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Running Head: BRITISH AIRWAYS 1

Change Management in British Airways Name Class Affiliation Instructor Date

Table of Contents
Table of Contents........................................................................................................................ 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 2 Context of the change ................................................................................................................. 2 Evaluation of the nature of such changes ...................................................................................3 The change management strateg ..............................................................................................! The challenges and difficulties in im"lementing such changes....................................................#

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2 Change management model........................................................................................................$ %ta&eholders................................................................................................................................ ' (anagerial challenges............................................................................................................... 1) *vercoming resistance to change..............................................................................................11 (anaging change...................................................................................................................... 12 Conclusion................................................................................................................................. 13 References................................................................................................................................ 1#

Introduction ! largest international Airline" British Airways" is among the lea#ing airlines in the worl#" with one of the most e$tensi%e route networ&" running internationally 'British Airways" ()*)+, The income of the airline has -een on the increase with the .rofits for the .erio# -etween ())/ an# ())0 -eing a total of 10"/23" which translate# to 3,*4 more than the .re%ious .erio#, Throughout its o.erating years" British Airways has face# #ifferent challenges" as it is for all other com.anies in the in#ustry, During the year ())/" the American economy e$.erience# a crunch #ue to the -ursting of the housing mar&et, This was the -eginning .art of the ())0 economic crisis" or recession" which ha# glo-al effects '5slun#" ()*)+, 6i&e any other in#ustry" the ! airline in#ustry face# a ma7or set-ac&" British Airways -eing one of the com.anies an#

there was a nee# to im.lement changes for long com.any sur%i%al, This .a.er is an analysis of the changes im.lemente# -y the British Airways in the .erio# -etween ())8 an# ()**" an# the challenges face# -y em.loyees an# management #uring the change .rocess, Context of the change 9rgani:ation change is a useful strategy in times of crisis" or when an organi:ation e$.eriences .erformance ga., There may -e other reasons for change -ut e$amining a goo#

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num-er of com.anies an# institutions that ha%e institute# wi#e;ranging changes" one notes that they mostly #eal with the two issues, Com.anies may ha%e goo# strategies in .lace -ut e$ternal an# internal factors can lea# to them failing, <or e$am.le" management strategies can sometime contain inherent contra#ictions that create management s.aces that in turn lea# .ractices an# i#entities that contra#ict o%erall aims an# o-7ecti%es of the com.any, The ())0 economic crisis" or recession" which ha# glo-al effects le# to the colla.se of many com.anies, An e$amination of British Airways com.any=s financial statements on the com.any=s we-site shows that it ma#e a .rofit of 10/2 million that was >uic&ly followe# -y a loss of 1?)* million in ())8 'Milmo" ())8+, It was after the com.any=s mi#year loss that it -ecame a..arent that change was in#ee# nee#e#, Although the shortcomings face# -y the com.any may ha%e -een -ecause of a mi$ of -oth internal an# e$ternal factors" change was still a necessary un#erta&ing if the com.any was to sur%i%e, A rise in oil .rices" for e$am.le" nee#e# to -e countere# -y cost re#uction within the com.any=s o.eration" which coul# only -e achie%e# through measures such as staff retrenchment or free:ing any more .ay rises, In other wor#s" the com.any=s mo%e to change was moti%ate# -y the nee# to sur%i%e, The airline in#ustry has seen a stea#y growth from its -eginnings in the early () th century an# with that growth challenges ha%e also emerge#, Tra#itional airlines such as British Airways ha%e o%er time -een force# to com.ete with low cost airlines that charge low fares, In a##ition to this" the glo-al economic #ownturn has seen the com.anies e$.eriencing lower .assenger num-ers es.ecially in tra#itionally strong mar&ets such as the nite# States ' S+ an# the nite# !ing#om ' !+, Evaluation of the nature of such changes The C@9 of British Airways Mr, Willie Walsh suggeste# changes that mainly re%ol%e# aroun# cost re#uction, He as&e# wor&ers to ta&e un.ai# lea%es an# to .erform un.ai# wor&

