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Mechanical Engineeging

CONTENTS

1) Refrigeration test ring 2) Air conditioning test ring 3) Heat transfer through composite wall 4) Heat transfer through lagged material 5) Heat transfer in forsed convection 6) Emissivity measurement apparatus 7) Parallel and counter flow heat exchanger 8) Thermal conductivity of metal bar 9) Natural convection heat transfer apparatus 10) Critical heat flux apparatus

1 5 9 13 17 23 27 33 37 41

2 Mechanical Engineeging

SYLLABUS

CONTENTS

1) Refrigeration test ring 2) Air conditioning test ring 3) Heat transfer through composite wall 4) Heat transfer through lagged material 5) Heat transfer in forsed convection 6) Emissivity measurement apparatus 7) Parallel and counter flow heat exchanger 8) Thermal conductivity of metal bar 9) Natural convection heat transfer apparatus

1 5 9 13 17 23 27 33 37

Mechanical Engineeging

Aim:

To find the therotical , actual and relative COP of the refrigeration system and to plot the variation of the actual COP with the brine solution temperature

Apparatus:

Refrigeration test ring consists of a refrigeration system with the evaporater immersed in brine solution collected in a tank and an energy meter to read the input to the system. The test ring contains both capillary tube and thermostatic expansion valve. Any one of the above can be selected by opening the corresponding shut off valve and closing the other fully. NB: The pressure gauges used are for R-22 and is irrelevant here

Specification:

Refrigerant-R12

Pressure Gauges

Energy Meter

Volt Meter

Ammeter

P1

P2

P3

P4

Thermostat

Condenser

Motor

Compressor

Temp

P2

P1

Temp

Fig 1

Evaporator

2 Mechanical Engineeging

Principle:

The refrigerating effect (RE) produced by the system is calculated by measuring the temperature of the brine solution collected in the tank at regural intervels . The energy consumed by the system is calculated by noting the time taken by the energy metre disc for 5 revolutions. Knowing the input to the refrigerator and the refrigeration effect produced, the COP of the system is calculated. The actual COP is calculated using the actual input to the system and the actual refrigeration effect . The thereotical COP is calculated using the enthalpies at differient points of the system which are obtained by marking the temperature and pressure at these points in a P-H chart

Proceedure:

Switch on the refrigeration system.The pressure and temperature at salient points (before condensor,after condensor,before evaporator and after evaporator) and the time taken for 5 revolutions of the energy metre disc are noted for every 4 deree decrease in temperature of the brine solution . The pressure and temperature for the last set of readings are marked on the p-h chart and the enthalpies at these points are noted

Equations:

Mass of the brine solution , m= V Where, V= Volume of the brine solution in the tank = Density of the water Refrigerating effect , Input power = RE = m Cp Tb 3600 n comp K t Refrigerating effect Input Power Enthalpy difference across the evaporator Enthalpy difference across the compressor COPactual COPtherotical

COPactual

COPtherotical

h1-h4 h2-h1

COPrelative

Observation:

Length of the tank Width of the tank Depth of water in the tank Energy meter constant, K = = = =

Tabular Column:

Time taken for 5 rotation of the energy metre disc t Sec Time taken for 40C decrease in temp of the brine t1 Sec Temperature of the brine, TbOC Input for 40C decrease in temperature of brine , IP= 3600 n comp t1 Refrigerating effect RE=m Cp Tb RE IP

Sl no

Temperature

COPactual=

Kt

4 Mechanical Engineeging

Sample Calculation:

Pressure

3 4 1

Result:

COPactual COPtherotical COPrelative = = =

COPactual

Tbrine

Inference:

Aim:

To find the therotical, actual and relative COP of the A/C system

Apparatus:

The experimental set up consists of an air conditioning system with the evaporater kept in a duct through which air is allowed to pass and an energy meter to read the input to the system. A stop watch is used for measure the time taken for the energy metre rotation and thermometres for measure the dry and wet bulb temperatures.

