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THE MOLAD IN LOCAL STANDARD TIME

Melech Tanen

E-mail molad@rogers.com Marcheshvan 5765

Introduction................................................................................................................... 2 Equal Hours in Jewish Law .......................................................................................... 3 Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................... 11 Chatzot and the Equation of Time.............................................................................. 14 The Iggeroth Moshe .................................................................................................... 24 The Moladot ................................................................................................................ 32 The Proleptic Calendar ............................................................................................... 36 The Tekufot ................................................................................................................. 46 The First Molad ........................................................................................................... 56 The Seven Heavenly Bodies....................................................................................... 58 The Onah of the Aviasaf ............................................................................................. 67 How to Convert from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time ..................................... 69 1. 0h0p is 6:00 PM Standard Time........................................................................ 70 2. 0h0p is Six Hours After Local Mean Noon ....................................................... 72 3. 0h0p is Six hours After Chatzot ....................................................................... 74 4. 0h0p is Sunset or Nightfall ............................................................................... 77 Summary of Opinions .......................................................................................... 79 The Tzemach Tzedek Responsum 14 ........................................................................ 82 The Maharil: Eclipses and Astronomical Reality....................................................... 84 The Rambam Menachot 10:5: Jerusalem Time versus Local Time .......................... 90 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 108 Appendix: The Keviot, Moladot and Tekufot of Select Years ................................. 110

Introduction The molad for Marcheshvan, 5765 is calculated to occur at the beginning of the eighth hour of Yom Chamishi, 29 Tishrei, 5765. Some contemporary poskim interpret this to be eight hours following the start of the calendar day, which in turn begins six hours after mean solar noon in Jerusalem. That is to say, the molad occurs eight hours after 5:39 PM Israel Standard Time on 13 October 2004, which is 1:39 AM IST on 14 October 2004. The molad is said to occur worldwide at one moment: 1:39 AM IST is 6:39 PM Eastern Standard Time or at 7:39 PM Daylight Saving Time. This article presents some alternative opinions regarding how to determine the moments of the moladot and tekufot in local Standard Time. Secondly, this article demonstrates that one may be able to recite birchat kiddush levanah without regard to ones location relative to Jerusalem. This is contrary to the opinions of some contemporary and recent poskim that one may recite birchat kiddush levanah only as long as birchat kiddush levanah can still be recited in Jerusalem. Thirdly, this article explains how to determine the times for shimur (guarding water during the equinoxes and solstices), the times to avoid reciting kiddush over wine Friday nights and the times of the onat haveset of the Aviasaf. This article introduces the term, Jewish Equal Time, which describes the time of day based on a 24-hour clock of equal 60-minute hours that begins sometime in the evening and is distinct from the day that involves shaot zemaniyot.

Equal Hours in Jewish Law There are two types of hours in Jewish law: Seasonal and equal hours. Seasonal hours (variable hours or temporary hours or shaot zemaniyot) vary in length depending on the latitude of the observer and on the day of the year. A seasonal hour is 1/12 of the time from sunrise1 to sunset according to the Rambam , the Levush and the GRA or is 1/12 of the time from dawn to nightfall (tzeit hakochavim the emergence of the stars) according to the Mechaber , the Rama
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and the Magen Avraham7. Seasonal hours are shorter in the winter and longer in the summer. The length of a seasonal hour on any particular day between the Arctic and Antarctic Circles along any longitude can be calculated from the latitude of the observer and the declination of the sun. The declination of the sun is specific to the day of the year. Equal hours (equinoctial hours or shaot shavot or shaot meavotot or shaot beinoniyot) are 60 minutes regardless of the location of the observer or of the day of the year. Equal hours are fixed and uniform. There are 24 equal hours in a mean solar day. This distinction between seasonal and equal hours is not stated explicitly by Chazal but is inferred. Timescales are traditionally based on either the length of the day of the length of the year. Seasonal hours are based on the length of daylight on a particular day. Equal hours are based on the average length of a day. However, it should be noted that coordinating the length of the average day with the length of the year requires adjustments of leap seconds so that atomic time is synchronized with civil time. Approximately three hours have been lost in the past 2,000 years, as the rotation of the earth has slowed. The popularization of equal hours and clocks that keep time by equal hours, like many innovations, occurred when there was both a means and a need. Weight driven clocks that keep

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Haneitz hachamah in Hebrew, and not neitz hachamah as it is sometimes erroneously called. R. Moshe Ben Maimon, 1135-1204 (14 Nissan, 4595 20 Tevet, 4965). 3 R. Mordechai Ben Avraham Jaffe, 1535-1612, a student of the Rama. 4 R. Eliyahu Ben Shelomo Zalman, 1720-1797, the Gaon MeVilna. His yahrtzeit is 19 Tishrei. 5 R. Yoseph Ben Ephraim Caro, 1488-1575, author of the Beit Yoseph (completed 11 Elul, 5302/1542) and the Shulchan Aruch (completed 17 Adar, 5323/1563). His yahrtzeit is 15 Nissan. 6 R. Moshe Ben Yisrael Isserles., d. 1572 according to a tradition at the age of 33 or perhaps at 47, author of the Darchei Moshe and the Mappa or Hagahot to the Shulchan Aruch, the latter published in 1570. His yahrzteit is on 18 Iyyar, Lag Baomer. 7 R. Avraham Abele Ben Chaim HaLevi Gombiner, 1637-1683. Originally called Ner Yisrael and published posthumously.

time by equal hours became widespread following the invention of the escapement by Robert the Englishman in 1271. Initially the weight driven automatic ringers were used to call monks to prayer. (Note the Yabia Omer YD 3:24 (5) who mentions a responsum not to allow clocks in synagogues due to the prohibition against imitating non-Jews. As well, note R. Moshe Shternbuch in Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:412 where he mentions that looking at a clock that is used to call ovadei kochavim to prayer is problematical. Sefer Taamei HaMinhagim page 553 casts dispersions on the innovation of placing clocks in a beit midrash). The use of clocks was popularized due to an economic need. It was at this time that the feudal system that relied on serfdom began to break down and be replaced by employed workers. Workers in the 14th century could be paid an hourly rate that more accurately reflected the reality that there are fewer workable daylight hours in the winter than in the summer. Once dividing the day into 24 equal parts became popular, the distinction between seasonal and equal hours began to appear in responsa literature in the 14th century in the writings of the Rosh8 in Tosefot HaRosh Berachot 3b and Eruvin 56a, the Maharil9 Responsum152, and the Tashbetz10 Responsum 97. However, the concept of equal hours was long known. Ptolemys astronomical tables in Almagest in the 2nd century used equal hours. (Sefer HaKabbalah11 places Ptolemy in the second generation after the Destruction of the Beit HaMikdash during the time of R. Akiva and Bar Kochva). Ptolemys interest was in converting local times to Alexandra time so astronomical events could be used to measure the differences in longitudes among different locations. The Ri12 in Eruvin 56a discusses the distinction between seasonal and equal hours. Also, the opinion of the Raavayah13 in the Aviasaf regarding calculating times of separation during the onat haveset as cited by the Hagahot Maimoniyot Hilchot Biah 4:9 involves equal hours. Ibn Ezra in Sefer
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R. Asher Ben Yechiel, 1270-1340, father of the Baal HaTurim and a student of the MaHaRaM MeRothenburg. 9 R. Yaakov Ben Moshe HaLevi Moellin, 1360-1427. His yahrtzeit is on 21 Elul. 10 R. Shimon Ben Tzemach Duran, 1361-1444, a younger contemporary of the Rivash. Not to be confused with the sefer of the same title that is the collected practices of the MaHaRaM MeRothenburg by one of his students. 11 Authored by R. Avraham Ben David HaLevi Ibn Daud, 1110-1180 , the earliest of three Rabbis known by the acronym, RaAVaD. The Yesod Olam Maamar 4 Chapter 18 quotes much of the Sefer HaKabbalah and then supplements the chronology to the time of the Rosh. 12 R. Yitzchak Ben Shmuel of Dampierre, Ri HaZaken, d. 1185, one of the Tosafot and a nephew of Rabbeinu Tam, not to be confused with R. Yitzchak, a brother of Rabbeinu Tam. 13 R. Eliezer Ben Yoel HaLevi, 1140-1225, a student of R. Yehudah HaChassid.

HaIbbur also refers to equal hours with regard to Tekufat Shemuel. As well, the Rambam saw need to emphasize in his commentary to the Mishnah Berachot 1:2 and Sanhedrin 5:3 that the Mishnayot are specifically referring to shaot zemaniyot. Seasonal hours and equal hours are the same length when the day is 12 hours long. The day is approximately12 hours long near the equinoxes at any location and at the equator on any day. In most areas of Jewish law where precepts are to be performed beginning or ending at a certain time of day, shaot zemaniyot are used. In certain areas of Jewish law, equal hours are used. The calculations for the earliest and latest times for reciting birchat kiddush levanah each month, the times for shimur (guarding water during the times of the equinoxes and solstices), the times to avoid reciting kiddush over wine Friday nights, and the onah of the Aviasaf involve equal hours. This equal hour is the same as the 60-minute hour on our watches. This 60-minute hour is 1/24 of the mean solar day. In most areas of Jewish law the Jewish day begins in the evening at sunset or at the emergence of the stars. The time of day on our watches, at which the calendar day begins, like the length of seasonal hours, is dependent on the location of the observer and on the day of the year. In distinction, when equal hours are used, each day of the year is by definition 24 hours in length at any location. Therefore in certain areas of Jewish law, the Jewish day must begin at the same time of day on our watches on every day of the year. However, this time of day is not defined explicitly by the poskim. According to the Rambam in his commentary to the Mishnayot Berachot 1:2 and Sanhedrin 5:3, whenever the Mishnah is discussing hours of the day, shaot zemaniyot are meant. In Responsum 134, the Rambam states that all shaot in the Talmud, not just in the Mishnah, refer to shaot zemaniyot. The Rama OC 133:1 states the opinion of the Rambam is that all times stated by Chazal refer to shaot zemaniyot.

