You are on page 1of 14

ÞII]ÞI 8o||ers

:
8ugged, CosL-LffecLlve and
uependable under llre
Since 1867, The Babcock &
Wilcox Company
(
B&W
)
has
been designing, manufacturing,
installing and commissioning
the world’s most reliable and
efficient steam-generating
systems and environmental
equipment. B&W also services,
repairs, modifies, upgrades
and replaces existing systems
and associated equipment,
regardless of the original
manufacturer. With boiler
installations operating in more
than 85 countries, B&W has
the experience and flexibility
to meet the ever-changing
needs of both the industrial
and utility markets. B&W is
recognized globally for its
unmatched responsiveness
to customers’ needs.
2
BURNERS SUPERHEATER
SCREEN TUBES
BOILER BANK
STEAM DRUM
FURNACE
LOWER DRUM
B&W PFI Boiler
B&W PFT Boiler
3
GAS OUTLET
SCREEN TUBES
LOWER DRUM
STEAM DRUM
SUPER-
HEATER
INTEGRAL AIR PLENUM
BURNERS
STEAM COIL
AIR HEATER
AIR
HEATER
GAS
OUTLET
FORCED-DRAFT
FAN
FURNACE
Proven Design for Dependable Steam Production
Reliable performance
in a wide variety of
industries
B&W’s PFI (Power for
Industry) and PFT (Power
for Turbine) integral furnace
boilers continue our tradition
of excellence with over
275 units totaling more than
78,000,000 lb/hr of steam
capacity worldwide. Our
established reputation for
reliability and proven
performance is continually
enhanced by incorporating
customer feedback in
conjunction with the latest
technological advancements
in our design. Many 1950
vintage PFI/PFT boilers are
still in service today. The
conservative furnace size
and burner spacing of the
PFI/PFT design has proven
itself to be a reliable work-
horse across a wide range
of heating, process and
power markets such as:
• Petroleum and chemical
refineries
• Pulp and paper mills
• Steel mills
• Manufacturing and
processing facilities
PFI PFT
Steam Flow 100,000 to 700,000 lb/h 350,000 to 800,000 lb/h
(45 to 317 tm
) (159 to 363 tm
)
Steam Pressure Up to 1150 psig (79.3 bar) Up to 1800 psig (124.1 bar)
Steam Temperature Up to 960° F (516 C) Up to 1000° F (538 C)
Approx. Superheater Steam
40 to 100% (Natural Gas) / 60 to 100% (Oil)
Temperature Control Range
Standard Sizes Available 11 37
Furnace Tube Size / Spacing 2.5 in. OD (6.35 cm) 3.0 in. OD (7.62 cm)
on 3.0 in. (7.62 cm) centers on 3.75 in. (9.53 cm) centers
Superheater Tube Side Spacing 6 in. (15.24 cm) 4.5 in. (11.43 cm)
Generating Bank Gas Flow Horizontal Vertical
Fuels Natural Gas, Refinery Gas, Oil, CO, BFG, COG,
Various Combustible Byproduct Gases and Liquids
Waterside Design Natural Circulation
Type of Support Bottom Support
Setting Design Pressurized Furnace
Type of Superheater Fully Drainable
Installation Indoor – Outdoor
• Utility power generation
plants
• Municipalities
• Heating for corporate and
institutional buildings
System components
complement operation
Specifically designed to
complement each other in
operation, all major compo-
nents in the PFI/PFT boiler
system can be supplied by
B&W depending on your
needs:
• Boiler
• Instruments and controls
• Burners, staging ports and
burner management system
• Valves
• Fans
• Motors
• Sootblowers
• Flues, ducts, dampers
and expansion joints
• Platforms and steel
• Additional options
(feedwater pumps, fuel
pump and heating set,
deaerators, chemical
feed systems, economizers,
air heaters, environmental
equipment, steel stacks)
Pre-engineered B&W PFI/PFT boilers are available in a wide range of sizes and operating conditions:
4
Designed and Built From Experience
Features and Benefits: Furnace
Welded membrane wall construction provides the gas-tight setting absolutely necessary for all
PFI/PFT boilers. This construction minimizes outages caused by gas leaks. B&W’s membrane
wall panels use large diameter tubes and small membrane spacing. This provides a larger volume
of water in our furnace walls which results in the best combination of heat transfer efficiency,
faster load response and maintenance accessibility.
3-3/4 in. 3 in. O.D.
Tubes
3/4 in.
3 in. 2-1/2 in. O.D.
Tubes
1/2 in.
