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Evaluating public art in the North of England: Logic models, frameworks and emerging impact
David Usher and Ian Strange Local Economy 2011 26: 203 DOI: 10.1177/0269094211401490 The online version of this article can be found at: http://lec.sagepub.com/content/26/3/203
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2013 . Durham County Council.sagepub.nav DOI: 10.In perspective Evaluating public art in the North of England: Logic models. quality of place Context and programme logic Over the last decade public art has increasingly become associated with the wider processes of regeneration and place shaping.co. UK.uk/journalsPermissions. In an evidence based policy environment. Durham.usher@durham. Principal Economic Analyst. revealed that the management information normally associated with evaluation processes was in short supply. Keywords evaluation. There are good grounds for concern. public art. frameworks and emerging impact David Usher Durham County Council. UK Local Economy 26(3) 203–213 ! The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub. Corresponding author: David Usher. This approach helped not only to identify how the programme worked but also the timescale in which. This reflected a number of factors including the uncontained audience which views public art.com Ian Strange Leeds Metropolitan University. evaluation has a key role to play though there are pitfalls for the unwary. DH1 5UF. County Hall.gov.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. The paper outlines the evaluation process which developed logic models to understand the ‘theories of change’ through which the programme was designed to influence downstream impacts. for example. increased visitor spend or changing resident perceptions might feed into house sale volumes in a given local economy. undertaken by the authors. perceptions. Public investment in art is controversial and public perception can be mercurial. better and more iconic trophies to enhance identity on the international stage. Email: david. An evaluation of the Northern Way’s ‘Welcome to the North’ public art programme.sagepub. logic models. its outcomes and impacts being time lagged and a reluctance amongst the cultural community to be subject to scrutiny. One key finding is the need to allow sufficient lapsed time for outcomes and impacts to become evident. UK Abstract Public art has increasingly become associated with wider processes of regeneration and place shaping.uk Downloaded from lec.1177/0269094211401490 lec. It is increasingly part of the landscape of regions and cities across the UK which are competing for bigger.
with the result that outcomes and impacts become more evident with elapsed time (Bovaird. However. there is a complex combination of factors which come together to ‘tip the scales’ and change both internal and external perceptions of a city or city region. Further. the assessment of the impact of public art in relation to wider regeneration beneﬁts is complex and diﬃcult to identify. often evolving over a number of years as public art pieces grow in signiﬁcance. it is more common for appreciation of public art to increase with the passage of time as perceptions change. Public art is now a feature of many cities as they aim to transform their economies and establish their cultural competitive advantage on a global stage. reactions may be initially weak. There is also reluctance amongst the cultural community to be subject to scrutiny and evaluation. conscious or subconscious. 1997). public investment in art is controversial and public perception can be volatile. but eventually strengthen. any outcomes are time lagged. to one considering whether money spent on arts programmes has more of an impact than if spent on other programmes (Ixia. In an evidence-based policy environment evaluation has a key role to play. reactions might be initially strong and highly negative. Cities and their hinterland may be regarded as being successful in a range of social. artists worry that an Local Economy 26(3) evaluation of the economic and social impact of the arts reduces culture from being an end in itself to the means by which other ends are achieved.sagepub. when an artist is asked how he or she would assess the success of a public art project. there is an emergent view that the debate has moved beyond that of whether the existence of the arts has a beneﬁcial impact. However. but then evolve to become highly positive. It sought to do this by coordinating and promoting cultural events and attractions including the development of a programme Downloaded from lec. In essence. better and more iconic trophy to enhance its identity on the international stage. Conversely. though success in one area does not guarantee success across in others. in many cases the cultural and economic impacts of renaissance are time lagged and. and in the context of a targeted programme of investment. social and physical decline has become a central concern of government and regeneration agencies.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. Sandle. In the North of England. Understanding the dynamics and processes that generate that success across a speciﬁc time frame. and the fact that audience contact can be intentional or accidental. Frequently. Through a programme known as ‘Marketing the North to the World’ the Northern Way aimed to strengthen the North’s cultural oﬀer and image to support economic growth. For example. the response is more likely to be ‘whether I can sleep at night’ than an assessment of economic or social factors. As we have already suggested. 2013 . Recognizing a successful place when you see one is easy. At the same time. 2005). economic or cultural ways. ultimately. As Larkinson (2004) has pointed out. is more of a challenge. Moreover.204 Every region and city wants a bigger. 1995. Indeed. the fact that the target population for anticipated impacts of the art is very broad. the extent to which public art positively contributes to the regeneration of areas and neighbourhoods that have been subject to economic. direct or indirect (Jacobs. diﬃcult to attribute to a given event or programme of investment. the Northern Way—a partnership between the three northern Regional Development Agencies (RDAs)— has aimed to market the North of England to an international and domestic audience by building on the image of its three regions and maximizing the potential of its cultural assets. This is reﬂective of a number of factors including: the uncontained nature of the audience that views public art. 2008).