However, other commentators and poskim state that the context determines whether shaot zemaniyot or shaot shavot are being discussed. For example, the Penei Yehoshua14 in his Likutim to Berachot 3a, Mahadura Batra, and R. Yaakov Emden in Mor Uketzia OC 58 note that it depends on the context whether shaot zemaniyot or equal hours are meant. The implication of the Penei Yehoshua as well as the Mor Uketzia OC 58 is that the latest time for reciting keriat shema and tefillah is measured by equal hours. The Iggeroth Moshe OC 2:20 states categorically that using equal hours as opposed to shaot zemaniyot for keriat shema and tefillah is a minority opinion according to which one does not need to be stringent. Those who rule that the latest time for reciting keriat shema is at the end of three equal hours disagree whether the three equal hours are counted forward from sunrise or back from chatzot. R. Moshe Shternbuch in Moadim U-zemanim 2:155 note 2 states that the latest time to recite keriat shema according to those who use equal hours is 21 equal hours from the previous chatzot. The Chatam Sofer Responsum OC 199 distinguishes among three types of shaot. He states that most if not all times of day in the Mishnah and in halachah are stated using shaot zemaniyot. (The Chatam Sofer notes the possible exception of the sale of chametz in OC 443). However, the Chatam Sofer continues that poskim often use the term shaot to refer to equal 60minute hours. A third type of shaot in the Talmud is a minimal amount of time and not an hour per se (see the Mishnah Berurah 93:1). Essentially, even if all shaot in the Mishnah were shaot zemaniyot, this may only refer to shaot as the time of day. Shaot as an amount of time or a time difference may not refer to shaot zemaniyot. One may still need to examine each case where an amount of time is specified by the poskim in the many halachot where an amount of time is specified and determine whether the reference is to shaot zemaniyot or shaot shavot. The Mishnah Sanhedrin 5:3 (Sanhedrin 40a) discusses contradictory testimony as to the time that an event occurred. (This discussion is repeated in Pesachim 12a). There is a disagreement in the Mishnah, as understood by the Tosefot Yom Tov, whether the average person can accurately state when an event occurred within a two-hour or a three-hour margin of
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R. Yaakov Yehoshua Ben Tzvi Hirsch Falk, 1680-1756. Not to be confused with his grandfather, also known as the Penei Yehoshua.

error. (The poskim in many places point out that the Torah was not given to angels and that people cannot be exact with respect to the time of day. Rashi
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makes a similar comment to

Bereishit 2:2. Note that the Tifereth Yisrael16 to Sanhedrin 5:3 states that someone with a watch, just like someone with a sundial during the time of Chazal, can distinguish down to the hour the time of an event. The Avnei Nezer EH 60 similarly states that witnesses do not err as much with a clock). The conclusion is that two people may differ by up to two hours as to the timing of an event. The Radbaz to the Rambam Hilchot Eidut 2:5 states that the average person can not be expected to know if an event occurred before or after chatzot if that event occurred within an hour of chatzot. Perhaps one can presume that the members of the Sanhedrin themselves could be more accurate and be able to tell if an event occurred within a half-hour of chatzot. Interestingly, although most commentators agree that the Mishnah Sanhedrin 5:3 is discussing shaot zemaniyot, the Penei Yehoshua in his Likutim to Berachot 3a, Mahadura Batra, states that the Mishnah Sanhedrin 5:3 is discussing equal hours and that the Rambam himself changed his opinion between the time that he wrote his commentary to the Mishnah and the time he wrote the Mishnah Torah. However, in his Responsum 134, the Rambam again states that the Mishnah Sanhedrin 5:3 is referring to shaot zemaniyot. Even according to the poskim that shaot zemaniyot are used throughout the Mishnah, equal hours may still be meant in certain areas of Jewish law. For example, the Shulchan Aruch OC 459 discusses the amount of time flour can contact water before the flour becomes chametz and the Shulchan Aruch YD 69 discusses the amount of time required for melicha (salting meat as part of the koshering process). The consensus in each case (see the Mishnah Berurah OC 459:15) is that the time involved is the same as the time it takes to one mil. The poskim discuss how long it takes to walk one mil (18 minutes according to the Mechaber and Rama citing the Terumat HaDeshen, 22.5 minutes according to the Chok Yaakov and 24 minutes according to the
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R. Shelomo Ben Yitzchak, 1040-1105. His yahrtzeit is 29 Tammuz. Commentary to the Mishnah by R. Israel Ben Eliezer Lipschuetz, published 1810-1850. His introduction to Seder Moed includes Sod HaIbbur on the calendar and the moladot. Note that Ibn Ezras Sefer HaIbbur is also referred to as Sod HaIbbur. Note as well Sefer HaIbbur by R. Avraham Ben Chiyya which predated Ibn Ezras work. The term, Sod HaIbbur variously refers to the hidden rules of the calendar, an esoteric baraita (Rashi to Rosh HaShanah 20b), the group of dayyanim who are involved in the calendar (Ketubot 112a), or the determination when the new moon will be visible based on the calculations of the relative true positions of the sun and the moon (Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 11:3).

Rambam. R. Moshe Shternbuch in Moadim U-zemanim 2:155 cites the Chazon Ish that the GRA later retracted his comment on the Shulchan Aruch and agreed that one can consider the length of time to walk one mil to be 18 minutes.). Regardless, the consensus is that this amount of time is constant regardless ones location and regardless of the day of the year. Most times of day are stated in shaot zemaniyot and most time differences are stated in shaot shavot. However, a case where a time difference is based on the difference between two times of the day would require further examination. For example, one must wait six hours after eating meat before eating milk (Shulchan Aruch YD 89:1). The Rambam Hilchot Maachalot Asurot 9:28 states that about six hours allows for any residue between the teeth to be cleaned away. One would reasonably assume that the six-hour wait is constant in the summer and in the winter and that these are six equal 60-minute hours. Times that reflect biological functions should not involve shaot zemaniyot since our metabolism is essentially the same regardless of ones location in the summer and in the winter. (Similarly, zeman achilat peras probably involves equal hours, as does the time to walk four mil with regard to the maximum time during which one can still recite birchat hamazon. There are countless other examples). However, the Beit Yoseph OC 173 states that the six-hour wait between meat and milk is derived from the amount of time between meals. Since the amount of time between meals differs in the summer and in the winter, the amount of time to wait between meat and milk should involve shaot zemaniyot. In fact, the Pri Chadash YD 89 implies that the amount of time to wait between meat and milk is shorter in the winter and longer in the summer. The Yabia Omer YD 3:3 discusses this opinion of the Pri Chadash. Another example of ambiguity involves whether the amount of time to walk 4 mil is stated in seasonal or equal hours. The amount of time to walk 4 mil between sunset and nightfall involves shaot zemaniyot according to some poskim. However, there are poskim (the Pri Megadim OC 261:9 and the Machatzit HaShekel OC 135:3) who define the amount of time to walk 4 mil to be constant regardless of the day of the year. Even contemporary luchot that calculate the time between sunset and nightfall to involve shaot zemaniyot will still use 72 minutes throughout the year to calculate the latest time to recite keriat shema according to the

Magen Avraham. Therefore, for example, luchot will commonly state the latest time to recite keriat shema in the morning according to the Magen Avraham to be 36 minutes before the latest time according to the GRA, regardless of ones location and regardless of the day of the year. R. Moshe Shternbuch in Teshuvot VeHanhagot Leket Minhagei R. Chaim MeVolozhin 46 and in Moadim U-zemanim 2:155 states that even in the summer when there is reason to consider Rabbeinu Tams opinion to be longer than 72 minutes, there is still not need to stringently use shaot zemaniyot. R. Moshe Shternbuch opines that Rabbeinu Tams concept of night after 72 minutes have elapsed was a mystical definition not related to astronomical reality and independent of ones location or the day of the year. The RaDaL17 in his introduction to Pirkei DeRabbi Eliezer Chapters 6-818 gives a similar explanation of Rabbeinu Tams opinion citing the RaMChaL and the GRA. Note that the Tifereth Yisrael who wrote about witnesses being more accurate in the possession of clocks, R. Yaakov Emden who wrote about the latest time for reciting keriat shema determined by equal hours, and the GRA who apparently held that chatzot is always at 12:00 noon, lived in the 18th century just as accurate clocks and watches first became widespread due to the innovations of John Harrison and other chrononomers. In distinction to the ambiguity in most areas of Jewish law, the consensus seems to be that the calculations for the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies use using equal hours. This is clearly stated by the Abudraham19 in Seder HaIbbur, the Tashbetz 109, the Tzemach Tzedek Responsum 14 and the Pri Chadash OC 428. The orbit of the moon around the sun is not considered to be longer in the summer and shorter in the winter. The calendar assumes evenly spaced moladot even though the moons synodical period actually fluctuates between 29 days 6.5 hours and 29 days 20 hours. With regard to the tekufot, the Tosefot Eruvin 56a notes that for the tekufot to be equally spaced equal hours must be used in the calculations. The ascendancy of the heavenly bodies in turn is also independent of the day of the year. The moladot, tekufot and

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R. David Ben Yehudah Luria, 1798-1855 The comments of the RaDaL are located after the end of his introduction to Pirkei DeRabbi Eliezer just before Chapter 1 due to space constraints. 19 R. David Abudraham, late 13th century early 14th century , written in 1370, a student of the Baal HaTurim

seven heavenly bodes are all linked (as inferred from Berachot 59b and Eruvin 56a) so it would be difficult to justify selectively using equal hours. R. Saadiah Gaon in his commentary to Sefer Yetzirah and Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur both state that the tekufot and seven heavenly bodies are linked. Ibn Ezra even states explicitly that Tekufat Shemuel involves equal hours. Tosefot to Eruvin 56a does, however, quote the Ri who believes that the calculations for the moladot and tekufot and seven heavenly bodies involve shaot zemaniyot. The Chida
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in

Yoseph Ometz 42 wonders why neither the Tosefot Yom Tov nor the Tzemach Tzedek Responsum 14 nor the Pri Chadash OC 426 mentions the opinion of the Ri. The opinion of the Rosh with regard to the moladot and tekufot has been variously interpreted. The Tosefot HaRosh Eruvin 56a and Berachot 3b are somewhat ambiguous (see the Iggeroth Moshe OC 2:20). However, the Abudraham, a contemporary of the Roshs son the Baal HaTurim, in Seder HaIbbur, and the Tashbetz 109 in the following generation and the Yesod Olam Maamar 2 Chapter 13, a student of the Rosh, would not have stated categorically that the consensus is that the moladot involve equal hours if the opinion of the Rosh were otherwise. In addition to Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur, both the Rambam in Maamar HaIbbur and R. Avraham Bar Chiyya in Sefer HaIbbur (Maamar Rishon, Shaar 10) state that the moladot and tekufot are calculated using equal hours. This article introduces the term Jewish Equal Time that describes the time of day based on a 24-hour clock of equal hours that begins sometime in the evening and is distinct from the day that involves shaot zemaniyot. Also discussed is the conversion from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time. Both Jewish Equal Time and Standard Time use equal hours and therefore have some constant conversion that is not dependent on the day of the year.