With the advent of the PFI
boiler in 1958, B&W’s
engineers were the first to
recognize that if boilers
could be designed without
consideration for solid fuels,
they could incorporate many
cost-saving features without
sacrificing quality and
dependability. Accordingly,
B&W incorporated many
innovations which had never
before been integrated in
industrial boilers. These
included membrane wall
setting, maximum shop
assembly of components,
fully drainable superheaters,
minimal use of refractory,
complete bottom support
and integral air plenums.
In the late 1960s, the B&W
PFT was developed in
response to the need for a
rugged and versatile boiler
which would provide high-
pressure, high-temperature
steam, yet would fire practi-
cally any liquid or gaseous
fuel. By pre-engineering all
components which combine
for the various sizes and
operating conditions
required, B&W design
engineers provided substan-
tial savings in installed
cost, as well as a significant
decrease in the time between
the placing of an order for
a PFI/PFT and its initial
operation.
B&W’s PFI/PFT boilers
operate on positive furnace
pressure from a single
forced draft fan, eliminating
the need for an induced
B&W maximizes shop assembly of components
to save time and money.
Furnace membrane walls; front, side, roof and floor
PFI PFT
Seal at furnace corner
5
draft fan, motor and
auxiliaries, along with the
associated operating and
maintenance costs.
Without question, the
PFI/PFT boiler design drives
maintenance to a minimum.
Gas
Flow
Baffle
Baffle
PFT - SIDE VIEW
Furnace waterwall cooling includes not only the furnace front wall, side walls, roof and floor, but the
high heat duty screen tubes in front of the superheater as well. This unique boiler feature locates total
water cooling where it can contribute most to keeping maintenance costs down. Each screen tube is a
single flow path between drums to assure proper circulation and cooling.
When B&W designed the PFI/PFT, every effort was made to minimize furnace refractory, a major
maintenance area in boilers. Burners are located together on the furnace front (firing) wall, incorporating
fully water-cooled throats. As a result, there is no troublesome burner tile to point up or replace. The only
baffle used in a PFI is located at the cool boiler outlet zone. The PFT has no hot refractory baffles, only
water-cooled refractory, an alloy plate supported in the hot zone and an alloy plate in the cool zone.
For applications requiring extended steaming capacities, low draft loss or high gas flow conditions, the
PFI can be arranged as a twin furnace by joining two opposite-hand PFIs side-by-side.
Typical gas flow through available generating bank arrangements
Baffle
Baffle Wall
Gas
Flow
PFI - PLAN VIEW
Baffle
Baffle Wall
Gas
Flow PFI - TWIN PLAN VIEW
Gas
Flow
Baffle
A complete boiler bank assembly
is moved into place for installation.
B&W takes full advantage of maximum shop assembly
of components. The furnace is shipped to the field in
10 to 15 pieces with all headers shop welded. Even the front
wall is shop assembled, complete with burners and windbox,
saving time and money while assuring high quality control.
Features and Benefits: Furnace (Continued)
6
PFI – PLAN VIEW Gas
Flow
Gas
Flow
Gas
Flow
PFI – TWIN PLAN VIEW
Baffle Baffle
Baffle
Baffle Wall
Baffle Wall
Baffle
Baffle
PFT CROSSFLOW – SIDE VIEW
Gas
Flow
PFT - SIDE VIEW
Baffle
Gas
Flow
Baffle
PFT LONGFLOW – SIDE VIEW
Gas
Flow
Bottom support provides the most economi-
cal arrangement and requires less headroom in
the plant. Separate supports are located for
the drums, superheater headers and furnace.
Clearances, seals and supports are designed
for known expansions in all directions from the
fixed point.
The forces from normal operating positive furnace
gas side pressures are contained by a system
of buckstays comprised of tie bars and wide
flange structural members. This buckstay system
accommodates the effects of thermal expansion,
temperature and pressure stresses, as well as
wind and earthquake loading appropriate
to the plant location. Because our buckstays
are not welded to the furnace walls, weld tears
are eliminated.
Our furnace seal design provides a continuous
gas-tight seal between the tube membrane and
drums. Where inner cased construction is used, a
10-gauge plate is welded to the tie bars instead of
directly to the pressure parts. To maintain casing
above the dew point temperature, the plate
is formed around the tie bar to ensure close
plate-to-tube contact.
Recognizing the need to avoid departure from
nucleate boiling (DNB), our engineers have
designed the furnace to achieve conservative
heat flux rates. For the same heat input, the PFI/
PFT furnace has a heat flux rate less than half that
of a package-type boiler, making it especially
tolerant of boiler water containing high silica
and organics.