outcomes are long term and. improve perceptions of the North and enhance the quality of a pan-regional place oﬀering.5 million for investment during the period 2006–9 under the auspices of the ‘Welcome to the North’ (WTTN) public art programme. its exhibition was made permanent in 2007 with Northern Way investment funding. they make a case for how the elements of project design ﬁt together to produce downstream outcomes and impacts. The statues span three kilometres of the Merseyside foreshore at Crosby beach. In evaluating the WTTN public art programme we have used a ‘logic model’ framework focusing on understanding the ‘theories of change’ through which the programme is designed to inﬂuence mediumand long-term Northern Way objectives. ‘Welcome to the North’ public art programme The delivery of the WTTN public art programme led to the commission of ﬁve physical public art installations and a virtual tour (The Wonderful North). Theory Approach Logic Models are often used in government organizations where the vision and aim are not exclusively aimed at ﬁnancial beneﬁt and because. This model is based upon the theoretical premises upon which a programme is designed and provides a theory-based rationale for the issues to be addressed by the programme and the way in which the programme intends to produce solutions. It comprises a light and sonic work created by international Downloaded from lec. in these circumstances. intermediate. A logic model can be constructed to reﬂect a project’s theory of how it is going to produce change within a speciﬁed target system. public art projects were allocated approximately 4. as 205 in the case of public art. logic models were applied at the individual project level and aggregated to provide a framework for the programme. . Logic models therefore provide one means of exploring how the public art programme works.or shorter-term outcomes can be identiﬁed that provide an indication of progress toward the long-term outcomes and impact. 2013 . Another Place won the ‘Tourism Experience of the Year’ at the Mersey Partnership Annual Tourism Awards and it is estimated that 500. This is termed a Theory Approach Logic Model (WK Kellogg Foundation. A Sound and Light Transit—is a key component of the Leeds Holbeck Urban Village regeneration and development programme.sagepub. in this instance. Originally installed in 2005. the indicators to be used and the illustrative timescale for the achievement of the anticipated impacts. in turn. Another Place—is a public art installation by the internationally acclaimed artist Anthony Gormley. The rationale for the Northern Way Public Art Programme was that the design and delivery of high quality public art pieces would raise the proﬁle of the North of England. was designed to reverse negative attitudes to the North of England embodied in its industrial legacy as well as contributing to a higher and more sustainable level of economic wellbeing. Within the evaluation of the WTTN programme. 2001).com at Ural Federal University on June 10. This. From the overall Northern Way investment fund comprising 100 million.000 visitors view the sculptures annually. The rationale explains why a programme design is likely to be successful and outlines what success might look like.Usher and Strange of public art at key gateways and by raising the proﬁle of the North in the media. outcomes and impacts are expected to be achieved. The programme level logic model shown in Table 1 sets out the mechanisms through which anticipated outputs. The ﬁve initial installations included: . Often.
etc. resources. Downloaded from lec.regional investment plans City region development plans Wider awareness of project Wider awareness Rising house prices of North of England Rising land and commercial floorspace values Civic (regional/ sub-regional governance.) Inward Environmental migration/lower (aesthetic quality out-migration of area. marketing. amenity benefits) Quality of life Private sector (access to investment artistic/creative activities.) Attraction of Creation of sense new skills of place/identity and businesses Business creation Local Economy 26(3) . inward investment. priorities local enterprise Sub-regional Moving conditions Forward: The Northern Way Business Plan 2005–8 ‘Self-image’ Shaping the of region North’s Cities—An and localities Agenda for the next decade.sagepub. logistics. and Northern tourism. word of mouth etc. perception objectives.. objectives.) Design competition Changing perceptions Visitor numbers Social (inc. and localities priorities Partnerships Regional and economic stakeholders strategies Turning the Consultation Local awareness Place Over with local and self-image audience tourists.Table 1. competitiveness. etc. creative Way region enterprise) Reduced anti-social behaviour Single regeneration budget Another Place Procurement Demand for more public art Local economic partnerships Arts Council England. 2007 External RDA visions. etc. improved partnership working. Internet.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. visitors A Sound and ‘Remote’ Improved Light Transit participation— confidence media. of region resources. Programme logic model 206 Inputs Outputs Outcomes—Impact Situation Northern Way funding for projects Programme activities— Projects: Artistic/creative Audience reaction and input Support appreciation services (admin. Temenos Media coverage Regional Local tourism authorities strategies Sub. lower anti-social behaviour) Priorities Resources Activities Participation Short-term —3 years Medium-term —5 years Long-term —10 years RDA single pot funding Halo External perception Economic (inc of project area inward investment. 2013 Northern Regional Way vision.