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R. Chaim Yoseph David Azulai, 1724-1806, author of the Birchei Yoseph. His yahrtzeit is 11 Adar.

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Definition of Terms A. Nomenclature Books that discuss the mechanics of the Jewish calendar and calculating the moladot and tekufot use the same nomenclature for two different purposes. (1) Day of the week and time of the day For purposes of the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies, the Jewish day starts in the evening at the beginning of the first hour of the day which is described as 0h0p Jewish Equal Time or 0 hours and 0 parts. There are 1080 parts (chalakim) in an hour or 18 parts in a minute so each part is 3 1/3 seconds. There are 76 regaim in a chelek. The second hour of the day starts at 1h0p. There are 24 equal hours in the day. Nighttime is 12 equal hours and daytime is 12 equal hours in both the winter and the summer. The day ends as 23h1079p turns to 0h0p of the next day. In the conversion to our watch or Standard Time that is often used, 0h0p Jewish Equal Time corresponds to 6:00 PM. 6h0p corresponds to 12:00 AM (midnight), 12h0p corresponds to 6:00 AM and 18h0p corresponds to 12:00 PM (noon). For example, the time of 14h0p Jewish Equal Time is described as the end of the fourteenth hour or the beginning of the fifteenth hour of 24 equal hours of the day. This corresponds to 8:00 AM. Alternatively, 14h0p is described as the end of the second hour of the day (2 shaot bayom) if the 12 hours of the night are cast off. 6d14h0p is a day of the week and time: The sixth day of the week or Friday, 14h0p Jewish Equal Time or Friday, 8:00 AM. In classic literature, 6d14h0p would be written as vav yuddaled (6 14) assuming a 24-hour day or alternatively as vav beit (6 2) meaning 2 shaot bayom of Yom Shishi casting off the first 12 hours of the night. There is no nomenclature for zero. However, in Maamar HaIbbur the Rambam introduces the term and a symbol for, safar, Arabic for zero in regard to the times of Tekufot Nissan when they occur at the first hours of the day or night. As another example, 2d5h204p is a day of the week and time: The second day of the week, or Yom Sheini (still Sunday night), 5h204p Jewish Equal Time or 204p (parts or chalakim) past 11:00 PM. Instead of 204p past 11:00 PM, the time is often given as 6 parts past 11:11 PM

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since 204p is the same as 11 minutes of 18 parts each with 6 parts remaining. In classic literature, 2d5h204p is written as BaHaRaD meaning reish daled parts (204p) past heih hours (5h) of beit or Yom Sheini (2d). (2) Time difference The same nomenclature that is used for days of the week and times of the day is also used for time differences. For example, 7d9h642p could mean 9h642p (3:35 AM and 12 parts) of Yom Shabbat. Alternatively, depending on the context, 7d9h642 could mean 7 days 9 hours and 642 parts past a certain day and time. For example, 7d9h642p (a week and 9h642p) past the day and time of 4d0h0p would be 4d9h462p or 9h462p of Yom Revii one week later. If the figure for the day is 8d or greater, then only a time difference could be meant and not a day of the week. For example, 29d12h793 is necessarily a time difference of 29 days 12 hours and 793 parts. In this article, time differences are written in italics to enable the reader to distinguish between the two nomenclatures of (1) a day of the week and time of the day in Jewish Equal Time and (2) a time difference. In this article, Jewish Equal Time uses a twenty-four clock of equal hours from 0h0p at the start of the day to 23h1079p at the end of the day. It is debatable when the day starts for these purposes and hence how to convert from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time. B. Daylight Saving Time The time difference between New York or Toronto and Jerusalem is usually seven hours. New York and Toronto are usually on Eastern Standard Time (EST). Jerusalem is usually on Israel Standard Time (IST). From the first Sunday in April until the last Sunday in October New York and Toronto move the clocks ahead one hour to Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). Israel generally moves the clocks ahead one hour to Israel Daylight Time (IDT) from the first Friday in April until the first Friday in September, although the exact dates vary year to year mostly in order to avoid Jewish holidays. In 2003, Israel is on IDT from Friday, March 28, 2003 until Friday, October 3, 2003.

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The time difference between EST and IST is seven hours. As well, the time difference between EDT and IDT is seven hours. However, the time difference between Jerusalem and New York and Toronto is eight hours from March 28, 2003 to April 6, 2003. The time difference is six hours from October 3, 2003 to October 26, 2003.

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Chatzot and the Equation of Time It is well known that in most areas of Jewish law the calendar day starts at sunset (or at nightfall). This time and hence the start of the calendar day fluctuates throughout the year and is earlier in the winter and later in the summer. For purposes of the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies, when equal hours are used, the Jewish day begins at some fixed time of day that is not explicitly defined by Chazal. This article defines 0h0p Jewish Equal Time as the start of the day that involves 24 equal hours. 0h0p occurs later with respect to sunset in the winter and earlier with respect to sunset in the summer. There are 24 60-minute equal hours from 0h0p of one day to 0h0p of the next day. On the other hand, consecutive sunsets are less than 24 hours apart from the summer to winter solstices and are more than 24 hours apart from the winter to summer solstices. If 0h0p were six hours after chatzot, and if chatzot were the midpoint between sunrise and sunset, then 0h0p would occur at sunset when the day is twelve hours long at about the autumnal and spring equinoxes. The day from sunrise to sunset is 12 hours long near the equinoxes anywhere in the world and along the equator on any day of the year. Since astronomical noon is the midpoint between sunrise and sunset, six equal hours after astronomical noon is necessarily sunset near the equinoxes at any latitude. As well, six hours after astronomical noon at any longitude on any day of the year is the same time as sunset at that longitude on that day at the equator. North or south of the equator, six equal hours after astronomical noon is later than sunset in the winter and is earlier than sunset in the summer. Astronomical noon is the midpoint between sunrise and sunset. If chatzot were the midpoint between sunrise and sunset, that is to say when six shaot zemaniyot have elapsed from sunrise, then chatzot would be the same as astronomical noon. According to the opinions that twelve shaot zemaniyot are calculated from dawn until nightfall and if the time from dawn until sunrise were equal to the time from sunset to nightfall, then chatzot and astronomical noon would also still coincide. Although at astronomical noon the sun is at its highest point for the day (culmination), the sun is not actually directly overhead except in tropical regions. The Rambam

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Responsum 134 and the Tosefot Yom Tov to Pesachim 5:1 make this latter point that when the poskim speak of the sun being directly overhead at chatzot, they mean the sun is at its highest point of the day. There are four basic shitot regarding chatzot: 1. Chatzot is midway between sunrise and sunset. This is the same as astronomical noon. Midway between dawn and nightfall is also astronomical noon according to the opinions that the time from dawn to sunrise is the same as the time from sunset to nightfall 2. Chatzot is at a fixed time of day every day of the year. This is the opinion of the Iggeroth Moshe. 3. Chatzot is eighteen equal hours after the previous nightfall. This is the opinion of the Magen Avraham OC 1:7 based on an opinion in the Zohar although the Iggeroth Moshe OC 2:20 interprets this opinion only to have relevance to reciting Tikun Chatzot. 4. Chatzot is midway between dawn and nightfall where the time from dawn to sunrise differs from the time from sunset to nightfall. For example, if the time from sunrise to dawn were four mil but the time from sunset to nightfall were 3/4 of a mil then chatzot would be prior to astronomical noon. Similarly, if chatzot were calculated as the midpoint between dawn and sunset, then chatzot would be earlier than astronomical noon. However, note that some poskim who calculate each of the shaot zemaniyot as 1/12 of the time from dawn to nightfall where the time from sunrise to dawn is not equal to the time from sunset to nightfall or who calculate each of the shaot zemaniyot as 1/12 of the time from dawn to sunset may still consider chatzot to be astronomical noon. The sun rises in the east, appears to gain height until astronomical noon, and then begins to set in the west. Astronomical noon occurs when the sun reaches the highest point in the sky for the day. At astronomical noon shadows are the shortest for the day. At astronomical noon an object perpendicular to the Earth such as a plumb line will cast a shadow on the ground that runs due north-south. An observer facing the sun will face due south in the Northern Hemisphere at astronomical noon. Astronomical noon or chatzot occurs within a relatively narrow 31-minute range on any day of the year at any location between the Arctic and Antarctic circles. This range

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is the equation of time. Over the course of a year, the time of astronomical noon averages out to local mean solar noon. Local mean solar noon is 11:39 AM Standard Time in Jerusalem, 11:56 AM in New York and 12:18 PM in Toronto. City Degrees Longitude Time Zone Standard Meridian in Degrees Difference Between Longitude and Standard Meridian in Degrees -5.25 -1 4.5 Longitude Correction in Minutes of Time (4 Minutes per Degree) -21 -4 18 Mean Local Solar Noon in Standard Time

Jerusalem New York Toronto

35.25 E 74.0 W 79.5 W

30 E 75 W 75 W

11:39 AM 11:56 AM 12:18 PM

Prior to the introduction of Standard Time in 1884, every city would have its own civic or railroad time that was usually based on the local mean solar time. Local mean solar time differs from sundial or local apparent time by the equation of time. Every city used to set its clocks so that local mean solar noon would occur at 12:00 PM. When Standard Time was introduced in 1884 clocks were set throughout a particular time zone to reflect the average solar time throughout the time zone. The sun is highest overhead at astronomical noon along one particular longitude regardless of the latitude. Prior to the introduction of Standard Time, observers east of the city at 12:00 noon civic time for that city would see the sun already starting to decline toward the west and observers west of the city would see the sun still climbing from the east. With the introduction of Standard Time, all cities in a geographic swath running north and south and within a particular east-west arc would set their clocks to display the same time. It would be 12:00 noon Standard Time for an observer east of the city within the time zone even though the observer in the eastern part of the time zone would see the sun already beginning to set in the west. It would also be 12:00 noon Standard Time for an observer west of the city within the time zone even though for that observer the sun had not yet reached its maximum height in the sky for the day. There is therefore no real significance to the time shown on our watches. Rather, our watches display a time that is accepted by convention. In the United States, Sunday, November 18, 1883 was known as the Sunday of Two Noons when Standard Railway Time was introduced.

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On that day, clocks within each time zone were synchronized to 12:00 noon. Cities in the western part of the time zone moved their clocks ahead to 12:00 noon and cities in the eastern part of the time zone moved their clocks behind to 12:00 noon. Standard Time was accepted by convention throughout the world at the Prime Meridian Conference of 1884 due to the work of Sir Sandford Fleming and others. The United States Congress ratified Standard Time in 1818 along with Daylight Saving Time legislation as a war measure21. With the introduction of Standard Time, clocks in Jerusalem moved back so local mean noon would be at 11:39 AM rather than at 12:00 PM noon. In Jerusalem, local mean solar noon occurs at 11:39 AM because Jerusalem is located to the east of the average city within its time zone. Astronomical noon or chatzot will occur within a 31-minute span around 11:39 AM Standard Time between 11:22 AM and 11:53 AM in Jerusalem depending on the day of the year. However, chatzot or astronomical noon occurs at 11:39 AM Standard Time which is 12:00 PM local apparent solar or sundial time in Jerusalem on only four days of the year: on April 16, June 14, September 1, and December 25. What 11:39 AM represents is the mean noon the average time of astronomical noon around which the astronomical noon of any particular day of the year fluctuates. Astronomical noon occurs within about a 31-minute span. At any place in the world, local solar noon occurs between 11:43 AM and 12:14 PM local apparent solar time. That is to say, a sundial that points due south will display 12:00 PM noon at astronomical noon but the time on an observers watch will fluctuate around mean solar noon depending on the equation of time. In Jerusalem, the longitude correction for Standard Time is 21 minutes so chatzot will be between 11:22 AM and 11:53 AM Standard Time. In The Encyclopedia Talmudit by R. Levin, the article on Chatzot includes a biphasic graph of chatzot times in Jerusalem according to both local apparent solar time and Standard Time. This fluctuation of chatzot around local mean noon is known as the equation of time
23 22

or

the sundial correction . Astronomical noon differs from local mean noon by the equation of time

21 22

Time Lord, by Clark Blaise, gives an interesting historical account of the work of Sir Sandford Fleming Equation in the sense of equalizing the days, not in the sense of a mathematical equation and hence the translation in Hebrew of hashvaat ha-zeman 23 See the appendices in Marking Time, by Duncan Steel, where the author gives a very clear explanation why astronomical noon fluctuates throughout the year

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which is particular to the day of the year. When accurate pendulum clocks were introduced around 1657, it was noticed that sundials did not keep the same time as clocks. Astronomical noon would fluctuate around a fixed time of day. Clocks display 12:00 noon a little before or a little after astronomical noon except on four days of the year. The midday sun does not keep accurate time because days vary in length from 23 hours, 59 minutes and 38 seconds to 24 hours and 30 seconds. John Flamsteed24 calculated the first accurate table of the equation of time in 1672 to convert the local apparent sundial or solar time to local mean time. Flamsteed was interested in being able to use lunar and stellar tables to determine ones longitude . However, the discrepancy between solar noon and mean solar noon was previously known. The time displayed on a simple sundial can be corrected to Standard Time on a watch in two steps by correcting for the equation of time for the particular day of the year and by correcting for the longitude. The longitude correction for Jerusalem is always -21 minutes. The longitude correction for New York is always -4 minutes. The longitude correction for Toronto is always +18 minutes. Toronto is located about 79.5 degrees west of the prime meridian that runs through Greenwich, England. New York is located 74 degrees west of the prime meridian. The Earth rotates 360 degrees relative to the sun in 24 hours on average or one degree every 4 minutes. Toronto and New York are each in the same time zone. All of the cities in the Eastern Time zone have by convention agreed to set their clocks according to the local mean time of 75 degrees west. Toronto is 4.5 degrees west of the standard meridian for its time zone. An observer standing on the 75 degrees west meridian will see the sun at its highest point for the day and will see the sun due south at 12:00 PM Standard Time when the equation of time is zero. However, it will take the sun another 18 minutes to appear to travel another 4.5 degrees to be at its highest point over Toronto. The observer in Toronto at 79.5 degrees west and at 75 degrees west have their watches synchronized but astronomical noon or chatzot in Toronto does not occur until
24 25

1646-1719. Flamsteed was appointed the first Royal Astronomer in 1765 when the Royal Observatory at Greenwich was established and was a colleague of Sir Isaac Newton. Flamsteed set the Prime Meridian to run through his shed. 25 Longitude by Dava Sobel has an interesting historical account of the chrononomers of the 18th century. Ironically, Harrisons clock in 1717 included a table to convert clock time to the more common solar time, rather than for converting solar time to clock time as we do today.

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12:18 PM. (Again, chatzot in Toronto is at 12:18 PM Standard Time on only four days of the year; on other days one needs to correct for the equation of time). The longitude correction for 75 degrees west is zero so the observer standing on that meridian only needs to correct for the equation of time to synchronize her watch and her sundial. In Toronto, local mean solar noon occurs at 12:18 PM because Toronto is located west of the average city within its time zone. On those four days of the year at 12:00 PM Standard Time in Toronto the sun is still climbing. New York is 1 degree east of the standard meridian for its time zone. An observer in New York standing at 74 degrees west will see the sun at its highest point of the day 4 minutes before an observer standing at 75 degrees west. In New York, local mean solar noon occurs at 11:56 AM Standard Time because New York is located east of the average city within its time zone. On those four days of the year when the equation of time is zero at 12:00 PM Standard Time in New York the sun has already begun its descent. Sunset on a day that is 12 hours long will by definition be six hours after astronomical noon. If there were 12 hours between sunrise and sunset on the day of the equinox and if astronomical noon on the day of the equinox were at 12:00 noon local apparent solar time then sunrise would be at 6:00 AM and sunset would be at 6:00 PM local apparent solar time. For example, in Jerusalem, sunrise would be at 5:39 AM Standard Time, chatzot would be at 11:39 AM and sunset would be 6 hours later at 5:39 PM and the day would be 12 hours long. However, the equation of time tells us that chatzot on September 21 (the autumnal equinox) for any location in the world will be 11 minutes after noon local apparent time or at 12:11 PM as shown on a sundial. In Jerusalem, the longitude correction is -21 minutes so chatzot will be at 11:50 AM Standard Time. The equation of time for March 21 (the vernal equinox) is 7 minutes. Note that at the equinoxes one would expect there to be 12 equal hours from sunrise to sunset and the time of day given in shaot zemaniyot would be the same as the time of day given in shaot shavot. In practice however, the day is 12 hours long close to but not actually on the days of the equinoxes. At the equinoxes the day is 6-10 minutes longer than the night at midnorthern latitudes. The 12-hour days are about 4 days away from the equinoxes. The apparent diameter of the sun and the refraction caused by the atmosphere combine so sunrise is a few

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minutes earlier and sunset is a few minutes later than one would otherwise calculate. The day would be 12 hours long at the equinoxes if the sun were point of light without height on a planet without atmosphere. Noon is one of the easier astronomical events for an observer to determine. R. Yom Tov Heller in Maadenei Yom Tov to the Rosh on Niddah Chapter 1 (30) with regard to calculating the onat haveset of the Aviasaf states that although it is difficult for individuals to calculate various hours of the day, it is within common ability to determine chatzot. At noon the sun is high in the sky and everyone can see it without local or distant obstructions. With regard to observing sunrise and sunset there is the problem of the proverbial man in the pit who will not see the sunrise until noon and who will see sunset shortly thereafter. As well, it is not difficult for people to set up a device to determine when the sun is due south. The earliest time for tefillat minchah is 30 minutes past chatzot. The Shaar HaTziyon OC 233:8 states that because it is difficult to discern when the sun starts to descend, we wait 30 minutes since by that time the movement of the sun is apparent. (Note that there is a disagreement whether the 30 minutes are shaot zemaniyot or shaot shavot). However, the Peirush of the RaLBaCh26 in his very lengthy comment to the Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh Chapter 2 makes the point that the members of the Sanhedrin were physically perfect and could discern astronomical events that the common people could not. There the RaLBaCh is discussing the apparent contradictions in the Rambam regarding the start of the day - whether the setting sun or emergence of the stars is the deciding factor. The difficulty in light of the RaLBaCh s comments is that surely the members of the Sanhedrin could discern astronomical noon. If one were to hang a string from a window facing south and were to tie a weight to the string so the string were to hang straight down then at 12:00 PM local apparent solar time (i.e. astronomical noon or chatzot) on September 1 or on any of the other three days of the year when the equation of time is zero, the string would cast a shadow on the floor that runs exactly northsouth. A line drawn on the floor where the string casts its shadow is called a noon mark. (One