Specifications:

Refrigerant-R22

P5 Energy Meter Volt Meter Ammeter HP/LP Cut out P6 Pressure Gauges

P1 Temp

P2

P3

P4

P5 Condenser Motor

P6 Orifice

Temp

Compressor

P2

P1

Evaporator

Blower

Fig 2

6 Mechanical Engineeging

Principle:

The refrigerating effect (RE) produced by the system is calculated by measuring the inlet and out let wet bulb temperature and the flow rate of the air passing through the duct at steady state condition. The enthalpy difference of the air passing through the duct is obtained by marking the wet bulb temperatures at the inlet and outlet in a psychometric chart. The mass flow rate of the air is measured with the help of an orifice meter fitted inside the duct.The energy consumed by the system is calculated by noting the time taken by the energy metre disc for 5 revolutions. Knowing the input to the system and the refrigeration effect produced, the COP of the system is calculated. The actual COP is calculated using the actual input and the actual refrigeration effect . The thereotical COP is calculated using the enthalpies at differient points of the system which are obtained by marking the temperature and pressure at these points in a P-H chart

Procedure:

Switch on air conditioning system. The temperature at the out let of the duct for every 5 minute intervel is noted until steady state is reached .After achieving the steady state low temperature at the evaporator, the pressure and temperature at salient points (before condensor,after condensor,before evaporator and after evaporator)are noted . The wet bulb temperature of the inlet and outlet air of the duct is noted.The time taken for 5 revolutions of the energy metre disc is also noted .

Equations:

Mass flow rate of air, = Density of the air h= (H1-H2) w a Where H1 and H2 are the manometric readings in metres of water Refrigerating effect (RE) = m(h1-h2) Where h1 and h2 are the enthalpy of the air at the inlet and outlet of the duct from the psychometric chart corresponding to Tw1 and Tw2 Where tw1 and tw2 are the steady state wet bulb temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the duct Refrigerating effect = m Cp (T1-T2) Input power = 3600 n comp K t m = V V= Volume of the air flowing through the duct per second = CdA 2gh

COPactual = Refrigerating effect Input Power Enthalpy difference across the evaporator Enthalpy difference across the compressor h1-h4 h2-h1

COPtherotical

COPrelative

COPactual COPtherotical

Observations:

Wet bulb temperature of the air at the inlet of the duct , Wet bulb temperature of the air at the outlet of the duct , Time taken for 5 revolutions of energy meter disk, t = Tw2 = Tw1 =

Tabular Column:

Pressure Before Condensor After Condensor Before Evaporator After Evaporator Temperature

8 Mechanical Engineeging

Sample Calculation:

3 4

Pressure

2 1

Result:

COPactual COPtherotical COPrelative = = =

Inference:

Aim:

a) To determine the thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of composite wall. b) To plot temperature gradient along composite wall structure.

Apparetus :

The apparatus consists of a central heater sandwiched between two sheets. Three types of slabs are provided on both sides of heater which forms a composite structure. A small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A dimmerstat is provided for varying the input to the heater and the measurement of input is carried out by a voltmeter and an ammeter. Thermocouples are embeded between interfaces of the slabs, to read the temperature at the surface. The experiments can be conducted at vatious values of input and calculation can be made accordingly. Specifications: 1. Slab assembly arranged symmetrically on sides of heater. 2. Heater : Nochrome heater wound on mica former and insultation with control unit capacity 300 watt maximum. 3. Heater control unit : 0 - 230 v., 0-2 Amps. Single phase dimmerstat (1 No.) 4. Voltmeter 0 - 100 - 200 v. Ameter 0 -2 Amps. 5. Temperature indicator (digital type) 0 - 200 0 C. A.C. Single phase 230 V.

300

T7 T5 T3 T1 T2 T4 T6 T8

25

12

12

10 Mechanical Engineeging

Principle:

Here the diametre of each slab is much larger than its thickness. So the heat transfer in the radial direction can be neglicted and Under steady state condition, the heat generated by the heater will be equal to the heat transfered through the slab assembly in axial direction.

Precautions :

1. Keep dimmerstat to zero before start. 2. Increase the voltage slowly. 3. Keep all the assembly undisturbed. 4. Remove air gap between plates by moving hand press gently.

