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Scientia Magna

Vol. 5 (2009), No. 2, 1-5


A new additive function and the
Smarandache divisor product sequences
1
Weili Yao and Tieming Cao
College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, P.R.China
Abstract For any positive integer n, we dene the arithmetical function G(n) as G(1) = 0.
If n > 1 and n = p

1
1
p

2
2
p

k
k
be the prime power factorization of n, then G(n) =

1
p
1
+

2
p
2
+ +

k
p
k
. The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and the
prime distribution theory to study the mean value properties of G(n) in Smarandache divisor
product sequences {p
d
(n)} and {q
d
(n)}, and give two sharper asymptotic formulae for them.
Keywords Additive function, Smarandache divisor product sequences, mean value, elementa-
ry method, asymptotic formula.
1. Introduction and results
In elementary number theory, we call an arithmetical function f(n) as an additive function,
if for any positive integers m, n with (m, n) = 1, we have f(mn) = f(m) + f(n). We call
f(n) as a complete additive function, if for any positive integers r and s, f(rs) = f(r) + f(s).
There are many arithmetical functions satisfying the additive properties. For example, if n =
p

1
1
p

2
2
p

k
k
denotes the prime power factorization of n, then function (n) =
1
+
2
+ +
k
and logarithmic function f(n) = lnn are two complete additive functions, (n) = k is an
additive function, but not a complete additive function. About the properties of the additive
functions, there are many authors had studied it, and obtained a series interesting results, see
references [1], [2], [5] and [6].
In this paper, we dene a new additive function G(n) as follows: G(1) = 0; If n > 1 and
n = p

1
1
p

2
2
p

k
k
denotes the prime power factorization of n, then G(n) =

1
p
1
+

2
p
2
+ +

k
p
k
.
It is clear that this function is a complete additive function. In fact if m = p

1
1
p

2
2
p

k
k
and n = p

1
1
p

2
2
p

k
k
, then we have mn = p

1
+
1
1
p

2
+
2
2
p

k
+
k
k
. Therefore, G(mn) =

1
+
1
p
1
+

2
+
2
p
2
+ +

k
+
k
p
k
= G(m) + G(n). So G(n) is a complete additive function. Now
we dene the Smarandache divisor product sequences {p
d
(n)} and {q
d
(n)} as follows: p
d
(n)
denotes the product of all positive divisors of n; q
d
(n) denotes the product of all positive divisors
d of n but n. That is,
p
d
(n) =

d|n
d = n
d(n)
2
; q
d
(n) =

d|n,d<n
d = n
d(n)
2
1
,
1
This work is supported by the Shanghai Innovation Fund (10-0101-07-410) and Young Teacher Scientic
Research Special Fund of Shanghai (37-0101-07-704).
2 Weili Yao and Tieming Cao No. 2
where d(n) denotes the Dirichlet divisor function.
The sequences {p
d
(n)} and {q
d
(n)} are introduced by Professor F.Smarandache in refer-
ences [3], [4] and [9], where he asked us to study the various properties of {p
d
(n)} and {q
d
(n)}.
About this problem, some authors had studied it, and proved some conclusions, see references
[7], [8], [10] and [11].
The main purpose of this paper is using the elementary method and the prime distribution
theory to study the mean value properties of G(p
d
(n)) and G(q
d
(n)), and give two sharper
asymptotic formulae for them. That is, we shall prove the following:
Theorem 1. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula

nx
G(p
d
(n)) = B x lnx + (2 B D B) x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
,
where B =

p
1
p
2
, D =

p
lnp
p
2
, is the Euler constant, and

p
denotes the summation over
all primes.
Theorem 2. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula

nx
G(q
d
(n)) = B x lnx + (2 B 2B D) x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
,
where B and D are dened as same as in Theorem 1.
2. Two simple lemmas
In this section, we give two simple lemmas, which are necessary in the proof of the theorems.
First we have:
Lemma 1. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formula:

px
1
p
= ln lnx +A+O
_
1
lnx
_
,
where A be a constant,

px
denotes the summation over all primes p x.
Proof. See Theorem 4.12 of reference [6].
Lemma 2. For any real number x > 1, we have the asymptotic formulae:
(I)