26

R. Levi Ben Yaakov Ibn Chaviv, c. 1445-1516. Son of the author of the Ein Yaakov.

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can then determine which direction to face when praying, be it due East, or South-East from New York or Toronto since Israel is located at a lower latitude, or North-East in the direction of the shortest Great Circle route between New York or Toronto and Israel. East is 90 degrees from north. This true geographic north-south line differs from magnetic north on a compass by the continually changing magnetic declination). This will be at 12:00 PM Standard Time for the observer standing on a meridian every 15 degrees from Greenwich on September 1. This will be at 11:39 AM Standard Time in Jerusalem. Of course, chatzot on September 1 is actually at 12:56 PM Daylight Saving Time in New York and at 1:18 PM Daylight Saving Time in Toronto. Additionally, if one were to place a paper in a window with a hole cut out of the paper then the spot of light cast by the sun at local mean noon (or at any other specific time of the day) through the hole on to the floor would trace a figure-8 on the floor over the course of a year called an analemma. The extremes of the analemma will occur at the solstices and the intersection will occur at the equinoxes27. Chatzot on September 1 happens to be local mean solar noon or the average time of chatzot throughout the year. The next day the shadow cast by the string at chatzot will be a little removed from the shadow cast by the string at chatzot on September 1. The shadow will continue to drift away from the noon mark on the floor at every subsequent chatzot until about November 1. From November 1 the shadow will start to drift back in the other direction towards the noon mark. On December 25 at chatzot the shadow will again be coincident with the noon mark. The shadow will then continue to drift away and then back to be coincident with the noon mark again on April 16 and then again on June 14. The difference between astronomical noon and local mean noon is known as the equation of time. The equation of time on September 1, December 25, April 16 and June 4 is zero. The following table gives the equation of time for dates throughout the year.

Date

Equation Time minutes

of in

Date

Equation Time minutes

of in

Date

Equation Time minutes

of in

27

In the movies, Castaway, the castaway was able to construct a calendar in this way as a point of light from the sun traced a figure-8 on a cave wall over the course of a year. Rashi may have been referring to a similar idea in Bereishit 21:2.

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January 1 January 6 January 11 January 16 January 21 January 26 February 1 February 6 February 11 February 16 February 21 February 26 March 1 March 6 March 11 March 16 March 21 March 26 April 1 April 6 April 11 April 16 April 21 April 26

3 6 8 10 11 12 13 14 14 14 14 13 12 11 10 9 7 6 4 2 1 0 -1 -2

May 1 May 6 May 11 May 16 May 21 May 26 June 1 June 6 June 11 June 16 June 21 June 26 July 1 July 6 July 11 July 16 July 21 July 26 August 1 August 6 August 11 August 16 August 21 August 26

-3 -3 -4 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 1 2 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 6 5 4 3 2

September 1 September 6 September 11 September 16 September 21 September 26 October 1 October 6 October 11 October 16 October 21 October 26 November 1 November 6 November 11 November 16 November 21 November 26 December 1 December 6 December 11 December 16 December 21 December 26

0 -1 -3 -4 -7 -8 10 -11 -13 -14 -15 -16 -16 -16 -16 -15 -14 -13 -11 -9 -7 -5 -2 0

For example, on January 1, chatzot anywhere in the world is 12:03 PM local apparent time. After correcting for the longitude, his will be 11:42 AM Standard Time in Jerusalem, 11:59 AM in New York, and 12:21 PM in Toronto. Chatzot from one day to the next is not exactly 24 hours. In distinction, local mean noon form one day to the next is exactly 24 hours. Chatzot does not occur at the same of day throughout the year but local mean noon at any location occurs at the same time of day each day of the year. Six equal hours after local mean noon is also necessarily at the same time of day each day of the year. Local mean noon is a convenience and represents a mathematical average and has no astronomical significance. Local mean noon happens to be astronomical noon on only four days of the year. Chatzot anywhere in the world fluctuates within a relatively narrow 31-minute span throughout the year around local mean noon. A person without an accurate watch telling the true time but with a sundial or an object casting a shadow daily against a noon mark would observe chatzot to be at essentially the same time of day throughout the year.

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The deviation of astronomical noon around local mean noon throughout the year is relatively small for any location. This is partly because charting astronomical noon yields a biphasic graph as opposed to sunrise or sunset that follows a sin curve. The eccentricity of the earths orbit and the tilt of the earth on its axis somewhat cancel out each other. Unlike events such as sunrise or sunset, the latitude of the observer does not affect astronomical noon. The deviation of astronomical noon from one day to the next is less than one minute. Many secular calendars start a new day at midnight or at noon since there are essentially 24 hours between successive midnights or noons. (The switch from 0:00 Greenwich Mean Time as noon to 0:00 GMT as midnight for Nautical Time only occurred in 1925). Astronomical noon from one day to the next (the solar day) is 24 hours on average. However, there is some variation in the length of the solar day such that the earliest astronomical noon of the year is 31 minutes earlier than the latest astronomical noon of the year. It is contradictory to say that there are 12 equal hours from astronomical noon at midday (chatzot hayom) to midnight (chatzot halaylah) and that at chatzot the sun is at its maximum height for the day. Either the Rishonim considered chatzot to be at essentially the same time of day every day of the year or they considered the sun to be at essentially its maximum height for the day at chatzot.

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The Iggeroth Moshe28 The Iggeroth Moshe OC 1:24, OC 2:20, OC 4:62 and EH 1:58 has a unique opinion that regards chatzot as a fixed time of day throughout the year. According to the Iggeroth Moshes opinion, chatzot is always 12:00 noon throughout the year. It is evident from the Iggeroth Moshes examples at the end of EH 1:58 that R. Feinstein is writing about Standard Time and not apparent solar or sundial time. R. Feinstein gives the sunrise and sunset times for various days in New York using Standard Time. It would therefore seem that when R. Feinstein states that chatzot is always at 12:00 noon, he means 12:00 PM Standard Time and neither 12:00 noon solar time (astronomical noon) nor local mean solar noon (11:56 AM Standard Time in New York) as chatzot. If the times given for sunrise and sunset were given in Standard Time, it would stand to reason that the fixed time given for chatzot is also given in Standard Time. Further, R. Feinstein calculates the time differences between sunrise and chatzot and between chatzot and sunset using several examples. These examples are consistent only for chatzot at 12:00 PM Standard Time. Chatzot as fixed at 12:00 PM Standard Time is a unique opinion because 12:00 PM Standard Time has no astronomical significance since it takes into account neither the observers position (longitude or latitude) nor the day of the year (the declination of the sun). For example, when it is 12:00 PM Standard Time in New York, it is also 12:00 PM Standard Time in Toronto. However, the observer in New York will see the sun in a different apparent relative position than the observer in Toronto. 12:00 PM Standard Time is in no way astronomically significant and is only a convenience and convention. 12:00 PM Standard Time is the average time that the sun is at its highest point in the sky due south and midway between sunrise and sunset at every longitude at 15 degree intervals from the prime meridian that runs through Greenwich. That is to say, 12:00 PM Standard Time is local mean solar noon only at longitudes at 15-degree intervals from Greenwich. Additionally, 12:00 PM Standard Time is the actual astronomical noon every 15
29

28

I received a great deal of help from R. Mordechai D. Weiskopf of NIRC in Baltimore, Maryland with this entire article and with this section in particular. 29 R. Moshe Feinstein, 1895-1986. The first volume of the Iggeroth Moshe was published in 1959.

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degrees longitude from Greenwich on only four days of the year when the equation of time is zero. At any longitude other than the meridians every 15 degrees from Greenwich, astronomical noon will be at a time other than 12:00 PM Standard Time on those four days of the year depending on the specific longitude. One can see a problem with the opinion of the Iggeroth Moshe by considering what would be the case with the Iggeroth Moshes example in EH 1:58 had the Prime Meridian Conference in 1884 chosen the longitude of Paris instead of Greenwich as the prime meridian. The Iggeroth Moshe states that sunrise in New York on January 21 is at 7:15 AM. Paris is located 2.25 degrees east of Greenwich. The longitude correction for Paris relative to Greenwich is 9 minutes. If 2.25 degrees east were the prime meridian, then the longitude correction for New York would be 5 minutes rather than -4 minutes. Sunrise on January 21 in New York would then be at 7:06 AM rather than at 7:15 AM. However, according to the Iggeroth Moshe, chatzot would still be at 12:00 PM noon. It cannot be argued that the Iggeroth Moshe is speaking of sundial or railroad time because in such a case sunrise on January 21 would be at 7:19 AM solar time rather than at 7:15 AM Standard Time. Just as it is not reasonable to keep 12:00 PM as chatzot during both Standard Time and Daylight Saving Time, so too is it difficult to keep 12:00 PM as chatzot both before and after the clocks were adjusted to conform to the recommendations of the Prime Meridian Conference in 1884. It is, however, likely that indeed R. Feinsteins intent is the chatzot is always at local mean solar noon throughout the year. This is 11:56 AM Standard Time in New York (11:39 AM in Jerusalem and 12:18 PM in Toronto) and R. Feinstein was merely rounding to 12:00 PM Standard Time for his location in New York since New York is only 1 degree east of the 75 degree west meridian. Had R. Feinstein used the example of Jerusalem where Local Mean Solar Noon is at 11:39 AM Standard Time, perhaps he would not have rounded up to 12:00 noon. R. Moshe Shternbuch in his Responsa Teshuvot VeHanhagot 3:28 states the Iggeroth Moshes intent is that chatzot is fixed at 12:00 noon mean solar time. This is 12:00 PM Standard

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Time along each meridian at 15 degree intervals from Greenwich but fluctuates around 12:00 PM Standard Time depending on ones specific longitude. This would be 11:39 AM Standard Time in Jerusalem, 11:56 AM in New York and 12:18 PM in Toronto. R. Moshe Shternbuch concludes that it is proper to be stringent like the opinion of the Iggeroth Moshe even though most poskim rule that chatzot is variable depending on the day of the year. Since the Shaar HaTziyon opines in OC 233:8 that perhaps minchah gedolah is always 30 equal minutes after chatzot (as opposed to half of a seasonal hour), it would not be unreasonable to be stringent and consider Minchah gedolah to never be earlier than 12:09 PM Standard Time in Jerusalem, 12:26 PM in New York, and 12:48 PM in Toronto. Local mean solar noon is the average time of astronomical noon over the course of a year. Just as we use the average synodical period of the moon for calculating the moladot and just as we use an even of a solar year for Tekufat Shemuel, so too do we use the average time for astronomical noon for chatzot. Most poskim regard chatzot as the midpoint between sunrise and sunset or between dawn and nightfall. Chatzot is therefore variable and dependent on the day of the year. The Iggeroth Moshe takes chatzot as a fixed time of day allowing sunset and sunrise to vary and therefore the lengths of the first six hours of the day (shaot zemaniyot of the morning) are usually not the same as the last six hours of the day (shaot zemaniyot of the afternoon). R. A. Blumenkrantz in The Laws of Pesach, A Digest links this opinion of the Iggeroth Moshe to the Aruch HaShulchan OC 233:14. The Aruch HaShulchan in turn cites the Levush. Indeed, the Aruch HaShulchan also states that chatzot is always at the same time of day (chatzot leolam omedet beshaveh). However, unlike the Iggeroth Moshe, the Aruch HaShulchan seems to acknowledge that the time from sunrise to chatzot lengthens and shortens at the same rate as the time from chatzot to sunset. This implies that chatzot is variable and not fixed. Further, the Aruch HaShulchan cites the Levush. The Levush OC 233:1 clearly states that at chatzot the sun is in the middle of the sky which implies a variable chatzot midway between sunrise and sunset. Perhaps the Aruch HaShulchan is referring not to a clock displaying equal hours but to a sundial displaying solar time. In such a case, chatzot would always be coincident with 12:00 PM

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on the sundial on every day of the year. Chatzot would also be coincident with astronomical noon when the sun is in the middle of the sky at its highest point of the day due south. The time from sunrise to chatzot would be equal to the time from chatzot to sunset. Further, the Aruch HaShulchan refers to minchah ketanah being at 3:30 only at the equinoxes. In the winter minchah ketanah would be earlier that 3:30 and in the summer minchah ketanah would be later. This is true for a sundial displaying solar time in equal hours. If the Aruch HaShulchan OC 233:14 were referring to Standard Time (The Aruch HaShulchan Orach Chaim was published in Piotrokow in 1903, twenty years after the Prime Meridian Conference), then the difficulty of the Iggeroth Moshes opinion would apply to that of the Aruch HaShulchan as well. However, assuming that the figures given by the Aruch HaShulchan OC 58:10 were for Novogrudok at 54 degrees north where R. Yechiel Epstein lived, then the Aruch HaShulchan is certainly not referring to Standard Time. The Aruch HaShulchan could be referring to either sundial or civic time. The extremes for the latest time to recite keriat shema for 54 degrees north are 7:44 AM and 10:12 AM solar or sundial time at the solstices. Since the equations of time at the solstices are close to zero, 7:44 AM and 10:12 AM are also approximately the extremes according to civic time where mean solar noon is 12:00 PM. If the Aruch HaShulchan were referring to 12:00 noon railroad time or civic time or local mean solar time as chatzot then this opinion would be less problematic. In the latter case, 12:00 noon to which the Aruch HaShulchan refers would be 11:56 AM Standard Time in New York and 12:18 PM in Toronto. If the Aruch HaShulchan were referring to local apparent solar or sundial time and is referring to a shadow passing a noon mark then this opinion would be the same as the common opinion that chatzot is astronomical noon. Regardless if R. Feinstein means chatzot is fixed at 12:00 PM Standard Time or at local mean solar noon (11:56 AM in New York), the opinion that chatzot is at a fixed time of day and is not variable depending on the day of year is difficult. The opinion of the Iggeroth Moshe would appear at first glance to be not consistent with the numerous statements in the poskim that the latest time for reciting keriat shema in the morning bedieved is when one quarter of the day has passed rather than one half of the morning.

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The poskim state in numerous places that keriat shema may be recited until one quarter of the day has passed: the Rambam in Perish LeMishnah Berachot 1:4, the Meiri in Berachot 9b, the Bartenura in Berachot 1:2, the Mechaber in OC 58:1, the Levush in OC 58:6, the Ben Ish Chai in Va'eira 5, the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch in 17:1 and 196:7, and the Mishnah Berurah in OC 58:5 and OC 71:4. However, the time difference between of the day from sunrise to sunset (or dawn to nightfall) and of the morning from sunrise to Local Mean Solar Noon may be considered insignificant. Also, the opinion of the Iggeroth Moshe would appear at first glance to be not consistent with the numerous statements in the Talmud and poskim that at chatzot the sun is actually at its highest point of the day and shadows are their shortest. This would seem to imply that chatzot is not a mathematical average but rather is when the sun actually due south at astronomical noon. For example, Rashi to Pesachim 12b, and Yoma 28b states that at chatzot the sun is due south and is at the highest point and casts the shortest shadow for the day. The poskim, such as the Levush OC 233:1 and the Tosefot Yom Tov Pesachim 5:1 similarly state that at chatzot the sun is at its highest point of the day. Significantly, the Rambam in Responsum 134 states that chatzot for purposes of practical halachah is when the sun is actually at its highest point of the day and when the sun is due south at astronomical noon. However, in other locations Rashi seems to state that chatzot is not necessarily when the sun is at its highest point for the day. For example, on Pesachim 50a and Pesachim 5a Rashi seems to state that at chatzot the sun is slightly off from astronomical noon and chatzot is actually somewhere in the middle hour of the day. R. Moshe Shternbuch Responsum 1:307 gives several examples where poskim state that chatzot is earlier than astronomical noon. Chatzot is earlier than astronomical noon where chatzot is midway between dawn and nightfall but where the time from dawn to sunrise is longer than the time from sunset to nightfall. R. Moshe Shternbuch interprets the time of chatzot Pesachim 11a as referring to when the sun is already in the western half of the sky.

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Interestingly, local mean solar noon fluctuates around astronomical noon and astronomical noon fluctuates around local mean solar noon by as much as 17 minutes which can be about half of a seasonal hour the amount of time between chatzot and minchah gedolah. Also, the Ramas statement in OC 443 regarding the latest time to eat chametz on Erev Pesach that equal hours are counted backwards from chatzot would not make sense unless the Rama were speaking of a variable chatzot. Similarly, According to R. Moshe Shternbuch in Hilchot HaGRA UMinhagav Siman 1, even the minority opinion that calculating latest time for reciting keriat shema in the morning involves equal hours holds that these are equal hours counting backward from a variable chatzot. However, the Iggeroth Moshe OC 2:20 discusses equal hours with regard to the latest time for reciting keriat shema and states the equal hours are counted forward from dawn or sunrise30. A further difficulty with the Iggeroth Moshe is that it is hard to conceive how someone during the time of Chazal and until the Middle Ages could possibly calculate chatzot if chatzot were not at astronomical noon but rather at some fixed time of day such as local mean solar noon. However, the answer may hinge on the disagreement among the poskim whether it is easy or difficult for the average person to determine the moment of chatzot. For example, Ibn Ezra to Shemot 11:4 states that one can only determine the moment of chatzot using complicated instruments. In Sefer HaIbbur, R. Avraham Bar Chiyya HaNasi suggests that sunset is used as the start of the Jewish calendar day and not chatzot even though the time of sunset is variable whereas chatzot is fixed because the moment of sunset is obvious whereas the time of chatzot is difficult to discern. Perhaps until recently one could only be expected to know the hour in which chatzot occurs and not the exact moment of chatzot. The latest time for reciting birchat keriat shema would for practical purposes only be able to be determined by calculating 1/4 of the day from sunrise to sunset. However, now that the average person is capable of determining the moment of Local Mean Solar Noon using clocks, the leniency implied by an inherent margin of error would no longer apply. There is a similar logic used by the Tifereth Yisrael to Sanhedrin 5:3. In that
30

Table A in the Appendix to Artscrolls Birchas Hachammah, page 156, also counts equal hours forward from a variable sunrise.

29

case, a witness with a clock is expected to be able to more accurately relate the time of an event even though during the time of Chazal a witness could not be expected to be so accurate. The Maadenei Yom Tov to Niddah 1:30 states that according to the Rosh and the Rif the average person cannot determine chatzot. However, the Maadenei Yom Tov there states that the opinion of the Aviasaf implies that indeed the average person can readily determine the time of chatzot. The Derishah to YD 184:2 similarly states that the opinion of the Aviasaf implies that indeed the average person can readily determine the time of chatzot. One can make the analogy that the Iggeroth Moshe takes the average time of astronomical noon as chatzot just as we take the moons average synodical period as the molad. R. Raphael HaLevi Hanover31 in Techunot HaShamayim32 50, being aware of the equation of time, differentiates between true chatzot (chatzot amitit), or astronomical noon, on a particular day and mean noon (chatzot emtzai). R. Feinstein could then just be using chatzot emtzai as chatzot for purposes of practical halachah. However, the term, emtzai may not be a true mathematical median or mean as is local mean solar noon. R. Yehonatan Ben Yoseph33 in his definitions of terms in his introduction to Yeshuah BeYisrael34, explains that emtzai refers to a calculated approximate figure. This is not necessarily a mathematical mean. A fixed chatzot at mean solar noon, although compelling, is not necessarily the only possible fixed time for a chatzot emtzai. If chatzot were fixed at mean solar noon, then astronomical noon on any particular day would fluctuate within a 31-minute span between +14 and -17 minutes around chatzot. However, if chatzot were fixed at the time of astronomical noon on the day of the autumnal equinox when the equation of time is -7 minutes, then astronomical noon on any particular day would fluctuate within a 31-minute span between +21 and -10 minutes around chatzot. That is to say, even if Chazal intended chatzot to be fixed at a particular time on a clock of equal hours, the opinion that this fixed time is mean solar noon in particular may only be a modern convenience.

31 32

1685-1779, a student of Leibniz. Published in 1756 in Amsterdam and reprinted in Poel Hashem:I, Bnei Brak, 5728. 33 A resident of Lithuania 34 Published in 5480 (1719-1720) in Frankfort on the Main and reprinted in Poel Hashem:I, Bnei Brak, 5728.

30

It is difficult why earlier poskim who were well aware that the moladot and tekufot are mathematical averages or at least approximations did not offer this definition of chatzot. R. Moshe Shternbuch in Responsum 3:28 suggests that this opinion of the Iggeroth Moshe is not new, rather it is the opinion of the GRA as well. However, the question remains why earlier poskim such as the Tashbetz 109 and the Yesod Olam were silent on this possible definition of chatzot being the average calculated noon rather than astronomical noon on a particular day. Indeed, R. Moshe Shternbuch himself refers to the Iggeroth Moshe as a chiddush.

31

The Moladot A new moon occurs every 29d12h793 according to Rabban Gamliel in Rosh HaShanah 25a. This is the moons synodical period and is probably expressed in equal hours as opposed to shaot zemaniyot. The first molad occurred at 2d5h204h according to tradition. This was Molad Tishrei of Year 1 (Shenat Tohu) and was theoretical. If the time of one molad is known, then the time of all subsequent and all previous moladot can be calculated. Equal hours are used since the time from one molad (inferior lunar conjunction or hitkabtzuth) to the next is not considered to vary from the winter to the summer. If shaot zemaniyot were used in the calculations, then the time between moladot would vary throughout the year and would not be 29d12h793p of equal hours. The first actual molad occurred at 6d14h0p. This was Molad Tishrei of Year 2 and happened to be coincident with the creation of Adam. The molad of 29d12h793p represents the average time between conjunctions although actual conjunctions can occur earlier or later than the calculated average times. The molad of 29d12h793 (29.5305941 days) is consistent with Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 14:1 where the average apparent motion of the moon in the sky, disregarding the revolution of the earth on its axis, is given as 13 degrees 10 minutes and 35 seconds (13.1763889 degrees) per day. In Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 12:1, the average apparent motion of the sun in sky, disregarding the revolution of the earth on its axis, is given as 59 minutes 8 seconds and 19.8 thirds35 (0.9856472 degrees) per day. The moon has an apparent motion of 13.1763889 - 0.9856472 or 12.190742 degrees per day relative to the sun. Therefore every 360 degrees divided by 12.190742 degrees per day or 29.5305941 days or 29d12h793p the sun and the moon will again line up together. Rosh HaShanah is supposed to occur on the day of Molad Tishrei but in practice Rosh HaShanah can be deferred one or two days depending on rules of the calendar known as the four dechiyot. All moladot can be calculated from the starting point of 2d5h204p (BaHaRaD), which is the theoretical Molad Tishrei of Year 1 by repeatedly adding 29d12h793p to 2d5h204p. The
35

The amount of thirds is inferred from the calculations in Chapter 12. The Rambam rounded off to 59 minutes and 8 seconds in 12:1.

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following table gives the day and time of each molad from Molad Tishrei of Year 1 to Molad Tishrei of Year 2. Event Molad Tishrei, Year 1 Molad Marcheshvan Molad Kislev Molad Tevet Molad Shevat Molad Adar Molad Nissan Molad Iyyar Molad Sivan Molad Tammuz Molad Av Molad Elul Molad Tishrei, Year 2 Day 2 3 5 6 1 2 4 5 7 1 7 5 6 Hour 5 17 6 19 8 20 9 22 11 23 12 1 14 Parts 204 997 710 423 136 929 642 355 68 861 574 287 0

Note that the time difference from one molad to the next is 29d12h793p so the day of the week and the time of day advance by 1d12h793p once 28d or four weeks are cast off. We could continue and extend this table to 5763 or to any year until such a time as we return to declaring the new month by the Sanhedrin following visual sighting of the new moon. From Molad Tishrei of Year 1 to Molad Tishrei of Year 2, 354d8h796p elapsed which is 12 * 29d12h793p. Disregarding the intervening months, the following table gives the day and time of each Molad Tishrei from Molad Tishrei of Year 1 to Molad Tishrei of Year 4. Event Molad Tishrei, Year 1 Molad Tishrei, Year 2 Molad Tishrei, Year 3 Molad Tishrei, Year 4 Day 2 6 3 2 Hour 5 14 22 20 Parts 204 0 876 385

Again, from Molad Tishrei of Year 1 to Molad Tishrei of Year 2, 354d8h796p elapsed which is 12 * 29d12h793p. Likewise, from Molad Tishrei of Year 2 to Molad Tishrei of Year 3 354d8h796p elapsed. Both Years 1 and 2 were simple years of twelve months each. However, Year 3 was a leap year of thirteen months so 383d21h589p (13 * 29d12h793p) elapsed from Molad Tishrei of Year 3 to Molad Tishrei of Year 4. Again, we could continue and extend this table to 5763 or to any year.

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According to R. Eliezer in Rosh HaShanah 11a, the world was created in Tishrei. That is to say, on 25 Elul just prior to Molad Tishrei of Year 2. Molad Tishrei of Year 1 and the next eleven moladot of Year 1 were theoretical moladot of Shenat Tohu prior to the creation of the luminaries. The day of the week and time of that Molad Tishrei of Year 1 is known as BaHaRaD for 2d5h204p. R. A. Azulai, grandfather of the Chida, in his commentary to the Levush OC 427:4, explains that this theoretical first molad is hinted at in the Torah: The first letter of Bereishit 1:1 is beit. Forty-two letters later is heih of uvohu. Forty-two letters later is reish of vayomer. Forty-two letters later is daled of vayavdel. Forty-two in gematria is mem beit, which are the first letters of Molad Bereishit. The Tifereth Yisrael in Sod HaIbbur includes this same hint of Molad Tishrei of Year 1 (BaHaRaD) in his introduction to Seder Moed. The Tifereth Yisrael quotes this comment in the name of Rabbeinu Bechayei at the end of Bereishit 1:236. Well known is that the Hebrew letters of Bereishit can be rearranged to spell Aleph BeTishrei. The first actual molad occurred on Molad Tishrei of Year 2 at 6d14h0p, which was the Friday that Adam was created at 14h0p Jewish Equal Time or 2 shaot baYom Shishi. As the Levush OC 428 explains, the world was created on the preceding Sunday on 25 Elul according to R. Eliezer. At 4d15h0p or 3 shaot baYom Revii the sun and the moon were created and suspended. Just as Adam appeared fully-grown when he was created, so too was the sun suspended in the middle of the morning three hours after sunrise to shine at full strength. The moon complained that it could not serve equally with the sun so the moon was reduced in size and was not seen for 1d23h0p until the molad on 6d14h0p. Molad Tishrei of Year 2 was 1d23h0p after Tekufat Tishrei when the luminaries were suspended. Note that the time period of 29d12h793p is also the amount of time that must elapse until a pidyon haben according to the Bach on the Tur YD 305 and the Shach on the Shulchan Aruch YD 305. This opinion is discussed in the Iggeroth Moshe YD 1:196 and is dismissed by the Aruch HaShulchan 305:41-43. The Pitchei Teshuvah YD 305:17 seems to imply that the 29d12h793 from birth until the pidyon haben involves equal hours.
36 37 37

Not R. Bechayeis commentary to Parshat Bo as stated by the Hagahot to the Tur OC 427:9. R. Yaakov Ben Asher, 1275-1340, son of the Rosh. His yahrtzeit is 12 Tammuz.

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The time of the molad has some other implications as well. For example, the Magen Avraham 417:3 and the Aruch HaShulchan OC 417:11 state that al pi kabbalah one should not fast on account of the waning moon on Erev Rosh Chodesh past the time of the molad. As well, the minhag not to marry in the second half of the month may only apply from mid-molad until the moment of the next molad. One would therefore be permitted to marry after the molad even before Rosh Chodesh.

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The Proleptic Calendar Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur


38 39

and in his commentary to Vayikra 23:3 points out that most

of the rules of the calendar are known only by tradition but do not appear in the Tanach or in the Talmud. Ibn Ezra in his commentary to Shemot 12:2 notes that it is curious that certain obscure laws such as those relating to a metzora are explained in detail in the Torah and yet the details of the calendar are blatantly missing from the Torah. Ibn Ezra continues that in distinction to the laws of metzora, the calendar is applicable to all people at all times and an error in the calendar calculations can potentially involve the sever punishment of karet if one were to miscalculate the dates of the holidays. Even though the laws and details of the calendar are known only by tradition and are not delineated in the Tanach or Talmud, the calendar is one of the only areas of Jewish law and tradition where there is no disagreement (with the possible exception of the supremacy of Tekufat Shemuel or Tekufat Adda). All Jews today are united and observe Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh and the holidays on the same day. It is appropriate that birchat hachodesh includes the phrase, chaveirim kol Yisrael since the calendar is a source of unity. Even though some non-observant Jews will only acknowledge one day of Yom Tov outside of Israel or some observant Jews may not recognize new festivals such as Yom Yerushalayim, they do not dispute the calendar dates. Any attempts at Jewish calendar reform are also dismissed for the same consideration. However, one could argue that by not publicizing the rules of the calendar and their sources, these rules could not be questioned and divergent opinions and interpretations could not develop. The hidden nature of the calendar prevented the calendar from being a source of disagreement. One cannot tamper with the hidden calendar preserved by a select group. A calendar that goes backward to theoretical dates prior to the initiation of the calendar is called a proleptic calendar. By tradition our calendar was fixed in the Year 4119 but one can calculate the kevia (the form on the calendar, of which there are 14 possible permutations) of any

38 39

R. Avraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra, 1089-1164, a contemporary of Rabbeinu Tam. Published in Lyck, Eastern Prussia (today Poland) in 1874 by Mekitzei Nirdamim from an Oxford manuscript .Ibn Ezra wrote Sefer HaIbbur in Verona about 20 years before Rambam wrote Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh (4938 or 1177-1178) at about the same time that Rambam wrote Maamar HaIbbur (4918 or 1157-1158).