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-etween a month, To set a goo# e$am.le to the wor&ers" Willie Walsh went without his monthly salary of 1A*"))), The first of the changes that the com.any #i# was to cut #own on the num-er of staff, Accor#ing to BBC '())8+" the com.any starte# off" -y a retrenchment .lan" which woul# see ?8)) em.loyees losing their 7o-s, The thin&ing -ehin# the retrenchment -y the com.any was that the com.any was o%erstaffe# an# that the high num-er of em.loyees was not commensurate with the costs, <or instance" the com.any=s management .ro.ose# that the num-er of ca-in crew for long haul flights are re#uce# from *2 to *?, This means that for a long time the com.any ha# -een .aying one e$tra ca-in crewmem-er .er flight yet there was no economic reason for the .ayment, A.art from the retrenchment .lan" British Airways sought to ma&e further sa%ings -y free:ing any future .ay rises for at least two years, The Chief @$ecuti%e of the com.any 7ustifie# the .ay free:es an# the retrenchment .lan -y noting that the s.i&e in glo-al oil .rices an# the transatlantic recession ha# ma#e the com.any=s o.erations at the time unsustaina-le 'Blum-erg C Dohnson" ())0+, He therefore warne# that any resistance to the .lanne# changes woul# lea# to e%en more gra%e conse>uences such as com.any insol%ency, British Airways engineers agree# to a more efficient wor&ing system an# managers acce.te# a re#uction of salaries, To cut e%en more cost" ca-in crew=s wor&ing hours were e$ten#e#" meals were scra..e# an# only -rea&fast was left, Though the British Airways management .ersonnel were rea#y for the change" the ca-in crew was still resistant to change, The change management strategy The C@9 of British Airways" Willie Walsh reali:e# that with the economic crisis" there was a nee# to re#uce the -usiness cost from to. to -ottom, Intro#uction of a change is one thing an# it a %ery #ifferent thing to ensure that the change strategies are im.lemente# an# manage#

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'British Airways" ()*)+, <or successful management of change" a lea#er lea#s in the esta-lishment of a %ision that is clear for the .rocess of managing change, This hel.s in creating a .icture of the outcomes which are antici.ate# an# where this lea#s the organi:ation, <or new realities to -e a#o.te# effecti%ely an# to ensure the organi:ation -enefits from these changes" monitoring an# e%aluation is nee#e#, This hel.s in the #etermination of how effecti%ely the change has -een manage# an# the -enefits that it has -rought into the organi:ation 'Eraet: C Smith" ()*)+, It is also through this way that the organi:ation reali:es areas that nee# to -e im.ro%e# or e%en change#, Willie Walsh i#entifie# the .ro-lems that British Airways was facing an# i#entifie# the necessary cost cutting strategies to assist the -usiness in the reco%ery .rocess, The challenges and difficulties in implementing such changes When im.lementing any form of change in an organi:ation" lea#ers face challenges such as resistance from in#i%i#uals" who #o not want to change an# acce.tance from others, During his effort to turnaroun# the .erformance of the British Airways com.any" Willie Walsh recei%e# un#erstan#ing from some of the em.loyees" -ut face# resistance from others,

F@%eryone &nows that British Airways is in financial #ifficulty, Many of my colleagues un#erstan# this, 9ur .ilots ha%e agree# a .ay cut, 9ur engineers ha%e agree# more efficient ways of wor&ing, A thir# of our managers ha%e acce.te# %oluntary re#un#ancy, An# nearly /"))) colleagues %olunteere# for salary re#uctions -ecause they wante# to hel. this great British com.any in a time of #ire nee#G 'WA6SH" Willie" ())8+,

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Walsh also face# a fair #eal of change im.lementation challenges, Among the ma7or challenges were .ose# -y the ca-in crew" as they were against retrenchment" an# e$tension of wor&ing hours, The resistance from the ca-in crew was strong an# resulte# in stri&es 'Samuel C Bri#ges ()*)+, Willie Walsh ha# to ma&e sure that the strategies are im.lemente#" an# e%aluate# to ensure an increase in organi:ation .erformance,