Procedure :

1. See that plates are symmetrically arranged on both sides of the heater plates. 2. Operate the hand press properly to ensure perfect contact between the plates. 3. Close the box by cover sheet to achieve steady enviourmental conditions. 4. Switch on the power supply to heater. 5. By varying the dimmerstat, adjust the input at the desired value. 6. Take readings of all the thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until steady state temperature are achieved 7. Note down the readings in observation table.

Equations:

Heat supplied , Area of heat transfer, Temperature of the heater , Outer surface temperature of Cast iron, Outer surface temperature of wood Outer surface temperature of hylam Thermal conductivity of mild steel Thermal conductivity of wood Thermal conductivity of hylam Thermal conductivity of the composite slab Kc = 1/(1/Km+1/K w+1/Kh ) Q = VI Watts A = d2/4 TA TB TC TD = = = = (T1 + T2) / 2 (T3 + T4) / 2 (T5 + T6) / 2 (T7 + T8) / 2

Thermal conductivity of composite slab Where b = b1+b2+b3 Rm = 2 A (TA-TB)/Q R w = 2 A (TB-TC)/Q Rh = 2 A (TC-TD)/Q Rc = Rm+R w+Rh Rc = 2 A (TA-TD)/Q Thermal resistance of mild steel Thermal conductivity of wood Thermal conductivity of hylam Thermal conductivity of the composite slab Thermal conductivity of the composite slab K c = Q x b /2 (TA- TD)

Observations :

Wall thickness 1. 2. 3. Slab diameter , Volt metre reading, Ammetre reading, Cast iron, b1 Wood, Hylam, b2 b3 d V I = 25mm = 12 mm = 12 mm = 300 mm = =

Tabular Column:

Sl no Thermocouple readings in T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

O

C T7 T8

T6

12 Mechanical Engineeging

Calculations:

Results:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Km = Km = Km KC = =

Rm = Rm = Rm RC = =

T2

T1

T3

Temperature

T4 T6

T5 T7

9. Graph with thickness of slab material against temperature gradient

Inference:

HEA T TRANSFER THR OUGH LA GGED MA TERIAL HEAT THROUGH LAGGED MATERIAL

Aim

a) To determine the heat flow rate through the lagged pipe and compare it with the heater input for known value of thermal conductivity of lagging material. b) To determine the thermal conductivity of lagging material by assuming the heater input to be the heat flow rate through lagged pipe in radial direction . c) To plot the temperature distribution across the lagging meterial.

Apparatus :

The apparatus consists of three concentric pipes mounted on suitable stands. The inside pipe consists of the heater which is wound on the absestos threads on a metal bar. Between first two cylinders the insulating material with which lagging is to be done is filled compactly, Between second and third cylinders another material used for lagging is filled. The thermocouples are attached to the surfaces of cylinders appropriately to measure the tempetatures. The input to the heater is varied through a dimmerstat & measures on a voltmeter and Ammeter. The experiments can be conducted at various values of input and calculations can be made accordingly .

Specifications :

1. Diametre of GI Pipe inside 2. Diametre ofGI Pipe Middle 3. Diametre ofGI Pipe Outer 4. Length of Pipes 5 . Heater 6. Heater control unit 7. Temperature indicator

900

: 5 cm. : 10 cm : 15 cm : 0.9 m : Nichrome wire heater woundon M.S. shaft insultated with asbestos insulation : 2 Amp , 300W : Range 0 - 3000 c

15 10 5

T5 T3 T1 T2 T4 T6

Fig 3

14 Mechanical Engineeging

Precautions :

1. Keep dimmetstat to zero position before start 2. Increase voltage gradually 3. Keep the assembly undisturbed while testing 4. While removing or changing the lagging material do not disturb the thermcouples. 5. Do not increase voltage above 120 volts. 6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.

Procedure :

1. Arrange the pipes in proper fashion with heater assembly. (Arranged Normally) 2. Fill the lagging material in pipes uniformely & by gental pushing press the lagging material (Filled Normally) 3. See that material gets packed uniformely. 4. Close both ends of pipes & keep the assembly on stands. 5. Start the supply of heater & by varying dimmerstat adjust the input for desired valus (Range 60 to 120 watts) by using voltmeter and ammeter. 6. Take readings of all the 6 thermocuples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady state is reached. 7. Note down steady state readings in observation table. (Assumptions : The pipe is so long as compared with diameter that heat flows in radial direction only in middly half section. )

Equations :

Tinside Tmiddle Touter = (T1+T2) / 2 = (T3+T4) / 2 = (T5+T6) / 2

Actual Heat transfered, Q = VI Theoretical heat Transfered through Tinside - Touter the composite cylinder , Q = 1 1 r2 1 r3 ln + ln 2 L K a r 1 Kw r1

Combined Thermal conductivity Q ln of lagging material, K = r3 r1 - Touter )

2L( Tinside

Observations :

1. Inside Pipe OD. 2. Middle Pipe Mean Dia 3. Outer pipe I.D 4. Volt Meter Reading 4. Ammeter Reading D1 =50 mm D2=100 mm D3 =150 mm V = I =

Tabular column :

Sl no

Thermocouple readings in T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

C T6

16 Mechanical Engineeging

Sample Calculations :

Result:

Thermal conductivity lagging material = combined thermal conductivity lagging material = Graph with temperature Vs radial distance

Temperature

2 3

Radius

Inference:

Aim: To determine the heat transfer coeffient at the inner surface of a tube and to compare it with the same obtained from empirical relations Apparatus: The apparatus consists of a blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band heater . Four thermocouples are embeded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperatures. Test pipe is connected to the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure 8 flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater is given through the dimmer stat and is measured by volt metres and ammeters. A temperature indicater with cold junction compensation is provided to measure the temperature in the pipe wall of the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of an orificemeter and the water meter mano metre fitted on the board.

U-tube manometer

Blower

T1

T2

T3 Heater

T4

T5

T6

Orifice

Fig 4

18 Mechanical Engineeging

Specifications: 1. Pipe diameter Pipe diameter 3. Blower motor 4. Orifice dia 5. Dimmer stat 6. Temperature indicator 7. Volt metre 8. Ammeter 9. Heater Preacaution: 1. Keep the dimmersat to zero position before switching on the power supply. 2. Start the blower unit. 3. Increase the voltage gradually. 4. Do not stop the blower between the testing period. 5. Do not disturb the thermocouple while testing. 6. Operate selector swith of the temperature gently. 7. Do not exceed 200 Watt. Procedure: 1. Start and adjust the flow by means of a value to some desired difference in the manometer level. 2. Start the heating of the section with the help of dimmersat and adjust the desired input by means of wattmeter or voltmeter and ammeter. 3. Take the readings of all thermocouples at an interval of 10 min until the steady state is reached. 4. Wait for the steady state and taking the readings of all six thermocouple at steady state. 5. Note down the heater input. (d) (Do) (Di) = = = = = = = = = 32mm 28mm 50mm 1HP 14mm 0-2 Amp 0-260VA Range 0-300OC 0-100/200V 0-2 A Nichrome wire wound on test piece

Equations:

Power input to heater, where, V I Velocity of air, Flow rate of air, Heat transfer rate to air, where, Va Cd Cpa g Ha Hw

w a

Q = VI Watts

= =

Q = Qa a Cpa ( T6- T5 )

= = = = = = = = = =

Velocity of air Coefficient of discharge = 0.64 Specific heat of air 9.81 m/sec2 Differential pressure as expressed in meters of air. Hw x (w/a) Manometer reading in meter of water. Density of water at temp T from tables Density of air at temp T from tables. Volume of air flow in m3/sec Q A wall (Ts-AVE - Ta-AVE)

Qa

(T2+T3+T4+T5)/4 (T1+T6)/2

Di L

Re

Va Di

a-AVE

a-AVE

20 Mechanical Engineeging

Nusselt Number, where , a-AVE = Thermal conductivity of air at Ta-AVE Nu = 0.0233. (Re)0.8 . (Pr)0.4 Nu = hAVE Di a-AVE

By emperical relation,

Observations:

1. Outer diameter of the pipe 2. Inner diameter of the pipe 3. Test section length 4. Dia of the Orifice 5. Area of the Orifice 6. Coeff; of discharge 7. Acc. due to gravity 8. Area of the wall 9.Voltage 10. Current Do = 0.034m Di = 0.028m L d = 0.5m = 0.041m