For each of the above objectives a series of outcome and emerging impact indicators was established together with the identiﬁcation of potential data sources to inform them across the short. a circular ring and an oval ring. 5 and 10 years). . raised seven metres oﬀ the ground on a tripod at a site above Haslingden in Rossendale. This provided a means of capturing time lagged outcomes and impacts across a 10-year time frame. increased positive perception of the North of England .sagepub. Hartlepool and Darlington. Redcar. a twice-nominated Turner Prize candidate. medium and longer term (3. Halo is an 18 metre diameter. all held together by a cradle of steel wire. Downloaded from lec. The installation involves solar light panels to create a sense of transit through the tunnel. Evaluating public art An evaluation framework for the programme was developed using logic models developed for four of the individual public art projects as the foundation. with the regeneration aspirations of Tees Valley Regeneration to deliver the ﬁrst of a series of ﬁve structures. of Arup. The programme has created works that epitomize the new images. Launched during September 2007. These objectives were designed to impact on a wide range of local. conﬁdence and aspiration of East Pennine Lancashire. businesses and property developers. Temenos—brings together the world class visions of artist Anish Kapoor and structural engineer Cecil Balmond. The development of the evaluation framework was a key element during the formative stage of the evaluation. The structure was announced during 207 July 2008 for Middlesbrough and four subsequent pieces will be placed over a 10-year period in Stockton. Halo is at the centre of a wider partnership to reclaim a 32 hectare site. The work is a seven metre high and nine metre wide ovoid cut from the fac ¸ ade of the building capable of rotation in three dimensions. circular steel structure. It was launched during Architecture Week in June 2007. Turning the Place Over—is the work of Richard Wilson. 2013 . community groups. The plans for the site included improving its quality of place in an attempt to encourage visitors to the area. . to form the jewel in the crown of Liverpool’s cultural oﬀering throughout the city’s 800th birthday celebration in 2007 and its year as European City of Culture in 2008. . improved quality of place in speciﬁc sites across the North of England . One key aim of the installation is to demonstrate the contribution of public art to improving the public realm and solving environmental design problems and as a symbol of the cultural conﬁdence in Leeds and the city region.Usher and Strange artist Hans Peter Kuhn installed at the east side wall of the underpass in Leeds city centre. raised proﬁle of the North of England. Halo—Panopticons and Land started as the ﬂagship project for East Lancashire’s Regional Park programme. regional and national audiences in the ﬁrst instance including local residents. The evaluation framework was designed upon the principles identiﬁed in the programme logic model and was based upon the following core programme objectives: . Temenos is a 50 metre high steel structure consisting of a pole. visitors.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. The short-term (up to three years) indicators identiﬁed are shown for each of the programme objectives in Table 2.
website hits/downloads.208 Table 2. stakeholder surveys Public art commissioning organization Public art commissioning organization Arts Council England/Northern Way Programme Manager Public art commissioning organization Web search—company websites and brochures. encouraging other integrated design team projects Increased level of tendering for public art work Number of regions aiming to acquire art pieces of similar type Number of approaches to Northern RDAs and Arts Council England to initiate public art programme Number of businesses using name of public art piece as logo/strap line Number of developers who are aware of the public art installation and who have increased their interest in developing in the North Percentage of visitors who cite public art project as main reason for visit to area Raising the profile of the North of England Output (up to three years) Generation of media attention—coverage.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. monitoring of tourism guides Local resident and business surveys Local resident and business surveys Published city/regional audit/image surveys Downloaded from lec.sagepub. conferences Extent of coverage in tourist guides and promotional tourist literature Changing perception reflected in use of positive words to describe the North of England in the media Percentage of respondents—general population—who feel that public art has raised the image of the North of England Local Economy 26(3) Data source Resident survey proximate to public art installation Resident survey proximate to public art installation Resident survey proximate to public art installation Resident survey proximate to public art installation Resident survey proximate to public art installation Public art commissioning organization Data source Public art commissioning organization Media sources. Evaluation framework: short-term indicators2 Improved quality of place in specific sites across the North of England Output (up to three years) Improved resident satisfaction with quality of place within 5 mile radius of public art Percentage of residents who feel that public art has increased local pride Percentage of residents of residents who feel that public art has increased local distinctiveness Reduction in residents intending to leave the area Improved satisfaction/comfort/health and safety of city/district users as a result of public art Number of jobs created Increased positive perception of the North of England Output (up to three years) Number of consultation exercises with local audiences Community involvement in designing art work—number of participants. 2013 . press cuttings Developer survey Visitor survey at public art installation Data source Monitoring of local and national media coverage Monitoring of local and national media coverage. total contact hours. articles/journals/magazines.