When Willie Walsh was -usy .lanning the change strategies" the ca-in crew unite union was -usy organi:ing a counter action through a stri&e, They announce a *(#ays stri&e that was to start on Decem-er ((n#" ())8" an# en# on Danuary (n#" ()*), This was going to -e a stri&e organi:e# o%er the Christmas .erio#" an# woul# result in to more losses for the com.any that was trying to re#uce loses, <ace# with this challenge" British Airways mo%e# to court an# ac>uire# an in7unction to sto. the stri&e 'BBC" ())8+, When im.lementing change in an organi:ation" it is im.ortant for the management to organi:e or .re.are for change, This is can -e through creating communication to em.loyees on the nee# for organi:ation change, Willie Walsh use# the authoritarian system of organi:ation lea#ershi. an# #i# not offer the wor&ers a chance to e$.ress their feelings a-out the changes 'Dyer" ()*)+, Most of the o..osition an# resistance face# #uring the change .rocess was #ue to the fact that there was no clear communication from the com.any to the em.loyees on the effect that the economic recession woul# ha%e to their 7o-s an# salaries, Therefore" it was necessary for the com.any to im.ro%e the communication -etween the management an# the wor&ers to ensure that their contri-ution is hear#" an# that the com.any is in a .osition to han#le any future .ro-lems,

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British Airways is has face# many o.erational an# managerial challenges, The management has to #eal with staffing issues" strategic issues" an# manage the costs effecti%ely, 9ne of the .ro-lems that the management has to #eal with is staff resistance to change an# stri&es, Staff form a crucial element in enhancing the success of an organi:ation, As a result" the management has to treat em.loyees in a fair an# moti%ating manner" in or#er to enhance .erformance, Accor#ing to Whysall" an organi:ation that treats their sta&ehol#ers well is .ercei%e# to -e well; manage# 'Whysall" ()))+, Sta&ehol#ers= theory maintains that the management of e%ery organi:ation must consi#er the in.ut of sta&ehol#ers since they are the ma7or forces -ehin# sustaina-ility" com.etiti%eness an# .rofita-ility of a -usiness '6ittau" Du7agiri C A#l-recht" ()*)+, 6ea#ershi. is a fun#amental concern of the change .rocess as change starts with the i#entification of what nee#s to -e change# an# which an# then goes to the stage of e$ecuting an# im.lementing this change, In an organi:ation" it is from the .eo.le that a manager is a-le to i#entify the change areas, This is the as.ect of connecting the .eo.le in the .rocess of change an# when it comes to the im.lementation of this change" it is e$.ecte# that the change will -e more acce.te# -y the .eo.le, Democratic lea#ershi. is a %ery effecti%e form of lea#ershi. as in#i%i#uals in an organi:ation are gi%en the o..ortunity to .artici.ate in to the #ecision ma&ing .rocess of the organi:ation 'Beerel" ())8+, In this form of lea#ershi." mem-ers of an organi:ation feel a..reciate# an# it enhances their .ro#ucti%ity, Due to the feeling of -eing engage# in #ecision ma&ing" in#i%i#uals of an organi:ation -ecome more .ro# of wor&ing there an# ten# to gi%e more as they own the change im.lementation .rocess,

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Change management model An organi:ation can -e seen as a family" where e%eryone has a #ifferent role to carry or as a mechanical system with #ifferent com.onents" that ena-les .erformance '6ussier C Achua" ())8+, <or the machine mo#el or the family to -e sustaine#" the right form of lea#ershi. is re>uire#, British Airways sta&ehol#ers who are e>uita-le to a family an# nee# soun# management an# lea#ershi." in or#er to o.erate effecti%ely, Systemic lea#ershi. style mo#el has %arious com.onents an# these are structural com.onent" human resource com.onent" an# the .olitical com.onent, The structural com.onent im.lies that the organi:ation is ta&en from the .oint of %iew of -eing a machine or factory, As a family" .eo.le carry out #ifferent things together an# so #oes an organi:ation, The .olitical com.onent is that com.onent that shows the 7ungle nature of the organi:ation, This means that the organi:ation stri%es to ensure its a#a.tation of new realities, <or the organi:ation management to #etermine the im.ortance of lea#ershi. in #e%elo.ing organi:ational com.onents" it is im.ortant to un#erstan# that these com.onents nee# thoughtfulness as well as an imagination that is -eyon# seeing the .ro-lems that the organi:ation faces 'Beerel" ())8+, Bro-lems are sim.ly a means of challenging an organi:ation to im.ro%e on their ser%ices, The organi:ation is re>uire# to -e rea#y to ta&e hol# on new o..ortunities" which are .resente# -y change management, This means that the .eo.le nee# to -e rea#y to acce.t change an# further un#erstan# that the changes" which are effecte# in the organi:ation" are for the -enefit of the entire organi:ation an# these inclu#e the in#i%i#ual -enefits as well, By ta&ing these com.onents together" a manager who is at the same time a lea#er gains a feeling for the organi:ational architecture" the nee#s of the .eo.le" an# the com.etiti%e attri-utes of the

