work is the same in one plane. he error in the work angle is the difference in the two readings on the illuminated scale. either a sine bar or a group of combination angle gauges is set up on the base plate and the instrument is adjusted until a reading on both sides is obtained. he optical system and the view in the eyepiece are shown in next page In use. and is adjusted until the fixed scale reading is the same as on the setting gauge. he setup consists of a lapped flat and reflective base above which the optical details are mounted in a tube on an adjustable bracket. . induced compound angle errors are avoided. a gauge block to give a good reflective surface being placed on the face to be checked. the error being read in the other. hus.

1ptica# system of An #e de. Initially. it will be found to consist of two mirror images %due to double reflection& of the illuminated scale. If gauge blocks are held against both faces and the angle dekkor adjusted to give a reading. readings down to about B. "lthough this instrument is not so sensitive as the auto\$collimator. it is extremely useful for a wide range of angular measurements at short distances. Deadings direct to 6 min over a range of =B min may be taken.' min are possible. the method provides a quick and accurate means of testing squareness. superimposed on each other. It is used in tool room inspection. he type of view obtained in the eyepiece when the angle dekkor is used in this manner is shown below. no master is necessary. it is difficult to read.or o check the squareness of the work piece. and by estimation. but with practice. .. he misalignment of the readings of these images will be double the error in the right angle.

along with a square block.. each of whose angles are calibrated. Mnlike gauge blocks. Addition & &u\$traction of com\$ination an #e au es0 he values of the angles used are arranged in a modified geometric progression with a common ratio of . enable any angle between B ° and . hey are simply blocks. hese thirteen gauges.9ie7 in An #e de. it must be realised that angular blocks can be added or subtracted as shown below.or eye piece Combination angle gauges/ hese combination angle gauges are used as master in angle\$ dekkor. as shown below in a table. hardened and lapped to precise angles so that they can be wrung together.

he collimating unit contains a light source and condensers. he reflective properties of their lapped surfaces make them particularly suitable for use with collimating type of instruments. he gauges are used either in combination with each other or may be subtracted from the square block. the body of each of which is ground truly cylindrical and to a precise outside diameter.= %!e A#i nment %e#escope It consists of two units. the optical axis and the mechanical axis are coincident. in front of which is placed an angular graticule in the focal plane of the collimating lens.6 B. which are manufactured to the same high standards as gauge blocks. B. it will bring to a focus the parallel rays and the angular scale is seen against the datum lines in the telescope. .urther. %a\$#e+ Nomina# )a#ues of com\$ination an #e au es0 :egrees 6 . in front of the collimating lens. If the telescope is focussed at infinity. a collimating unit and a focusing telescope. sec. are stabilised. angular misalignment in both planes is determined. A '? :ecimal minutes B. and sightings taken from the telescope unit to the collimating unit. he gauges. hus.AB° to be realised in increments of . and are calibrated to a high degree of precision.B= B.. he collimating unit also contains. A '? <6 3inutes 6 . hus. a second graticule also having two scales at right angles to each other. his graticule scale is thus projected as a parallel beam of light. each unit may be fit directly or by precision bushing into two bearings. this graticule is seen . have -wringing! characteristics. If the focus of the telescope is now shortened. a considerable distance apart.

this is not so with the linear displacement scale. as the distance is increased. %!e A#i nment %e#escope It should be noted that distance has no effect on the angular misalignment readings. In this case. and the angular misalignment graticule cannot be seen because it is so far out of focus.. the accuracy of this reading diminishes with distance.'. as these are taken using the collimating principle. .against the datum lines of the telescope and linear displacements are measured directly. hus. hus. '. the size of the displacement scale is reduced and its -readability! is also reduced. the collimating lens is simply providing even illumination for the displacement graticule. he telescope only magnifies the apparent size of the scale as seen by the eye. " line diagram of the collimating unit and the view in the telescope eyepiece at both conditions of focus is shown in fig. +owever.