through the strapline ‘New Icons of the North’.000 annual visitors. Richard Wilson. to enquire about the process of commissioning public art as part of the Olympic Games in 2012. The communications strategy for the programme. At the local level. resident views toward neighbourhoods in close proximity to WTTN art installations were examined through Acxiom data.1 The dynamics of resident views were found to be broadly similar in each of the areas adjacent to the public art installations with around one-half believing their neighbourhood to have improved or stayed the same over the previous 12 months (however.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. regional and local tourist guides. the speciﬁc contribution of public art to this view remains unknown). Another developer. the programme has met with considerable success. The ‘Halo’ project reported increases in visitor numbers to the area to view the public art installation and further claims are made associated with visitors to the North. suggested that the proximate ‘Another Place’ was both a ‘talking and a selling point’ and it featured in the developer’s promotional housing prospectus. In terms of raising the proﬁle of the North of England. in particular. Hans Peter Kuhn and Anish Kapoor to tender for art pieces in the North of England. the views of key stakeholders and secondary evidence provide an illustration of emerging outcomes associated with the programme to date. refreshed early in 2008. Burbo Point Ltd. WTTN commissions have been used to promote the North as a tourism and visitor destination. In relation to improved quality of place in speciﬁc sites across the North of England. The overall approach was designed to develop a communications stream that focused. was primarily concerned with the external positioning of the programme within the media and aimed to develop a wider sector-led debate around public art and regeneration. the regional development agency. Private developers had positive perceptions associated with the role of public art Downloaded from lec.sagepub. Additionally. More than 50 articles on the programme in the North West of England have been published in local and regional newspapers. The development company ISIS was enthusiastic about the potential of ‘A Sound and Light Transit’ in Leeds city centre ‘to change the nature of the local area in a positive way for residents and workers’. In terms of increasing positive perception of the North of England. which indicate that ‘Another Place’ has attracted in the region of 500. the Olympic Committee has made a recent approach to Yorkshire Forward. the Welcome to the North programme has attracted artists of international standing such as Antony Gormley. This approach was summarized in a special issue of the Art & Architecture Journal (2008) published in the autumn of 2008 which served to raise awareness of the Implications for pan-regional economy It is still too early to assess the wider impact of the WTTN public art programme as most installations are at an early postinstallation stage as ‘pieces of public art’ with potential impacts more likely to emerge at a later stage. However. ‘A Sound and Light Transit’ (Leeds) formed the cornerstone of a proposed Art Festival during 2009 and ‘Turning the Place Over’ (Liverpool) was an integral part of the wider European City of Culture initiative during 2008.Usher and Strange 209 in raising the desirability of an area. This is particularly the case in the North West region where two of the installations have featured in several national. 2013 . on ‘marketing and PR elements to generate public and media interest in the public art programme nationally and internationally’.