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organi:ational culture, This gui#es the thin&ing of the lea#ers an# hel.s them in seeing the e$istent multi.le realities in the organi:ation, A##itionally" the lea#ers get o.tions an# new insights that hel." when they are #ealing with challenges that come with change an# strategic sol%ing of .ro-lems, To e$ercise lea#ershi." this mo#el gi%es the managers a-ility of reframing .ro-lemsH something" which is a great asset to them, To sol%e .ro-lems in an organi:ation may re>uire changes an# this im.lies that effecti%e change management is re>uire# to ensure that in#i%i#ual as well as o%erall organi:ational nee#s are met, Stakeholders @m.loyees are significant sta&ehol#ers in any -usiness, British Airways has e$.erience# many stri&es from the ca-in crews #ue to %arious reasons, In or#er to achie%e the Com.any=s strategic goals" British Airways must a##ress the issues that affect the Com.any, Sta&ehol#ers hol# significant influence on the a-ility of an organi:ation to attain its strategic o-7ecti%es, <ailure to recognise an# res.on# to ma7or sta&ehol#ers a#e>uately can im.e#e a firm=s o.erations 'Stolt:fus" Stohl C Sei-ol#" ()**+, <irms are un#er .ressure to .rioritise an# manage its res.onses to the sta&ehol#ers" which re>uires an organi:ation to align its socio; cor.orate res.onsi-ility strategies in line with the sta&ehol#ers= e$.ectations, The management of British Airways shoul# consi#er the effects of the %arious sta&ehol#ers on .erformance" #uring the strategic .lanning .rocess '!i.ley C 6ewis" ())0+, Sta&ehol#er management aims at organi:ing the relationshi. -etween the society an# -usiness, Elo-ali:ation has cause# many changes in the mar&et" which has create# challenges for -usinesses since" they ha%e to a#a.t to the numerous an# contra#ictory societal #eman#s, Sta&ehol#er management is crucial in forecasting the changing societal e$.ectations an#

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#etecting threat -efore they affect the organi:ation, This means that British airways shoul# &now its sta&ehol#ers an# &ee. in touch with them" to un#erstan# their e$.ectations an# #eman#s" an# recogni:e changes in the affiliation, Before the management em-ar&s on .lanning" -u#geting an# sche#uling" they shoul# #etermine the sta&ehol#ers who will -e im.acte# -y the change .ro7ect, 9mission of sta&ehol#ers who will -e affecte# -y the change .ro7ect is a .otential source of resistance 'Ca-anis;Brewin" ()**+, Managerial challenges The airline tra%el in#ustry has -ecome increasingly com.etiti%e" an# managers are face with the challenge of managing the -usiness, Managers are face# with the challenge of issue; focusse# sta&ehol#er management, They lac& effecti%e communication with the sta&ehol#ersH hence" the sta&ehol#ers are not aware of the com.any=s res.onsi-ilities an# limitations, <or instance" the ca-in crew stri&es are an in#icator of resistance, Dissatisfie# sta&ehol#ers are li&ely to show resistance through stri&es an# other means that sa-otage the o.erations of an organi:ation, The ca-in crew wor&ers stri&e #ue to long;term .ay an# 7o- #is.utes 'British AirwaysI ca-in crew -egin fi%e;#ay stri&e" ()*)+, In or#er to sol%e issues effecti%ely" British Airways management shoul# liaise with sta&ehol#ers an# e$.erts in the .ro-lematic area" an# shoul# not lea%e em.loyees issues to the Bu-lic Relations #e.artment only, If the #eli-eration -etween the sta&ehol#ers an# the management conclusions sums u. the nee# to im.lement change" then the -oar# of #irectors in the Com.any shoul# agree to these suggestions, Managers are e$.ecte# to .artici.ate in #iscussions on societal issues that affect the com.any o.erations or the society is affecte# -y the o.erations of the com.any, <or instance"