Tabular Column:

Sl no Thermocouple readings in T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

O

C T6 Ta-AVE Ts-AVE

Calculations:

Result:

Heat transfer coefficient, h AVE-actual Heat transfer coefficient, h AVE-theoretical = =

Inference:

22 Mechanical Engineeging

Aim:

To determine the emisivity of the given aluminium test plate

Apparatus:

The experimental set up consists of two circular Aluminium plates identical in size and are provided with heating coils. The plates are kept in an enclosure so as to provide undisturbed natural convection surrondings. The heat input to the heater is varied by separate dimmerstats and is measured by using an ammeter and a voltmeter with the help of double pole throw switches . The temperature of the plates is measured by thermocouples. A seperate thermocouple is kept in the enclosure to read the ambient temperature of enclosure. One Plate is blackned by a thick layer of lamp black to form the idealised black surface where as the second is the test plate whose emissivity is to be determined.

Test Plate Ts Ta

Black Plate Tb

Fig 5

24 Mechanical Engineeging

Specifications :

1. Test plate diametre 2. Black plate diametre = 160 mm = 160 mm

3. Heater for test and black plates - Nichrome strip wound on micalsheet and sandwitched between two mica sheets. 4. Dimmerstat for test and black plates- 0-2A, 0-260 v 5. Voltameter 0-100-200 V, Ammeter 0-2 Amp 6. Enclosure size 58 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm approx with one side perpex sheet. 7. Thermocouples - chromel alumel - (3 Nos.) 8. Temperature Indicator 0 - 3000C with compensation for room temperature is to be adjusted initially 9. D.P.D.T. Switch.

Principle:

The heat energy through heater inputs to the two plates is dissipated from the plates by conduction, convection and radiation. The experimental set up is designed in such a way that under steady state conditions, the heat dissipation by conduction and convection are same for both the plates. So when the surface temperatures of the platesa are same, the difference in radiation characteristics are due to their different emissivities

Equations:

Under steady state conditions, Heater input to black plate, Wb Heater input to test plate, Area of plates , Ambient Temperature Emissivity of black plate, Stefan Boltzmann Constant, Eb

= Vb Ib watts = Vt It watts = (d2 /4) m2 = Ta = 1 = Et = 5.67x10-8 KJ/hr-m-oK = Eb A (Tb4 - Ta4) = Eb A (Ts4 - Ta4) = Et A (Tt4 - Ta4) = Et A (Ts4 - Ta4)

Wt A

Emissivity of non - black test plate Heat dissipated from black plate, qb Heat dissipated from test plate, qt

By using the Stefan Boltzmann Law : Difference in heat generated by the heat generaters So Wb - Wt Difference in heat dissipated from the plates

Precautions :

1. Use stabilised A.C. single phase supply (preferably) 2. Always keep the dimmerstats at zero position before start. 3. Use the proper voltage range in voltmeter. 4. Gradually increase the heater inputs. 5. See that the black is having a layer of lamp black uniformly. There is a possibility of getting absurb result if the supply voltage is fluctuating or if the input is not adjusted till the satisfactory steady state condition reached.

Procedure :

1. Select the proper range of voltage on voltmeter and Ammeter 2. Gradually increase the input to the heater to black plate & adjust it to some value viz. 30,50,75 watts. & adjust the heater input to test plate slightly lass than the black plate viz.27, 35,55 w. etc. 3. Check the temperature of the two plates with small time intervals & adjust the input of test plate only by the dimmetstat so that the two plates will be maintained at the same steady state temperature. This will require some trial and error and one has to wait sufficiently (more than one hour or so) to obtain the steady state condition. 6. After attaining the steady state , record the volt metre and ammeter readings for both the test and black heaters and the temperatures of test plate, black plate and the ambient 7. The same procedure is repeated for various surface temperature in increasing order if emisivity of the plate for different temperaturs are to be obtained.