The PFT’s design allows furnace height to vary
independently of the boiler height. Therefore,
a taller boiler bank is not required for a taller
furnace.
Tie Bar
Standoff
Bar
Pin Tie Bar
Buckstay
Support Lug
End Connection
Assembly Buckstay
Sidewall
Roof
Tubes
Seal
Weld
3/8 in. Dia.
RND Bar
B&W’s PFI and PFT boilers are bottom supported
to provide the most economical arrangement.
Buckstay arrangement
Roof seals provide a continuous gas-tight seal.
7
Superheater
Header Supports
Clips
Furnace
Supports
Drum Saddle
Drum Foundation
Tie Bar Pin
Standoff
Bar
Tie Bar
End Connection
Assembly
Buckstay
Support Lug
Buckstay
Sidewall
Seal
Weld
Roof
Tubes
3/8 in.
Dia.
Features and Benefits: Drums and Circulation
B&W PFI/PFT boilers are designed with extra-large steam
drums fit with the best available steam separating internals
for high steam purity and positive circulation. Because the
intent is to provide the driest steam possible for process or
turbine, as well as the most solid recirculating water head,
all PFIs and PFTs are equipped with B&W Cyclone Steam
Separators and two stages of downstream scrubbers.
Water
Steam
Steam and
Water from
Risers
Baffle
B&W Cyclone Steam Separators provide the highest
steam purity and ensure positive circulation.
8
Features and Benefits: Superheater
The superheater incorporates B&W’s proven multi-
pass design for high steam velocities, assuring
equalized cooling steam distribution in all circuits.
This minimizes the need for high alloy steels, even in
areas of highest temperature. Because the super-
heater is positioned in a partial radiant heat zone, the
steam temperature characteristic of the PFI/PFT
is nearly flat from about half load and higher.
This affords close control of process heating
requirements or turbine operation over a wide
load range while minimizing attemperation
requirements.
Fully drainable superheaters, specially designed
by B&W for PFI/PFT boilers, do not trap hydrowater
or steam condensate. Compared to pendant
superheaters that must be boiled clear, B&W’s
drainable design saves valuable time during startup
while minimizing the chances of over-heat during
the pressure-raising stage.
The PFI/PFT superheater circuits are completely
welded from header to header. All bends are
precisely die formed; no cast or forged bends are
used. Tube materials and thicknesses may be
customized for special applications.
The PFI/PFT superheater also benefits from its
positive bottom support. This allows only minimum
differential expansion relative to furnace floor tubes.
Lateral tube supports maintain gas lane spacing
and limit vibration. Headers are located in their own
vestibule, well out of the flue gas stream, and the
superheater incorporates a convenient outlet con-
nection at the operating-floor elevation.
The PFT superheater elements are spaced closer
together (4-1/2 in. center-to-center) compared with
the PFI (6 in. center-to-center). This means that the
PFT can accommodate more rows of surface for
the same boiler width, making it a favorite for high
steam temperature requirements.
Dry Steam
Steam and
Water from
Risers
Baffle
Steam-Free Water
Even when load changes and transient
conditions are wide and frequent, B&W’s
PFI/PFT steam drum internals and water
circuit design have been developed to
assure positive circulation across the
entire load range. The circulation design
of the PFI/PFT has been developed so that
all high heat absorbing tubes are carefully
arranged as vertical upflowing circuits,
and downcomer circuits are specifically
located in the low gas temperature region
of the boiler.
Incorporating the use of B&W’s Cyclone
Separator steam drum internals comple-
ments the circulation design by providing
excellent steam purity and steam-free
recirculated water that assure adequate
circulation flow to satisfy the design
conditions at all loads. The design of the
boiler’s circulation system with the Cyclone
Separator steam drum internals minimizes
the drum water level swings that can occur
with high-capacity boilers. With appropriate
controls, the ample steam drum volume
with B&W internals can be designed to
handle a wide variation in load change.
When superheaters or special processes
are required, steam with less than 1 ppm
solids can be obtained. Turbine blades are
kept cleaner and costly superheater tube
failures caused by solids carryover are
significantly reduced. The drum internal’s
design also allows free end flow to minimize
turbulence and end-to-end level fluctuation.
Water tubes entering the drums are rolled
into specially grooved seats to provide
more holding power and seal integrity as
demonstrated by over ten million rolled
joints worldwide. Tube joints operating
above 1500 psig (103.4 bar) are seal
welded for additional seal integrity.
Tube Expanded
into Grooves
Generating
Bank Tube
Drum
Seal Weld
(Over 1500 psi
Design Pressure)
Rolled tube joints and grooved tube seats provide
excellent holding power and seal integrity.