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British Airways management is e$.ecte# to .artici.ate in #iscourse of either societal issues" which are cause# -y the Com.any=s o.erations or societal issues that affect the Com.any=s o.erations, The Com.any re.resentati%es must learn" listen to affecte# sta&ehol#ers" see& a#%ice from e$.erts" an# contri-ute towar#s sol%ing the .ro-lem 'Roloff" ())0+, Hence" managers must .ossess listening an# communication s&ills an# other inter.ersonal s&ills" necessary to #eal with such roles, The .u-lic" accor#ing to its -usiness acti%ities" 7u#ges British Airways, Managers will encounter conflicts an# costly .ro-lems" -ut must act in a manner that guar#s the Com.any=s re.utation, This can -e #one -y #e%elo.ing a sustaina-le -usiness through communicating to sta&ehol#ers" a-out the issues" in%ol%ing them in .ro-lem sol%ing, Bran# image an# cor.orate i#entity are inter;connecte# an# -elong to all the sta&ehol#ers 'Balmer" Stuart" C Ereyser" ())8+, The management must .rotect the -ran# image an# cor.orate i#entity of British Airways" es.ecially in the contem.orary -usiness worl#" of increase# societal e$.ectations, British Airways management reali:e# that the i#entity of an organi:ation resi#es with sta&ehol#ers 'Balmer" Stuart" C Ereyser" ())8+, Hence" the management shoul# #e%ise effecti%e strategies of #ealing with sta&ehol#ers an# a%oi# .ractices that will 7eo.ar#i:e the Com.any=s re.utation, Stri&es an# go;s lows can ruin the re.utation of British Airways sinceH it shows flaws in lea#ershi. of the Com.any, Overcoming resistance to change All change initiati%es shoul# -e treate# as .ro7ects" since they are limite# -y -u#gets an# #ea#lines 'Ca-anis;Brewin" ()**+, The management must meet #ea#lines" wor& on the -u#get an# ensure that >uality is not com.romise# #uring the .rocess, In or#er for an organi:ation to -e successful in change im.lementation" it shoul# carefully .lan an# communicate effecti%ely with

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the sta&ehol#ers, At some le%els" the management shoul# acce.tance ris&s" increase its fle$i-ility an# incor.orate lessons learnt from e$.eriences" in or#er to manage change effecti%ely, Managing change Intro#uction of a new cor.orate goal can trigger resistance" since the sta&ehol#ers are not a-le to i#entify with the new image of the Com.any, British Airways shoul# ensure that the sta&ehol#ers share similar reflections as that of the Com.any goals, Sta&ehol#ers= acce.tance is crucial #uring the im.lementation of &ey change .ro7ects, Resistance of change originates from se%eral factors such as long stan#ing organi:ational tra#itions, 6ong stan#ing tra#itions lea#s to #e%elo.ment of routine or familiarity" an# may attract resistance if #isru.te#, Common factors" which influence change resistance inclu#e lac& of trust" economic threats" -eliefs that change is not feasi-le or unnecessary" resentment of interference" fear of .ersonal failure" loss of .ower an# status" threats to %alues an# i#eals" an# relati%e high cost '6ong C S.urloc&" ())0+, An organi:ation can counteract change resistance through con%ersion of sta&ehol#ers to change .ro.onents, This is #one through in%ol%ing the sta&ehol#ers in the change .rocess, 9rgani:ational communication is an effecti%e tool in managing change, British Airways shoul# a#o.t issue; focuse# sta&ehol#er management" which will hel. in .ro-lem sol%ing through colla-oration an# communication, Resistance is cause# -y lac& of information" ina#e>uate or ineffecti%e communication, British Airways can .ersua#e its sta&ehol#ers" to hel. with the change im.lementation .rocess, The management shoul# in%ol%e sta&ehol#ers an# enhance their .artici.ation in change im.lementation, Rele%ant contri-utions from the sta&ehol#ers can -e of significant %alue to informing the change strategies" an# enhance commitment from the sta&ehol#ers, British

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Airways management must facilitate an# su..ort sta&ehol#ers in the change im.lementation .rocess, Sta&ehol#ers= resists change #ue to a#7ustment .ro-lems" an# managerial su..ort will hel. them a#7ust accor#ingly, The management of British Airways can use negotiation an# coercion" in or#er to sol%e the #is.utes that lea# to ca-in crew stri&es, Negotiation with sta&ehol#ers is useful in facilitating change .rocess, Coercion is useful es.ecially in cases where s.ee#y change is re>uire#, Change initiators hol# consi#era-le .ower an# they can use it to coerce or mani.ulate the sta&ehol#ers to acce.t the .ro.ose# changes, In some instances" s.ee#y action can hel. o%ercome resistance significantly, British Airways shoul# #esign effecti%e em.loyment structures" an# intro#uce a fair an# frien#ly wor&ing en%ironment" in or#er to -uil# the trust of em.loyees, When #ealing with #is.utes" the management shoul# focus on effecti%e solutions to the issues" an# a%oi# %ictimi:ing the sta&ehol#ers or the unions 'Milmo" ()*)+, Managers shoul# e$.lain their #ecision an# maintain o.en communication channels" in case the sta&ehol#ers re>uire clarification, Communicating e$.ectations" in%ol%ement of sta&ehol#ers an# su..orting them with the necessary s&ills increases their commitment an# confi#ence on the change .rocess, Sta&ehol#ers shoul# -e gi%en am.le time to a#7ust to change #eman#s, The co.ing cycle" which com.rises of #enial" #efence" #iscar#ing" a#a.tation" an# internali:ation .hases" allows the sta&ehol#ers to -alance .erformance an# self; esteem nee#s" an# acce.t change, Conclusion In conclusion" lea#ers at the British Airways shoul# ensure that the sta&ehol#ers are a#e>uately moti%ate# an# are in%ol%e# in the change im.lementation .rocess, This will elicit

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.ositi%e res.onses" enhance .erformance an# re#uce change resistance, Bartici.ation" managerial su..ort an# communication are %ital elements in enhancing the change im.lementation .rocess, The sta&ehol#ers must un#erstan# the nee# an# e$tent of change" an# other rele%ant change information, The management at British Airways faces challenges in .rotecting its -ran# name an# maintaining cor.orate i#entity" es.ecially #ue to the ca-in crew stri&es" which #e.icts lea#ershi. flaws, @m.loyees are ma7or sta&ehol#ers in the airline in#ustry an# their welfare shoul# -e of .riority to the management, Stri&es can ruin the re.utation that British Airways has stri%e# to -uil# an# .rotect" if the issues surroun#ing the stri&es are not a##resse# sufficiently, The management shoul# .ro%i#e sufficient information on the e$.ectations" limitations an# changes that the Com.any is im.lementing" an# allow .artici.ation from the ca-in crew staff" in or#er to minimise resistance, Careful listening" an# res.on#ing to their grie%ances" will .ortray res.onsi-ility an# hel. in conflict resolution,