26 Mechanical Engineeging

Tabular Column :

Sl No

Vb Volts

Ib Amp

Vt Volts

It Amp

Tto C

Tbo C

Tao C

Calculations :

Result:

Emissivity of the test plate =

Inference:

PARELLEL

Aim:

To determine the log mean temperature difference (LMTD), overall heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness of the heat exchanger in both parellel and counter flow arrangements

Apparatus:

The apparatus consists of a tube in tube type concentric tube heat exchanger. The hot fluid is the hot water which is obtained from an electric geyser and it flows through the inner tube while the cold fluid is the cold water flowing in the annulus. The hot water flows always in one direction and the flow rate is controlled by means of a gate walve. The cold water can be admitted at one of the ends enabling the heat exchanger to rus as a parallel flow apparatus or a counter flow apparatus. This is done by valve operations.

Specifications:

Inner tube material - Copper Outer tube material - G.I. Length of the heat exchanger I.D. d1 O.D d0 I.D. D1 L = = = = 10.5 mm 12.5 mm 27.5 mm 1650 mm

Gycer

Cold water in

Hot water in

Fig 6

28 Mechanical Engineeging

Precautions:

Switch on the heater only after starting the water supply

Procedure:

The valves are adjusted to obtain parallel flow condition. The flow rates in the hot and cold sides are adjusted to the desired values. Switch on the heater . The thermometer readings are noted at regular intervals until steady state condition is reached. To find the flow rate of hot water, the time for collecting 1 litre of water in the tank is noted. The same is repeated for cold water. The steady state readings are used for calculation. The experiment is repeated for counter flow arrangement by adjusting the valves.

Equations:

Parallel flow: log mean temperature difference LMTDp = (Thi- Tci) - (Tho-Tco) ln (Thi- Tci) (Tho-Tco)

Heat lost by the hot fluid Heat gained by the cold fluid Heat transfered , Where,

mh , mc - mass flow rates of hot and cold water Cph , Cpc - Specific heats of hot and cold water Over all heat transfer coefficient based on Ai , Inner surface area of the inner pipe Ai = di2 L Where, di = inner diameter of the pipe L = Length of the pipe Effectiveness of the heat exchanger , p = Where, Cmin - minimum of mh Cph and mcCpc Q Cmin (Thi -Tci) Ui = Q Ai (LMTD) p

Counter flow: Log mean temperature diference LMTD c = In Heat lost by the hot fluid Heat gained by thecold fluid Heat transfered , Where, mh, mc - mass flow rates of hot and cold water. Cph, Cpc - Specific heats of the hot and cold water Over all heat transfer coefficient based on Ai , Ui = Inner surface area of the inner pipe Ai = di L Effectiveness of the heat exchanger , c = Where, Cmin- minimum of mh Cph and mcCpc

Tci Counter flow Tco Tco Parallel flow Tci

Q Ai (LMTD) c

Tho

Thi

Tho

Thi

Thi

Thi

Tci

Tci

30 Mechanical Engineeging

Observations:

Inner diameter of the inner tube di = 10.5 mm Outer diameter of the inner tube do = 12.5 mm Inner diameter of the outer tube Di = 27.5 mm Outer diameter of the outer tube Do = 33.8 mm Length of the exchanger Parallel flow: Time for collecting 1 litre of water in the tank (hot fluid) th = Time for collecting 1 litre of water in the tank (cold fluid) tc = Counter flow: Time for collecting 1 litre of water in the tank (hot fluid) th = Time for collecting 1 litre of water in the tank (cold fluid) tc = L = 1650mm

Tabular Column:

Counter flow: Sl No TciOC TcoOC ThiOC TcoOC

Calculations:

Counter flow:

Parallel flow:

Result:

parallel flow

= = = =

counter flow

LMTD parallel flow LMTDcounter flow

Inference:

32 Mechanical Engineeging

Aim:

tures. To determine the thermal conductivity of material at different tempera-

Apparatus:

The experimental set up consists of a copper bar ( of which the thermal conductivity is to be determined) one end of which is heated by a heater, and the other end is cooled by circulating water. The heater consists of nichrome wire wound on one end of the bar. The main test section of the bar, ie. middle section, is enclosed in a cylindrical cover with insulating materials. This is to prevent radial heat lossses from the bar, So that the problem becomes a one dimensional heat conduction case. The other end of the bar projects into a cooling water chamber. Provision is there to measure the inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water, So that the heat conducted through the bar at the cooling water end can be quantified. Five thermocouples (T1 to T5) are fixed along the length of test section to measure the temperatures along the bar. Four thermocouples (T6 to T9) are placed in the insulating material radially to find the heat transfer in the radial direction.