Saturated Connections
Steam Sampling
Drypan Secondary
Scrubber
Primary
Scrubber
Normal Water Level
Cyclone
Separators
1in.
Chemical
Feed
Feedwater
Distribution
Pipe
Continuous
Blowdown
Downcomers Riser Tubes
Specially designed steam drum internals
enable rapid load changes.
9
The integral air plenum concept designed into B&W’s PFI assures that installation at the plant
is vastly simplified. The “straight-through” arrangement of the PFI/PFT boiler with a regenerative
air heater is the most common because it is the most functional. However, because the plenum
(integral duct-flue surrounding the rear, top and front of the PFI) can be internally baffled to
accommodate almost any duct inlet or flue outlet, an unlimited number of both air heater and
economizer arrangements are possible. The PFT air duct is routed under the furnace floor. Both
plenum arrangements make operation easier and minimize space requirements.
A lower drum heating coil can be supplied to maintain the boiler in a hot standby condition,
substantially reducing re-start time from a matter of hours to a matter of minutes. Thermal sleeve
connections, which eliminate stress from differential expansion, are standard.
A lower drum heating coil will
reduce re-start time.
Lower Drum
Thermal
Sleeve
Heating Coil
Coil Support
Brackets
Steam
In
Condensate
Out
Features and Benefits: Burners and Environmental Equipment
Designed primarily for natural gas and oil firing,
the PFI/PFT is also used for incinerating a wide
range of liquid and gaseous waste fuels, and as
a heat recovery boiler for gas turbines. With
multiple burners and suitable controls, self-
sustaining fuels can be fired individually or in
combination.
The burner wall is large enough to accommodate
a wide range of burner types and configurations
including those of B&W’s design or others.
A portion of the combustion air can be introduced
through sidewall ports located downstream of
the burners to promote staged burning for lower
NO
x
emissions. Recirculated flue gas may be
introduced into the combustion air stream for
additional NO
x
control. The completely water-
cooled firing wall absorbs additional heat from
the gas, thereby limiting thermal NO
x
formation.
For the same input, the PFI/PFT furnace has
about six times the volume of a package-type
boiler which better accommodates long flame
lengths typical of today’s low NO
x
oil and gas
burner technology.
B&W is responsive to ever-tightening requirements
on airborne emission limits. Given the variety of
fuels that can be burned in the PFI/PFT, B&W will
support your air emission requirements with add-
on technology for control of acid gas, particulate
and other specified compounds.
10
Special Features Set the PFI/PFT Apart From Others
Lower Drum
Heating Coil
Steam
In
Condensate
Out
Thermal
Sleeve
Coil Support
Brackets
Master hand hole (MHH) fitting
Babcock & Wilcox Design Competitor’s Design
Seat Seat
Master Hand Hole (MHH) Fitting
3/8 in.
Maximum
Header
Flexible Block
Insulation
Membrane Wall
Insulation
Support Tine
Self-Attaching Speed Nut
with Tine Bent Over
Protective
Metal Lagging
Membrane wall with block insulation and lagging
enables indoor or outdoor installation.
11
Special inspection doors for pressurized
operation allow observation of both com-
bustion conditions and cleanliness of
heat-absorbing surfaces. Safety is provided
by a special interlock that assures that
compressed air is properly aspirating at the
aperture before the door is opened.
Economizers and air heaters are available
for increased efficiency. Pre-engineered
arrangements of extended surface or bare-
tube economizers, as well as regenerative or
tubular air heaters are offered to meet varying
fuel, space and economic considerations.
Sootblowers are properly located for effective
cleaning of the superheater and generating
bank heat transfer surfaces. Sootblower
bearings, wallboxes and tube openings are
standard on all PFI/PFT boilers, regardless of
fuels fired.
PFIs firing oil or other ash-containing liquids
have boiler banks arranged for effective lane
blowing via rotating-type sootblowers. Molten
oil ash normally will run off superheater tubes
making sootblowers in this area unnecessary.
Where a particular ash makes liquid-to-solid
transition at the entrance to boiler banks,
retractable sootblowers can be located at this
area. The PFT has wide cavities within the boiler
bank to accommodate the number of soot-
blowers necessary to handle especially tough
cleaning requirements.
Wash-water troughs and drains are standard
on every new PFI/PFT boiler to facilitate off-
line water-washing.
Master hand hole (MHH) fittings are strategi-
cally located in water and steam headers
where access is required. The MHH fitting
weld is designed to avoid cracking associated
with stress build-up in the seat.
Indoor or outdoor operation are both made
possible by the all-metal lagging construction
which presents a good appearance, is quite
durable and requires minimal maintenance.
MHH fitting is un-seated when
weld cools and contracts,
eliminating stress build-up
in the weld.
MHH fitting is seated tightly
to header when weld cools and
contracts, leaving weld stressed
and vulnerable to cracking.
Competitor’s Design Babcock & Wilcox Design
Master Hand Hole (MHH) Fitting
Seat Seat
Header
3/8 In.
Maximum
Flexible Block
Insulation
Insulation
Support Tine
Protective
Metal Lagging
Membrane Wall
Self-Attaching Speed Nut
with Tine Bent Over
Total Scope Supply
and Services
B&W’s extensive, worldwide
experience allows us the
flexibility to easily meet
diverse project requirements –
anything from a knock-down
boiler to an entire steam
island. We can package your
boiler system with properly
sized, quality auxiliaries to
match your needs and our
standards of excellence.
Stringent quality control
standards
At B&W, quality assurance
is integral to our design,
engineering and manufac-
turing processes. To ensure
all codes and specifications
are met, B&W uses stringent
quality control procedures
and sophisticated testing
apparatus. Rigid standards
B&W’s manufacturing facilities maintain
the highest quality standards.
12
have been established for our
material suppliers as well.
B&W’s commitment to
quality is evidenced by our:
• Advanced technology –
B&W builds quality into
its products during every
process and stage.
• Strength in size and
capacity – facilities,
manpower and global
presence provide you
with a complete range
of fabricating processes.
• Outstanding responsive-
ness – B&W is equipped
and structured to meet
your delivery needs and
requirements.
Manufacturing and
safety excellence
B&W PFI/PFT boilers
are designed, engineered
and manufactured at our
West Point, Mississippi,
USA facility. This plant is
ISO-9001 registered, ASME
code approved and is in
compliance with AWS code
requirements. B&W’s West
Point plant also maintains an
outstanding safety record and
has been awarded the OSHA
Star Status in the Voluntary
Protection Program.
Manufacturing and safety
excellence are a continuous
goal for B&W.
Worldwide responsive
service and manufac-
turing support
B&W’s network of domestic
and international sales repre-
sentatives and field service
engineers assures you of a
prompt response – whether
servicing and upgrading your
existing system or specifying
new equipment. We can
provide services ranging
from routine inspection and
controls tuning to capacity
increase engineering studies,
low emissions conversions, or
new digital control systems.
To meet the needs of the
global market, we also
design, engineer and manu-
facture PFI/PFT boilers in
accordance with all B&W
standards through various
international operations and
licensees.
Support services
B&W believes that customer
satisfaction and trust is built
by maintaining close contact
with the customer after the
sale. In addition to equipment
supply, B&W offers compre-
hensive support services
including:
• Field service engineering
• Inspection and maintenance
services
• Engineered upgrades or
custom modifications
• Long-term service
alliance programs
• Training programs
• Operating instructions
• Spare parts manuals
• Start-up and commissioning
services
• Replacement part ordering
by phone or Internet
24 hours a day
Reliable single-source
supplier
B&W’s proven expertise in
boilers, burners and controls
makes us a reliable and
responsive single source for
PFI/PFT boilers and auxiliary
equipment. From engineering
and manufacturing to field
construction, start-up and
operation, B&W knows how
to make it all work together
for maximum operating
efficiency and dependability.
A network of B&W field service engineers is available for
customer support long after the sale is completed.
13
8abcock & W||cox Þower Generanon Group, Inc.
20 S. van 8uren Avenue
8arberLon, Chlo 44203 uSA
Þhone: 330.7S3.4S11
lax: 330.860.1886
1he lnformauon conLalned hereln ls provlded for general lnformauon
purposes only and ls noL lnLended nor Lo be consLrued as a warranLy, an
oñer, or any represenLauon of conLracLual or oLher legal responslblllLy.
© 2004 8abcock & Wllcox Þower CeneraLlon Croup, lnc.
All rlghLs reserved.
3 S00A0C
8abcock & Wllcox Þower Cenerauon Croup, lnc. ls a
subsldlary of 1he 8abcock & Wllcox Company (8&W).
LsLabllshed ln 1867, 8&W ls a world leader ln provldlng
sLeam generaung and emlsslons conLrol equlpmenL,
nuclear operauons and componenLs, and defense
program managemenL servlces.
lor more lnformauon, or a compleLe llsung of our sales
and servlce omces, call 1-800-8A8CCCk (222-262S),
send an e-mall Lo lnfo[babcock.com, or access
our Web slLe.
www.babcock.com