or inter-regional gateway sites in the context of the wider Northern Way. This slowed the process and made it hard to deliver signiﬁcant projects within the timescale (SQW Consulting. the planning and regulatory framework surrounding public art can result in an uncertain and protracted lead-in time. and the lead-in time involved in the commissioning and installation of public art on the other. a number of policy issues have been raised by the WTTN programme. 2009). only three of the art pieces can be regarded as gateway locations. The three northern RDAs contracted delivery through Yorkshire Forward who subcontracted it to Yorkshire Culture. the complex nature of public art evaluation. These factors make it diﬃcult to proﬁle capital expenditure as it can result in signiﬁcant and unexpected project delays. Another factor contributing to the weakening of strategic direction was that the majority of public investment in the art installations was capital spend. to Arts Council England. ‘Another Place’ in the North West and ‘Temenos’ in the North East. 2013 . the WTTN programme launched a website during April 2008 which features the background to the programme. In practice. this factor did not prevent the identiﬁcation and delivery of high proﬁle art pieces at the pan-regional Public art evaluation During the course of our evaluation it became increasingly apparent that there were a wide range of factors that make evaluation of public art complex. from both a design and build perspective. often particularly diﬃcult to manage in the context of public art. as a gateway to the city of Leeds. Moreover. However.210 overall programme and its place in the North of England. Equally. while a number of gateway art pieces have been installed. in the absence of investment by the Northern Way.sagepub. most notably those of strategic direction. Local Economy 26(3) level. However. there is some debate as to whether these represent pan. It is therefore entirely consistent to anticipate that the development of the WTTN programme became delivery focused with strategic considerations being compromised in some instances. Policy implications The investment by the Northern Way in the Welcome to the North programme has. it is intricate and complex to construct. who subcontracted it. it is evident that key art pieces would not have gone ahead. enabled a pan-regional art programme to be both commissioned and delivered more quickly than would have been possible if public investment had not been available. the art projects and their associated artists. Public art tends to be exploratory in nature. It is to a discussion of these issues that we now turn.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. in turn. it is entirely reasonable that expedient delivery of speciﬁc projects has directed the nature of commissions in favour of those which were at a more advanced stage of development. The delivery of the WTTN programme involved an unusual line of accountability. These include ‘A Sound and Light Transit’. from a strategic and catalytic perspective. Whilst this may have resulted in some degree of strategic opportunity being subdued (exempliﬁed by the original vision for major pieces at Manchester Airport and the M62 Motorway Corridor). including Another Place. While there is a requirement from public funding agencies Downloaded from lec. the opportunities for inter-agency and collaborative working and programme promotion. In particular. In addition to these developments. Strategic direction Given the timescale of the delivery phase of the project (three years) on the one hand.
However. it is clear that in the arts there are many views as to what should be measured and what the indicators should be. the connection between evaluation and funding presented contentious issues which led to evaluation being perceived as little more than a symbolic auditing process.sagepub. To date though.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. socio-cultural frameworks have more resonance. Indeed. However. expressed as a communication issue between tourism and culture delivery staﬀ. For the Northern Way and RDAs. . and the cultural outlook of artists which tends to value the aesthetic nature of a given art installation over and above its potential to improve economic conditions. Others. promotional activity came to the fore. the opportunity to link in the development of public art with place marketing and the attraction of overseas tourists was less evident. were supportive of local project evaluation. the presence of the art and its impact upon public sentiment will continue to emerge over time. but showed little interest in a pan-regional assessment of the WTTN programme. there is also a need to identify ways in which the art can be mobilized to promote quality of place and improve the perception of the North of England in the long term. 211 Communications and inter-agency working One aspiration has been for the cultural assets of the WTTN programme to beneﬁt tourism and encourage economic development. Until recently. there is a fundamental mis-match between the objectives of RDAs which include the assessment of economic impact arising from programme delivery. there has been limited interconnection between the WTTN programme’s public art as a medium of Downloaded from lec. mostly programme sponsors. Whichever view was taken. stakeholders articulated a diversity of orientations towards evaluation.Usher and Strange for robust impact-oriented evaluation. economic impact and Strategic Added Value are priorities. in part. marketing the North to investors. Within the WTTN programme. One of the key recommendations from project and stakeholder feedback was the need to maximize publicity and promotional messages during the post-delivery stage of the programme in order to ensure that its impacts continue to accrue. The wider objective ‘Marketing the North to the World’ was built upon existing foundations in terms of activity in overseas marketing. as opposed to pan-regional level. In practical terms this may require linking the imagery and presence of the art work to major event promotion. In its early phase as the WTTN programme evolved and became established.regional agency would enable them to achieve a higher proﬁle for their respective projects. The intention was to initiate joint working in tourism and the promotion of speciﬁc destinations to overseas visitors between the three northern RDAs. economy and visitor perceptions The limited level of interaction between these three sub-objectives was. In essence. attracting European and overseas tourists . 2013 . together with calls for accountability and transparency. were keen to see the WTTN evaluation implemented. The limited level of breakthrough beyond the regional level was a cause for concern for some of the local projects who had felt that funding enhancement from a wider pan. For many of those involved in public art. stakeholders suggested that there was little operational connection between the three strategic aims of the Northern Way’s ‘Marketing the North to the World’ objective and the WTTN programme: . culture. mostly local projects. However. Some. the programme achieved a higher proﬁle and prominence at the regional.