&ine \$ar It is a precision measuring instrument and is an excellent example of combination of linear measurement and angular measurement when used in conjunction with gauge blocks %slip gauges&. then sin θ 2 h0l he design requirements of a sine bar are as follows. :ial Fauge l 7orkpiece h θ )lip Fauges )urface #late h Fi 0 2024 &ine \$ar If l is the linear distance between the axes of the rollers and h is the height of the slip gauges. precision ground and stabilised. It should be used on a grade " surface plate. high chromium corrosion resistant steel. and unless these are carefully maintained the order of accuracy of angular measurement will fall/ i& he rollers must be of equal diameter and true geometric cylinders. It is made of high carbon. Delief holes are provided for easy handling of sine bar and for reducing the weight of the sine bar. . It consists of a bar carrying a suitable pair of rollers set a known centre distance. suitably hardened.

.o sine bar should be used to set off angles greater than <= °. iii& he upper surface of the beam must be flat and parallel with the roller axes.B6 x '=B06BB 2 B. his will not give an immediately correct setting from a first approximation. assuming that the end of a workpiece was B.B6mm low. b& )lip gauges should be kept beneath the setting roller attached to the end which is with taper shape but not beneath the hinge roller. "ssuming that the end nearest the high end of the sine bar is low. he work piece is then placed on the sine bar such that the surface whose taper angle is to be measured is facing upwards.or example. noting which end of the work is low. )ote : a& . #lace the plunger of the dial gauge on the upper surface of the work piece.in princip#e of &ine \$ar+ he sine bar is first kept on the surface plate. then the slip gauges height must be increased by an amount equal to the difference in the dial gauge readings multiplied by the proportion of sine bar length to work length. . ake readings with the dial gauge at both ends and note their difference. the errors due to the centre distance of rollers. then the required increase in height of slip gauge set will be B. but it is much quicker than a trial and error method. and these axes must be mutually parallel. #lace the set of slip gauges under one end of the roller of sine bar such that the upper surface of the work piece is approximately parallel with the table surface. then the sine bar is kept upside down on the surface of the work piece as shown below. and slip gauges.B'= mm. c& d& If the work piece is of large size.ii& he distance between the roller axes must be precise and known. :or. as beyond this angle. and equidistant from each. the sine bar being '=B mm long and the work 6BB mm long. his is to enable the slip gauges not to hit the bottom surface of sine bar. being in error are much magnified.

" Doller #ivot )lip Fau ges Fi 0202= &ine Centre . piece he height over the rollers can be measured by a vernier height gauge1 using a dial test gauge mounted on the anvil of height gauge to ensure constant measuring pressure. &ine Centre It is the )ine bar carrying centres to hold conical work piece.Dead ing D' :ial est Ind icator a .id u cial Ind icator Dead ing D6 Com p onent Oernier + eight Fau ge Fi 0 202. typical )ine centre set up is shown in next page. <se of &ine \$ar 7 it! #ar e 7 or.

o over come this. Be)e# Protractor It is the simplest angle measuring instrument. although a hazard to be avoided is of the work and centres not being co\$axial.he principle of setting is the same as in the sine bar. " simple vernier bevel protractor with its various elements is shown in fig. he equipment consists of a self contained sine bar hinged at one roller and mounted on its datum surface. &ine ta\$#e It is the most convenient and accurate design for heavy work piece. he angle is calculated from the slip gauges set in this condition. although it must be pointed out that any work which runs out to a measurable extent would probably be considered as sub\$standard in quality and be rejected on this account. he mean of the two angles determined will be the semi\$angle of the work piece. the work piece should be rotated on the centres until the maximum dial gauge reading is at the top. he table is quite rigid one and the weight of unit and work piece is given fuller and safer support. and then the work piece turned through 6@B° and the process is repeated. he sine bar may be safely swung to any angle from B° to AB° by pivoting it about its hinged end. .'.'?.