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Chapter 3 Atomic Structure

(Neither take rest nor be the time waste, Because life is the test and only heaven is the rest)

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

Definitions 1. Atom: -The building block of the matter that takes part in the reaction. ! The smallest component of an element ha"ing the chemical properties of the element# consisting of a nucleus and surrounding shells. 2. Nucleus: -the central part of the atom comprising the mass of the atom conferred by protons and neutrons# initially disco"ered by !$T%&!' !D. 3. Shell or energy level: -according to (ohr these are the circular orbits at certain distance from the nucleus )here electrons e*ist. 4. Atomic number (Z): +The number of protons in nucleus is called the atomic number of the element. 5. Atomic m ss: - The total number of protons and neutrons in nucleus constitute its atomic mass. !. "lement: -The simplest matter )hose all atoms ha"e same atomic number and can not be further simplified is called element. #. $roo%&s 'isch rge tube e()eriment: + indicates the e*istence of protons and electrons in the atom

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

*. $ tho'e r ys: -the rays )hich consist of electrons and are produced )hen the current is passed through gases at lo) pressure are called cathode rays. +. ,ro)erties o- c tho'e r ys (electrons), Disco"ered by -.- T% SMS . Carry a negati"e charge e/ual to 0.1203+ 04 C56.738203+03 Their e9m ratio is 0.:12037 C9g Their mass is 4.00203+80 kg 5 3.333;;a.m.u They can be deflected by electromagnetic field. These don<t depend upon the material of )hich the electrode is made nor of the gas )hich is enclosed inside the tube. 1.. /he )ro)erties o- c n l r ys ( )rotons): = >DST?&. disco"ered them. These rays carry positi"e charge They tra"el in straight line The "alue of e9m depends upon the gas enclosed The mass is 0.1:203+@:kg50.33:8amu They are composed of hea"y particles than electrons. 11. /he )ro)erties o- neutrons: Disco"ered by C%ADA?CB. They are neutral# carrying no charge. The mass is same as that of proton but slightly hea"ier. i.e. 0.337: a.m.u. ?t is highly energetic particle.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

12. 0 'io ctivity: -the spontaneous emission of radiations by certain elements is called radioacti"it 13. 1soto)es: - Atoms of the same elements# ha"ing the same atomic number but the different atomic masses are called isotopes. 14. S)ectrum: -the band of colors formed through the dispersion of light is called spectrum. 15. "lectronic con-igur tion: + the arrangement or distribution of electrons in the a"ailable orbitals is called electronic distribution. 1!. Atomic r 'ius, +the half of the bond length# taken bet)een t)o homonuclear diatomic molecules. ! the distance from nucleus to the "alence electron is called atomic radius. 1#. 1onic r 'ius, +the radius of an ion. 1*. ion, +the charged atom is called ion

1+. $ tion: +the positi"ely charged ion is called cation. 2.. Anion: -the negati"e charged ion is called anion.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

21. 1oni2 tion )otenti l: +the energy re/uired to make an atom ion is called ioniCation potential. 22. "lectron --inity, +the amount of energy released )hen an electron is added to a neutral gaseous atom to form a negati"e ion is called electron affinity. 23. "lectroneg tivity, + the force )ith )itch an atom attracts the shared pair to)ards itself is called electronegati"ity.

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

Multiple hoice !uestions 0. The first atomic theory )as proposed by, aD Democritus bD =reek Ehilosophers cD both a & b dD -ohn Dalton @. According to modern theory# all elements are made up of small# indi"isible# indestructible particles called atoms aD true bD false 8. Erotons and neutrons )ere disco"ered by respecti"ely, aD -.- Thomson# Chad)ick bD Chad)ick# -.- Thomson cD =oldstein# Chad)ick dD Chad)ick# =oldstein 6. &lectrons are the constituent of all matter. aD true bD false ;. The incorrect statement regarding the cathode rays is, aD material particles bD e9m ratio is different cD possess B.& dD .. .T 1. &lectrons do not depend upon the the nature of the cathode and the gas inside the tube. aD true bD false

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

:. e9m ratio of electron is, aD 0.:12037 C9g bD0.:120300C9g +04 cD 0.13@203 C9g dD 0.1:@203+@:C9g 7. The Charge on electron is, aD 0.:12037 C bD0.:120300C cD 0.13@203+04 C dD 0.1:@203+@:C 4. The charge on proton is, aD 0.:12037 bD0.:120300C cD 0.13@203+04 C dD 0.1:@203+@:C 03. 0 a.m.u 5F aD 0.:12037 g cD 0.13@203+04 g bD0.:120300g dD 0.1:@203+@:g

00. Atom )as pro"ed di"isible particle by, aD cathode rays bD radioacti"ity cD discharge tube e*p. dD A. .T 0@. &lectron is 0781 times hea"ier than proton. aD true bD false 08. !adioacti"ity )as disco"ered by, aD %enry (e/ueral bD !utherford cD (ohor dD -.- Thomson 06. !utherford used particles in his e*periment. aD G H particles bD I H particles cD J H particles dD A. .T

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

0;. The G+particles deflected back by striking the atom because of the presence of, aD shells bD nucleus cD protons dD electrons 01. &nergy is KK )hen an electron jumps from higher energy le"el to lo)er energy le"el. aD absorbed bD released cD neither absorbed nor released dD both a & b 0:. This of the follo)ing particles takes part in the reaction. aD electron bD proton cD neutron dD A. .T 07. The correct e/uation is, aD &@ + &0 5 hL bD &@ M &0 5 hL cD &@ 2 &0 5 hL dD &@ 9 &0 5 hL 04. .a has, aD 00 electrons cD 0@ neutrons @3. Mass number 5 aD protons M electrons bD protons M neutrons cD electrons M neutrons dD no. of protons.

bD 00 protons dD A. .T

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

@0. Atomic number 5 aD protons M electrons bD protons M neutrons cD electrons M neutrons dD no. of protons. @@. The positi"ely charged particles in radioacti"ity are protons. aD true bD false @8. ?sotopes ha"e different number of, aD electrons bD protons cD neutrons dD A. .T @6. Eroteum has one proton and no neutron. aD true bD false @;. ?sotopes are used in the treatment of diseases. aD true bD false @1. The formula to find out ma* number of electrons is, aD n@ bD @n cD @n@ dD .. .T @:. Nhen n58 the ma* electrons in a shell should be. aD 8 bD 1 cD 4 dD 07 @7. The ma*. number of electrons in 6th shell is, aD 6 bD 7 cD 01 dD 8@

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

@4. 'ind the mis match aD electrons , -.- Thomson bD protons , nucleus cD neutrons , atomic mass dD protons , atomic number 83. The correct statement is, aD A 5 OMA bD A5O+. cD A5.+O dD O5A+. 80. Nhich isotope of o*ygen forms oCone aD 01 bD 0: cD 07 dD 04 Answer "ey 0 6 : 03 08 01 04 @@ @; @7 80 D A A D A B D A D @ ; 7 00 06 0: @3 @8 @1 @4 B A B B B B A A 8 1 4 0@ 0; 07 @0 @6 @: 83

B B A A D A D D

Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur

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Chemistry Def. & MCQs

Dr. Sajid Ali Talpur