it is too early to assess the impact of the WTTN programme as the installations have only been recently ﬁnished. In a wider sense. Our evaluation framework allowed us to identify what these might be and how they might be measured and captured. or of being supported by evidence. We would argue that the use of logic models has shown that they provide a valuable framework for assessing the operation of the programme. Reflections on the evaluation framework and logic model approach The evaluation framework developed for the assessment of the WTTN programme was designed to provide a consistent basis upon which to assess programme outputs during its early post-implementation phase. These types of assertion have. this enabled the detailing of the relationship between programme resources. Perhaps the strongest conclusion to emerge from the evaluation is that there is a need to allow time for the impacts of public art to become evident. Conclusion The ‘Welcome to the North’ programme was originally intended to inﬂuence a Downloaded from lec.212 place marketing and the attraction of domestic and overseas visitors. visitor numbers or crime levels to the presence or otherwise of public art. the framework developed for this evaluation provided a realistic foundation as it conﬁrmed that outcomes of the WTTN programme are lagged and reﬂected the complexity of capturing and demonstrating attributable data at an early stage following the art installation process. which is now at an end. as well as a basis for the development of the framework. been made in the context of consistent economic growth. Through the articulation of the framework it was recognized that the wider programme objective to make an economic impact on the North of England through investment in public art is more likely to follow over the longer term as a downstream impact. cultural and economic beneﬁt. They also provide simple illustrations of the relationships between components of projects and/ or programmes.com at Ural Federal University on June 10. the link between the iconic status conferred upon public artworks and the application of quantitative data can be highly tenuous and a robust evaluation framework can help to establish credibility to claims of social. There is clearly a range of reasons for this. As we suggested earlier. In the current phase of ﬂatline economic growth it is more diﬃcult to attribute wider changes in say. In some instances this was viewed as useful whilst in others it was seen as an oversimpliﬁcation of complex processes. The development of logic models provided a valuable opportunity to identify the rationale and associated objectives underlying each of the respective projects. The impacts of the art works will emerge some time into the future. Overall. perceptions at a North of England level and a raised proﬁle for the Northern Way. house prices. outcome and impact potential. we are left with the conclusion that public art is a necessary condition for the image and perception of a location to be raised although not a sufﬁcient one to achieve wider regeneration beneﬁts. The value of the logic models has been to promote discussion and analysis of the programme. over the period 1993 to 2008.sagepub. Signiﬁcantly. they provided one input for the development of the detailed evaluation framework for the programme. activities. At present. The objectives encompassed economic impact through investment in public art and increased awareness of the beneﬁts of public art. Local Economy 26(3) range of Northern Way objectives including improved quality of place. In turn. outputs. 2013 .
Sandle D (2008) Some reﬂections on the evaluation of public art. References Art & Architecture Journal (2008) New icons of the North. 213 Ixia (2005) Research on public art: Assessing impact and quality. 66/67. leisure choices.uk/ﬁle_download/173. Larkinson E (2004) Assessing public art. Available at: http:// www. Available at: http:// www.pdf. In: Julier G (ed. Acxiom produces national lifestyle survey data covering demographic. Bovaird AG (1997) Public art and economic regeneration: An economic assessment.edu/CHWToolkit/ PDFs/Logicmod/logicmod.arizona. OPENspace.edu/escult/Water/Cardiﬀ/Acrobats/ bovi. Downloaded from lec. In: Ramesar A (ed. Monogarﬁes Psico Socio Ambientales.co.sagepub. SQW Consulting (2009) An Evaluation of the Northern Way 2004–2008: A Final Report to the Northern Way. Available at: http://apps. WA: Bay Press. Leeds: Leeds Metropolitan University. A Public Art Program Sculpture. The data can be profiled at very small area level (SOA in most cases). 2013 .) Urban Regeneration: A Challenge for Public Art. Evaluation and Action: Logic Model Development Guide. Green Places 9: 1. 2. Seattle. The framework was designed to capture the realization of potential positive benefits flowing from the respective art pieces once delivery had been achieved.) Counting Creativity Symposium 2.publichealth. Jacobs MJ (1995) Culture in Action.com at Ural Federal University on June 10.sqw. environment and perception of public places and services.Usher and Strange Notes 1. Autumn.pdf. The data is refreshed every year and includes information for over 1 million households. WK Kellogg Foundation (2001) Using Logic Models to Bring Together Planning. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona.