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The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and the prime distribution theory to study the mean value properties of G(n) in Smarandache divisor
product sequences fpd(n)g and fqd(n)g, and give two sharper asymptotic formulae for them.

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and the prime distribution theory to study the mean value properties of G(n) in Smarandache divisor
product sequences fpd(n)g and fqd(n)g, and give two sharper asymptotic formulae for them.

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A new additive function and the

Smarandache divisor product sequences

1

Weili Yao and Tieming Cao

College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, P.R.China

Abstract For any positive integer n, we dene the arithmetical function G(n) as G(1) = 0.

If n > 1 and n = p

1

1

p

2

2

p

k

k

be the prime power factorization of n, then G(n) =

1

p

1

+

2

p

2

+ +

k

p

k

. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and the

prime distribution theory to study the mean value properties of G(n) in Smarandache divisor

product sequences {p

d

(n)} and {q

d

(n)}, and give two sharper asymptotic formulae for them.

Keywords Additive function, Smarandache divisor product sequences, mean value, elementa-

ry method, asymptotic formula.

1. Introduction and results

In elementary number theory, we call an arithmetical function f(n) as an additive function,

if for any positive integers m, n with (m, n) = 1, we have f(mn) = f(m) + f(n). We call

f(n) as a complete additive function, if for any positive integers r and s, f(rs) = f(r) + f(s).

There are many arithmetical functions satisfying the additive properties. For example, if n =

p

1

1

p

2

2

p

k

k

denotes the prime power factorization of n, then function (n) =

1

+

2

+ +

k

and logarithmic function f(n) = lnn are two complete additive functions, (n) = k is an

additive function, but not a complete additive function. About the properties of the additive

functions, there are many authors had studied it, and obtained a series interesting results, see

references [1], [2], [5] and [6].

In this paper, we dene a new additive function G(n) as follows: G(1) = 0; If n > 1 and

n = p

1

1

p

2

2

p

k

k

denotes the prime power factorization of n, then G(n) =

1

p

1

+

2

p

2

+ +

k

p

k

.

It is clear that this function is a complete additive function. In fact if m = p

1

1

p

2

2

p

k

k

and n = p

1

1

p

2

2

p

k

k

, then we have mn = p

1

+

1

1

p

2

+

2

2

p

k

+

k

k

. Therefore, G(mn) =

1

+

1

p

1

+

2

+

2

p

2

+ +

k

+

k

p

k

= G(m) + G(n). So G(n) is a complete additive function. Now

we dene the Smarandache divisor product sequences {p

d

(n)} and {q

d

(n)} as follows: p

d

(n)

denotes the product of all positive divisors of n; q

d

(n) denotes the product of all positive divisors

d of n but n. That is,

p

d

(n) =

d|n

d = n

d(n)

2

; q

d

(n) =

d|n,d<n

d = n

d(n)

2

1

,

1

This work is supported by the Shanghai Innovation Fund (10-0101-07-410) and Young Teacher Scientic

Research Special Fund of Shanghai (37-0101-07-704).

2 Weili Yao and Tieming Cao No. 2

where d(n) denotes the Dirichlet divisor function.

The sequences {p

d

(n)} and {q

d

(n)} are introduced by Professor F.Smarandache in refer-

ences [3], [4] and [9], where he asked us to study the various properties of {p

d

(n)} and {q

d

(n)}.

About this problem, some authors had studied it, and proved some conclusions, see references

[7], [8], [10] and [11].

The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and the prime distribution

theory to study the mean value properties of G(p

d

(n)) and G(q

d

(n)), and give two sharper

asymptotic formulae for them. That is, we shall prove the following:

Theorem 1. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula

nx

G(p

d

(n)) = B x lnx + (2 B D B) x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

,

where B =

p

1

p

2

, D =

p

lnp

p

2

, is the Euler constant, and

p

denotes the summation over

all primes.

Theorem 2. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula

nx

G(q

d

(n)) = B x lnx + (2 B 2B D) x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

,

where B and D are dened as same as in Theorem 1.

2. Two simple lemmas

In this section, we give two simple lemmas, which are necessary in the proof of the theorems.

First we have:

Lemma 1. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula:

px

1

p

= ln lnx +A+O

_

1

lnx

_

,

where A be a constant,

px

denotes the summation over all primes p x.

Proof. See Theorem 4.12 of reference [6].

Lemma 2. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formulae:

(I)

nx

G(n) = B x +O(lnlnx) ;

(II)

nx

G(n)

n

= B lnx +C +O

_

lnlnx

x

_

,

where B =

p

1

p

2

, C = B

p

lnp

p

2

, is the Euler constant, and

p

denotes the summation

over all primes.

Vol. 5 A new additive function and the Smarandache divisor product sequences 3

Proof. For any positive integer n > 1, from the denition of G(n) we have

G(n) =

p|n

1

p

.

So from this formula and Lemma 1 we have

nx

G(n) =

nx

p|n

1

p

=

npx

1

p

=

px

1

p

n

x

p

1 =

px

1

p

_

x

p

_

= x

px

1

p

2

+O

_

_

px

1

p

_

_

= B x +O(lnlnx) ,

where B =

p

1

p

2

be a constant. This proves (I) of Lemma 2.

Now we prove (II) of Lemma 2, note that the asymptotic formula

nx

1

n

= lnx + +O

_

1

x

_

,

where is the Euler constant. So from Lemma 1 and the denition of G(n) we also have

nx

G(n)

n

=

nx

p|n

1

p

n

=

npx

1

p

2

n

=

px

1

p

2

n

x

p

1

n

=

px

1

p

2

_

lnx lnp + +O

_

p

x

__

=

px

lnx

p

2

px

lnp

p

2

+

px

1

p

2

+O

_

_

1

x

px

1

p

_

_

= B lnx

p

lnp

p

2

+ B +O

_

lnlnx

x

_

= B lnx +C +O

_

lnlnx

x

_

,

where C = B

p

lnp

p

2

is a constant. This proves (II) of Lemma 2.

3. Proof of the theorems

Now we use the above Lemmas to complete the proof of the theorems. First we prove

Theorem 1. Note that the complete additive properties of G(n) and the denition of p

d

(n),

4 Weili Yao and Tieming Cao No. 2

from (II) of Lemma 2 and Theorem 3.17 of [6] we have

nx

G(p

d

(n)) =

nx

G

_

n

d(n)

2

_

=

1

2

nx

d(n)G(n) =

1

2

mnx

G(mn)

=

1

2

mnx

(G(m) +G(n)) =

mnx

G(m)

=

n

x

m

G(m) +

m

x

n

G(m)

_

_

m

x

G(m)

_

_

_

_

n

x

1

_

_

=

x

G(m)

_

x

m

_

+

x

_

B x

n

+O(lnlnx)

_

_

x +O(1)

_

B

x +O(lnlnx)

= x

x

G(m)

m

+O

_

_

m

x

G(m)

_

_

+B x

x

1

n

B x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

= x

_

1

2

B lnx +C +O

_

lnlnx

x

__

+B x

_

ln

x + +O

_

1

x

__

B x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

= B x lnx + (C +B B) x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

= B x lnx + (2B B D) x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

,

where B =

p

1

p

2

and D =

p

lnp

p

2

, is the Euler constant. This proves Theorem 1.

From Lemma 2, Theorem 1 and the denition of q

d

(n) we can also deduce that

nx

G(q

d

(n)) =

nx

G

_

n

d(n)

2

1

_

=

1

2

nx

d(n)G(n)

nx

G(n)

= B x lnx + (2B B D) x B x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

= B x lnx + (2B 2B D) x +O

_

xlnlnx

_

.

This completes the proof of Theorem 2.

4. Some notes

For any positive integer n and any xed real number , we dene the general arithmetical

function H(n) as H(1) = 0. If n > 1 and n = p

1

1

p

2

2

p

k

k

be the prime power factorization of

n, then H(n) =

1

p

1

+

2

p

2

+ +

k

p

k

. It is clear that this function is a complete additive

function. If = 0, then H(n) = (n). If = 1, then H(n) = G(n). Using our method we

can also give some asymptotic formulae for the mean vale of H (p

d

(n)) and H (q

d

(n)).

Vol. 5 A new additive function and the Smarandache divisor product sequences 5

References

[1] C.H.Zhong, A sum related to a class arithmetical functions, Utilitas Math., 44(1993),

231-242.

[2] H.N.Shapiro, Introduction to the theory of numbers, John Wiley and Sons, 1983.

[3] F. Smarandache, Only Problems, Not Solutions, Chicago, Xiquan Publishing House,

1993.

[4] M.L.Perez, Florentin Smarandache denitions, solved and unsolved problems, conjec-

tures and theorems in Number theory and Geometry, Chicago, Xiquan Publishing House, 2000.

[5] Zhang Wenpeng, The elementary number theory (in Chinese), Shaanxi Normal Univer-

sity Press, Xian, 2007.

[6] Tom M. Apostol. Introduction to analytic number theory, Springer-Verlag, 1976.

[7] Liu Hongyan and Zhang Wenpeng, On the simple numbers and its mean value proper-

ties, Smarandache Notions Journal, 14(2004), 171-175.

[8] Zhu Weiyi, On the divisor product sequences, Smarandache Notions Journal, 14(2004),

144-146.

[9] F.Smarandache, Sequences of numbers involved in unsolved problems, Hexis, 2006.

[10] Zhang Tianping, An arithmetic function and the divisor product sequences, research

on Smarandache problems in number theory, Hexis, 2004, 21-26.

[11] Liang Fangchi, Generalization of the divisor products and proper divisor products

sequences, Scientia Magna, 1 (2005), No.1, 29-32.

[12] Yi Yuan and Kang Xiaoyu, Research on Smarandache problems (in Chinese), High

American Press, 2006.

[13] Chen Guohui, New progress on Smarandache problems (in Chinese), High American

Press, 2007.

[14] Liu Yanni, Li Ling and Liu Baoli, Smarandache unsolved problems and new progress

(in Chinese), High American Press, 2008.

[15] Wang Yu, Su Juanli and Zhang Jin, On the Smarandache notions and related problems

(in Chinese), High American Press, 2008.

[16] Kenichiro Kashihara, Comments and topics on Smarandache notions and problems,

Erhus University Press, USA, 1996.

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