nx
G(n) = B x +O(lnlnx) ;
(II)

nx
G(n)
n
= B lnx +C +O
_
lnlnx
x
_
,
where B =

p
1
p
2
, C = B

p
lnp
p
2
, is the Euler constant, and

p
denotes the summation
over all primes.
Vol. 5 A new additive function and the Smarandache divisor product sequences 3
Proof. For any positive integer n > 1, from the denition of G(n) we have
G(n) =

p|n
1
p
.
So from this formula and Lemma 1 we have

nx
G(n) =

nx

p|n
1
p
=

npx
1
p
=

px
1
p

n
x
p
1 =

px
1
p
_
x
p
_
= x

px
1
p
2
+O
_
_

px
1
p
_
_
= B x +O(lnlnx) ,
where B =

p
1
p
2
be a constant. This proves (I) of Lemma 2.
Now we prove (II) of Lemma 2, note that the asymptotic formula

nx
1
n
= lnx + +O
_
1
x
_
,
where is the Euler constant. So from Lemma 1 and the denition of G(n) we also have

nx
G(n)
n
=

nx

p|n
1
p
n
=

npx
1
p
2
n
=

px
1
p
2

n
x
p
1
n
=

px
1
p
2
_
lnx lnp + +O
_
p
x
__
=

px
lnx
p
2

px
lnp
p
2
+

px
1
p
2
+O
_
_
1
x

px
1
p
_
_
= B lnx

p
lnp
p
2
+ B +O
_
lnlnx
x
_
= B lnx +C +O
_
lnlnx
x
_
,
where C = B

p
lnp
p
2
is a constant. This proves (II) of Lemma 2.
3. Proof of the theorems
Now we use the above Lemmas to complete the proof of the theorems. First we prove
Theorem 1. Note that the complete additive properties of G(n) and the denition of p
d
(n),
4 Weili Yao and Tieming Cao No. 2
from (II) of Lemma 2 and Theorem 3.17 of [6] we have

nx
G(p
d
(n)) =

nx
G
_
n
d(n)
2
_
=
1
2

nx
d(n)G(n) =
1
2

mnx
G(mn)
=
1
2

mnx
(G(m) +G(n)) =

mnx
G(m)
=

n
x
m
G(m) +

m
x
n
G(m)
_
_

m

x
G(m)
_
_
_
_

n

x
1
_
_
=

x
G(m)
_
x
m
_
+

x
_
B x
n
+O(lnlnx)
_

_
x +O(1)
_
B

x +O(lnlnx)

= x

x
G(m)
m
+O
_
_

m

x
G(m)
_
_
+B x

x
1
n
B x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
= x
_
1
2
B lnx +C +O
_
lnlnx

x
__
+B x
_
ln

x + +O
_
1

x
__
B x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
= B x lnx + (C +B B) x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
= B x lnx + (2B B D) x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
,
where B =

p
1
p
2
and D =

p
lnp
p
2
, is the Euler constant. This proves Theorem 1.
From Lemma 2, Theorem 1 and the denition of q
d
(n) we can also deduce that

nx
G(q
d
(n)) =

nx
G
_
n
d(n)
2
1
_
=
1
2

nx
d(n)G(n)

nx
G(n)
= B x lnx + (2B B D) x B x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
= B x lnx + (2B 2B D) x +O
_
xlnlnx
_
.
This completes the proof of Theorem 2.
4. Some notes
For any positive integer n and any xed real number , we dene the general arithmetical
function H(n) as H(1) = 0. If n > 1 and n = p

1
1
p

2
2
p

k
k
be the prime power factorization of
n, then H(n) =
1
p

1
+
2
p

2
+ +
k
p

k
. It is clear that this function is a complete additive
function. If = 0, then H(n) = (n). If = 1, then H(n) = G(n). Using our method we
can also give some asymptotic formulae for the mean vale of H (p
d
(n)) and H (q
d
(n)).
Vol. 5 A new additive function and the Smarandache divisor product sequences 5
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