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Eddy Current Inspection Formula Ohm's Law Impedance Phase Angle Magnetic Permeability

Where:

I V Z Current (amp) Voltage (volt) Impedance (ohm)

Where:

Z R XL Impedance (ohm) Resistance (ohm) Inductance Reactance(ohm)

Where:

XL R Phase Angle (deg) Inductance Reactance(ohm) Res istance (ohm)

Where:

B H Magnetic Permeability (Henries/meter) Magnetic Flux Density (Tesla) Magnetizing Force (Am/meter)

More Information Ohm's Law Calculator Relative Magnetic Permeability

More Information Conductivity & Resistivity

**More Information Phase Angle Calculator Electrical Conductivity (%IACS)
**

When resistivity is known

**Electrical Conductivity (%IACS)
**

When conductivity in S/m or S/cm is known

or Where:

r Relative Magnetic Permeability (dimensionless) Any Given Magnetic Permeability (H/m) Magnetic Permeability in Free Space (H/m), which is 1.257 x 10-6 H/m

Where:

Where:

Electrical Conductivity Siemens /m Electrical Resistivity (ohm-m)

IACS S/cm

Electrical Conductivity (% IACS) Electrical Resistivity (ohm-cm) Electrical Conductivity (Siemens/cm)

Where:

Electrical IACS Conductivity (% IACS) Electrical Conductivity S/m (Siemens /meter) Electrical S/cm Conductivity (Siemens/cm)

o

More Information Current Density

**More Information Standard Depth of Penetration
**

When electrical conductivity (S/m) is known.

**More Information Standard Depth of Penetration
**

When electrical conductivity ( IACS) is known.

**More Information Standard Depth of Penetration
**

When electrical resistivity ( ohm-cm) is known.

In mm In inches Standard Depth of Penetration (m) 3.14 Test Frequency (Hz) Magnetic Permeability (H/m) (1.257 x 10-6 H/m for nonmagnetic mat'ls) Electrical Conductivity (Siemens/m)

In mm

Where:

Jx Jo Current Density (amps/m ) Current Density at Surface (amps/m2) Base Natural Log = 2.71828 Distance Below Surface Standard Depth of Penetration

2

Where:

f

In inches

Where:

f r Standard Depth of Penetration (mm or in) Test Frequency (Hz) Relative Magnetic Permeability (dimensionless) Electrical Conductivity (%IACS)

Where:

f r Standard Depth of Penetration (mm or in) Electrical Resistivity (ohm-cm) Test Frequency (Hz) Relative Magnetic Permeability (dimensionless)

e x

More Information

More Information

Depth of Pen Calculator

More Information More Information

Eddy Current Field Phase Lag When electrical resistivity ( ohm-cm) is known. . Where: t Material Thickness Standard Depth of Penetration e -5=0.2 o More Information Material Thickness Requirement for Resistivity or Conductivity Measurement When measuring resistivity or conductivity.3o e -2=14% 2 rad = 114.6 o e -3=5% e -4=2% 3 rad = 171. the thickness of the material should be at least 3 times the depth of penetration to minimize material thickness effects More Information Frequency Selection for Flaw Detection and Nonconductive Coating Thickness Measurements Defect Detection A test frequency that puts the standard depth of penetration at about the expected depth of the defect will provide good phase separation between the defect and liftoff signals.9 o 4 rad = 229.7% 5 rad = 286. In Degrees In mm In inches In mm In inches Where: x Phase Lag (Rad or Degrees) Distance Below Surface (in or mm) Standard Depth of Penetration (in or mm) Where: x f r Phase Lag (degrees) Distance Below Surface (m) 3. Strength Phase Lag Depth of EC 0 d 2d 3d 4d 5d e 0 =100% 0 rad = 0o e -1=37% 1 rad = 57.Standard Depth of Penetration Versus Frequency Chart Eddy Current Field Phase Lag In Radians Eddy Current Field Phase Lag When electrical conductivity (S/m) is known. Eddy Current Field Phase Lag When electrical conductivity ( IACS) is known.5 o More Information More Information Nonconductive Coating Thickness Measurement To minimize effects from the base metal the highest practical frequency should be used.14 Test Frequency (Hz) Relative Magnetic Permeability Electrical Conductivity (Siemens/m) Where: x f r Phase Lag (degrees) Distance Below Surface (mm) Test Frequency (Hz) Relative Magnetic Permeability (dimensionless) Electrical Conductivity (%IACS) Where: x f r Phase Lag (degrees) Distance Below Surface (inch) Electrical Resistivity (ohm-cm) Test Frequency (Hz) Relative Magnetic Permeability (dimensionless) More Information More Information Standard Depth of Penetration and Phase Angle Relative Std. Frequency Selection for Thickness Measurement of Thin Materials Selecting a frequency that produces a standard depth of penetration that exceeds the material thickness by 25% will produce a phase angle of approximately 90o between the liftoff signal and the material thickness change signal.

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