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References 5slun#" A, '()*)+, The Last Shall be the First: The East European Financial Crisis, 2008-10, Beterson Institute, Balmer" D, T," Stuart" H," C Ereyser" S, A, '())8+, Aligning I#entity an# StrategyJ C9RB9RAT@ BRANDINE AT BRITISH AIRWAYS IN TH@ 6AT@ ()TH C@NT RY, California Management Re%iew" 2*'3+" A;(3, BBC '())8+, BBC NEWS Business B! sta"" re#ect cost-cuttin$ plan, Retrie%e# A.ril /" ()*3" from htt.JKKnews,--c,co,u&K(KhiK-usinessK0*3A2)3,stm BBC '())8+, BBC NEWS Business %ro"ile: B! boss Willie Walsh: The &eal en&in$ the &ispute bet'een British !ir'a(s an& its cabin cre' sta"" 'ill &oubtless enhance the reputation o" the airline)s boss, Retrie%e# A.ril /" ()*3" from htt.JKKnews,--c,co,u&K(KhiK-usinessK?(8/?)?,stm Beerel" A, '())8+, 6ea#ershi. an# Change Management, SAE@ Bu-lications 6t#, British Airways '()*)+, British !ir'a(s - *istor( an& herita$e, Retrie%e# A.ril ()*3" from htt.JKKwww,-ritishairways,comKtra%elKhistory;an#;heritageK.u-licKenLg-,

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British AirwaysI ca-in crew -egin fi%e;#ay stri&e, '()*)+, Airline In#ustry Information 'M(+" Ca-anis;Brewin" D, '()**+, IN BRACTIC@J MANAE@ B@9B6@ <IRST T9 !@@B BR9D@CTS 9N TRAC!, Chief 6earning 9fficer" *)'**+" ?), Dan Milmo, '()*)+ BA I#eclares warI on union after tal&s fail Dyer" !, '()*)+, Communicating through #ifficult change at British Airways, Strategic Communication Management" *?'3+" (0;3*, Eraet:" f," C Smith" A, T, '()*)+, Managing 9rgani:ational ChangeJ A Bhiloso.hies of Change A..roach, Dournal 9f Change Management" *)'(+" *32;*2?, !i.ley" D," C 6ewis" A, 9, '())0+, @$amining the @fficacy of the Multi;Rater Analysis Metho#ology as an Alternati%e A..roach in Determining Sta&ehol#er Bower"Influence an# Resistance, Business Renaissance Muarterly" 3'?+" *)*;*( 6ittau" B," Du7agiri" N," C A#l-recht" E, '()*)+, (2 years of sta&ehol#er theory in .ro7ect management literature '*80?N())8+, Bro7ect Management Dournal" ?*'?+" */;(8, #oiJ*),*))(K.m7,()*82 6ong" S," C S.urloc&" D, E, '())0+, Moti%ation an# Sta&ehol#er Acce.tance in Technology; #ri%en Change ManagementJ Im.lications for the @ngineering Manager, @ngineering Management Dournal" ()'(+" 3);3A, Milmo" D, '())8" No%em-er A+, British !ir'a(s +a,es recor& loss o" -2.2+ Business $uar&ian/co/u,, Retrie%e# A.ril /" ()*3" from htt.JKKwww,guar#ian,co,u&K-usinessK())8Kno%K)AK-ritish;airways;recor#;loss

BRITISH AIRWAYS
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Blum-erg " !," C Dohnson" S, C, '())0+, 0lobal in"lation cli+bs to historic le1els - The Ne' 2or, Ti+es, Retrie%e# A.ril /" ()*3,

Roloff" D, '())0+, 6earning from Multi;Sta&ehol#er Networ&sJ Issue;<ocusse# Sta&ehol#er Management, Dournal 9f Business @thics" 0('*+" (33;(2), #oiJ*),*))/Ks*)22*;))/;82/3; 3 Samuel" H," C Bri#ges" A, '()*)+, British Airways % nite the nion, @m.loyers 6aw" 8, Stolt:fus" !," Stohl" C, C Sei-ol#" D,R, '()**+, Managing organi:ational changeJ .ara#o$ical .ro-lems" solutions" an# conse>uences, Dournal of organi:ational change management, Oolume (? '3+ Walsh" W, '())8" Decem-er *?+, 3 can)t let this union &ra$ us to &estruction, sa(s B! boss Willie Walsh 4ail 5nline, Retrie%e# A.ril /" ()*3, Whysall" B, '()))+, Sta&ehol#er Mismanagement in RetailingJ A British Bers.ecti%e, Dournal 9f Business @thics" (3'*+" *8;(0,