Specifications:

Distance between the test sections = Length of the metal rod Metal rod diameter = = 10 cm 42 cm 2.5 cm 8 cm 5 cm

50

Diameter of cylindrical shell fitted with insulating powder = 15 cm Cooling water chamber diameter = Cooling water chamber length

100

R75

Heater

T7 55 35 T6

T9 Insulator T8 T4

100

T1

T2 Metal bar T3

T5

25

Twi water in

420

Fig 7

80

34 Mechanical Engineeging

Principle:

The heat generated at one end of the metal road is transfered to the water flowing through the second end by allowing the heat to flow in the axial direction . Any heat loss in the radial direction is also accounded by measuring the temperature at different radial distances of the insulator

Procedure:

The power supply to the heater is switched on. The desired voltage is given by adjusting the dimmersat. The cooling water supply is started and the flow rate is adjusted to about 350cc/minute. The thermocouple readings are noted at regular intervals until steady state condition is reached. The mass flow rate (m) and the inlet and outlet temperatures of water ( Twi and Two) are also noted. The temperature distribution along the length of the metal rod is plotted (fig 2)

Equations:

Cross sectional area of the rod Where, d - diameter of the rod Mass flow rate of water , (at the cold end of the rod) , Where, Cpw Two Twi Specific heat capacity of water Temperature of water at outlet Temperature of water at inlet m = mass of water collected/ time QAA = mCpw (Two- Twi) Heat flowing through the section AA A=

d2

(dx) - to be obtained from graph dT AA Heat conducted through the section BB QBB = QAA + 2KaLAB(T9-T8) ln Where, r0 r1

Length between sections AA and BB, LAB = 10cm Radial distances of thermocouples in the insulation. KBB = QBB dx ( ) A dT

BB

(dx) - to be obtained from graph dT BB Heat conducted through from the section CC QCC= QBB+ 2KaLBC(T9-T8) ln r0 r1

Temperature

36 Mechanical Engineeging

Observations:

Thermal conductivity of asbestos ka = Length between sections AA and BB LAB = Length between sections BB and CC LBC = Radial distances of the thermocouples in the insulation ro = 5.5cm ri = 3.5cm

Tabular Column:

Sl no Road surface temperature OC T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Temp in radial direction OC T6 T7 T8 T9 Water temp OC Twi Two

Caclculation

Result

Thermal conductivity at section AA, KAA = Thermal conductivity at section BB, KBB = Thermal conductivity at section CC, KCC =

Inference

AIM:

To determine the heat transfer coefficient at the surface of the given vertical cylinder and to compare it with the same obtained using empirical relations.

APPARATUS :

The apparatus consists of a copper tube fitted vertically in a rectangular duct. The duct which is open at the top and the bottom forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of the duct is made up of perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which heats the tube are measured using thermocouples. A dimmerstat is used to set the voltage to the desired value. The voltage and current are measured using voltmeter and ammeter respectively.

T5

T4

T3

T2 T6

T1

Fig 8

SPECIFICATIONS

Thermocouple - Iron - Constantan (J type) Diameter of tube d = 3.8cm 50 cm Length of the tube L =

Heater

38 Mechanical Engineeging

Theory and Principle

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transfered to the surrounding fluid by natural convection.The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the descrese in its density and the cold fluid rushes in from bottom side. The prosses is continues and the heat transfer takes place due to the relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles. When the system is under steady state, the heat generated by the heater and the heat dissipated from the vertical cylindrical surface due to natural convection is same.

Precautions

Switch on the power supply keeping the dimmerstat at zero position. Increase the voltage slowly Maintain constant power input

Procedure

Power supply to the heater is switched on. The desired heat input is given by adjusting the dimmerstat. Thermocouple readings are taken at regular intervals (say 15 minutes) until steady state is reached. The steady state readings are used for the calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Equations Area of the heat transfer Where, d - Diameter of tube L- Length of the tube Heat input Where, V - Voltage I - Current Average surface temperature Ts = (T1+T2+T3+T4+T5)/5 The heat transfer co-efficient h= Q As(Ts-T6) Q= VI As = dL

The surface heat transfer coefficient (h) of a system transferring heat by natural convection depends on the shape, dimensions and orientation of the surface. It also depends on the flluid properties. The dependendents of h on the above mentioned parameters is generally expressed in terms of non - dimentional groups, as follows. NU = C Grm Prn NU - Nusselt Number = hL K g T L3

2 Cp

C, m and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface. L - Characteristic dimension of the surface (in this case height of the cylinder) The fluid properties are taken at mean temperature Tm = (Ts+T8)/2 K - Thermal conductivity of air

- Density of air - Dynamic viscosity of air

- Coefficient of volumetric expansion of air = (1/Tm)

Observations

Diameter of the tube, d = Length of the tube Voltage Current L= V= I=

40 Mechanical Engineeging

Tabular Column:

Sl no

surface temperature OC T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Ambient temperature T6 OC

Calculations:

Result:

Inference:

Aim:

To study the pool boiling phenomenon up to critical heatflux point

Apparatus:

The apparatus consisits of a cylindrical glass container housing the test heater (Nichrome wire) and a second heater coil for initial heating of water. The second heater coil is directly connected to the main where as the test coil is connected to the main through the dimmerstat. An ammeter and a voltmeter is used to read the current volt and hence to measure the input to the test heater. The glass container is kept on an iron stand.

Specifications:

Glass container diameter Glass container height Heater for initial heating Test heater Test heater length Thermometre - 200 mm - 100 mm - Nichrome heatercoil - 1kw - nichrome wire - 0.25 mm - 100 mm - 10 -110 OC

Heater Coil

Test Coil

Fig 9

42 Mechanical Engineeging

Theory and experiment:

The experimental set up is designed to study the pool boiling phenomenon up to critical heat flux point. The pool boiling over the heater wire can be visualised in the different regions up to the criticl heat flux point at witch the wire melts. The heat flux from the wire is slowly increased by gradually increasing the applied voltage across the test wire and the change over from the natural convection to nucleat boiling can be seen. The formation of bubbles and their growth in size and number can be visualised followed by vigorous bubble formation and their immediate carrying over to surface and ending this in the breaking of wire indicating the occurance of critical heat flux point. This is repeated for, various temperatures of the water in the container upto the saturation temperature

Precautions:

1) Keep the variac to zero voltage position before starting the experiment 2) Make sure that both the heaters are immersed in the water. 3) Connet the tast heater wire across the studs. 4) Do not touch the water oir terminal points after putting the switch in ON position. 5) Very gently operate the variac in steps and allow sufficient time in between. 6) After the attainment of the critical heat flux condition decrease the voltage slowly and bring it to zero.

Procedure:

1) Take 3 to 4 liters of distilled water in the container. 2) See that both the heaters are completely immersed. 3) Connect the heater coil and test coil across the studs and make the necessary electrical connections. 4) Switch on the initial heater. 5) Keep on till you get the required bulk temperature of water in the container say 50O,60O,70O up to the saturation temperature. 6) Swith off the initial heater. 7) Swith on the test heater.

8) Very gradually increase the voltage across it by slowly changing the variac from one position to the other and stop a while at each position to observe the boiling phenomenon on wire. 9) Record the voltage and current at various intermidiate stages 10) Go on increasing the voltage till wire breaks and carefully note the voltage and current at this point. 11) Repeat this experiment by altering the bulk temperature of the water .

Equations:

Surface area of the test heater, A Heater input, Critical heat flux q = dL = VI q A

qcritical =

Observations:

1) Diametre of test heater wire , d = 2)Length of the test heater, L =

Tabular Column

Bulk temp of water TbOC 40 50 60 70 80 90 Saturation temp Ammeter reading I Amp

Sl No

44 Mechanical Engineeging

Result:

Inference:

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