36

year from Year 1. According to many Rishonim, this is essentially only of theoretical interest because when new month was announced following visual sighting of the new moon until the Year 4119, the calendar could be set by the Sanhedrin perhaps without regard to calculations of the moladot or to our present rules defining the relationship of a molad to Rosh Chodesh. The Sanhedrin may not have been bound by all of the present rules for fixing our calendar so the keviot of the years prior to 4119 cannot be known for certain. It is a matter of dispute how arbitrarily the Sanhedrin could fix the calendar prior to 4119 contrary to the present rules of the calendar when the need arose to do so. Pirkei DeRabbi Eliezer Chapter 7 lists the chain of tradition of the tzadikim who fixed the calendar from Adam to Moshe. The moladot occur with regularity every 29d12h793p. Similarly, the days of the week recur on a seven-day cycle. Given that the first molad occurred on a Monday (2d5h204p), one can readily determine the day of the week that any subsequent molad occurs. However, in order to determine the calendar date of the moladot, one needs to establish the form of the calendar for each year from the first molad to the present. One can only know by inspection the date of a molad or by inference the latest date to say birchat kiddush levanah. By extension, one can similarly only know by inspection the date of a tekufah or by inference the dates to start asking vten tal umatar or to recite birchat hachamah. To determine the calendar date of any molad or tekufah one needs to determine what the calendar would look like for that year and by implication all previous years. Once one knows how many 19-year cycles have been completed and which year it is within the current 19-year cycle (machzor hakatan), one can calculate Molad Tishrei of the year in question and by inference the Molad Tishrei of the following year. The calendar or kevia for any year can then be determined applying the rules of the calendar (the four dechiyot). Tables are readily available for the keviot for years going back to around 4119 (358-359 CE) when Hillel set the rules for our calendar. (Note that the Council of Nicaea, during which the Catholics set in motion their calendar reform to divorce the date of Easter from Passover, occurred in 325 CE). The rules of our present calendar are known by tradition: (1) The years follow a recurring 19-year pattern of simple and leap years where years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 are leap years.

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(2) Simple years of 12 months must be between 353 and 355 days long and leap years with an additional month of 30 days between the 11 and 12 months must be between 383 and 385 days long. (3) Starting with Tishrei, the months alternate between 30 (kings) and 29 (ministers) days although Marcheshvan40 can have 30 days or Kislev can have 29 days so simple years remain between 353 and 355 days and leap years remain between 383 and 385 days. (4) Rosh HaShanah is on the day of Molad Tishrei if the molad occurs before 18h0p (the rule of molad zakein) but Rosh HaShanah must otherwise be delayed. Rosh HaShanah is also delayed to occur only on a Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, or Shabbat. Rosh HaShanah is also delayed to limit a simple year to 355 days or to extend a previous leap year to 383 days. For example, to determine the calendar date of Molad Tishrei 5764 or any other molad in 5764, one must first go through the exercise of determining the kevia for that year. The Year 5764 followed 3640 regular years of 12 months each and 2123 leap year of 13 months each for a total of 71,279 months. Since Molad Tishrei of Year 1 was at 2d5h204p and the moladot occur with regularity every 29d12h793p, one arrives at Molad Tishrei 5764 at 6d10h491p or 2,104,911 days after Molad Tishrei of Year 1. Molad Tishrei 5765 is 354d8h876p later at 3d19h287p. By applying the rules of the calendar, Rosh HaShanah 5764 is on Shabbat, the year is a simple year 355 days long with both Marcheshvan and Kislev 30 days long so that Pesach is on a Tuesday and the following Rosh HaShanah 5765 is on a Thursday. Interestingly, there is universal acceptance of the Jewish calendar without any machloket. The tekufot or Shemuel and Rav Adda are a possible area of disagreement but even that disagreement does not affect the essential form of the calendar, or the kevia. There are no Jews who deviate from the calendar. These rules for setting the calendar are not mentioned in the Talmud although the commentators discuss whether Rosh HaShanah 20b or the Mishnah Rosh HaShanah 4:4 support the rule of molad zakein. As well, there is an indication that Rosh HaShanah cannot occur on Wednesday or Friday from Ullas statement in Rosh HaShanah 20a and from the Yerushalmi Megillah 1:2.. We know the period between the moladot from Rabban Gamliels statement in
th th

40

The correct name for the month is Marcheshvan as one word (Aruch Hashulchan EH 126:17).

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Rosh HaShanah 25a. However, the date and time of the first molad, necessary for knowing the date and time of all subsequent moladot, is not mentioned by Chazal. We know the first molad occurred at 2d5h204p only by a later tradition. We can derive the date of the first Tekufat Nissan and the period between the tekufot according to Shemuel from Abayes statement in Berachot 59b and Shemuels statement in Eruvin 56a but there is not explicit mention of Tekufat Adda in the Talmud. From Tosefots comments on Arachin 9a it is evident that the possible lengths of the years were a later development. Our calendar is predicated on the assumption that it has continued uninterrupted since Molad Tishrei of Year 1, Shenat Tohu. Just as the 7-day cycle of days of the week has continued uninterrupted since Shabbat Bereishit, so does our calendar assume that the pattern of leap years has continued uninterrupted since Year 1. Thus, for example, Year 3 was a leap year as was 5763. Molad Tishrei is predicated on the fact that the first molad occurred at 2d5h204p and subsequent moladot occur every 29d12h793p. For Tishrei, 5764 to occur at 6d10h491p (29 Elul, 5763), we know Molad Tishrei 5764 must be the 71,279th molad since Molad Tishrei of Year 1. Our calendar therefore assumes that we know how many days, months and years have elapsed since Molad Tishrei of Year 1, Shenat Tohu. Some individual months since Year 1 may not have had the requisite number of days but the total number of days is known. Our calendar assumes that the total number of days, months and years is consistent with the current rules and cycles of our calendar. This is consistent with the opinion that the rules of our calendar and the basis of the authority of our calendar are halachah leMoshe MeSinai. This opinion would allow one to go back to each and every year and know the keviah, or form, of the calendar for any year using the current rules of the calendar. The Tashbetz 135 states the opinion of R. Saadiah Gaon was that indeed even during the time of the Sanhedrin the calendar was fixed according the our present rules. This opinion would have strengthened the hand of R. Saadiah Gaon in his controversy with R. Aaron Ben Meir regarding the keviot of the Years 4682-468441 (see the Encyclopaedia Judaica XIV: 543) as well as R. Saadiah Gaons ongoing disputes with the Karaites.

41

A number of theories have been proposed to explain why R. Aaron Ben Meir held that Rosh Chodesh is not postponed until the molad occurs more than 642 chalakim past chatzot. This may have due to a shift in what was considered the community to the extreme east of Jerusalem (the ketze mizrach) or what was

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Rabbeinu Bechayei to Shemot 12:2 quotes Rabbeinu Chananel 42 whose opinion throughout the Talmud is that the calendar was set by calculations of the moladot and not by visual sighting of the moon even during the time of the Sanhedrin. Several proofs are offered. For example, during the travels in the desert clouds and fire surrounded the camp so the moon would not have been visible. Also, the future King David knew that the next day would be Rosh Chodesh in Shemuel 1 Chapter 20 the haphtarah for Erev Rosh Chodesh. David would only have known this if the month were set by calculations. According to Rabbeinu Chananel, calculations were used exclusively for about 1000 years until the time of Antignos and his students, Tzadok and Baytus during the third generation of Tanaim. (According to Ibn Daud in Sefer HaKabbalah, the Seleucid era began with Alexander the Greats conquest of Jerusalem 1000 years after Yetziat Mitzrayim in 3449 during the time of Shimon HaTzadik who lived during the second generation of Tanaim43.). However, it should be noted that according to Rabbeinu Chananel, even though calculations were used even prior to 4119, the Beit Din still had the authority to alter individual calendar dates. This may be in distinction to the opinion of R. Saadiah Gaon that calculations were perhaps always used exclusively. Even though leap years were added in history at times other than at years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 19 (see Sanhedrin 12a), we consider the leap years to have occurred at those years only. Alternatively, as suggested by Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur for every extra leap month added, another month must have been subtracted at some point in order that 7 leap months be added on average for every 19-year cycle. As well, even though months were lengthened and shortened to make months 30 days that today would be only 29 days and vice versa, the total number of days in the 71,279 months until Molad Tishrei 5764 is 2,104,911. For every month that should have had 29 days but where a thirtieth day was added, a 30-day month must have had a day removed and vice versa. We have no evidence of any jump in the calendar or missing days as occurred considered the tabbur olam. Intrestingly, according to Ptolemys Almagest, Bagdad is about 642 chalakim east of Jerusalem. Also, one can surmise whom the Rambam would have supported in the dispute the sage of Eretz Yisrael or the sage of the diaspora. 42 R. Chananel Ben Chushiel, died 1055 (North Africa), son of one of the four captives at the end of the period of the Gaonim, described by Ibn Daud in Sefer HaKabbalah. 43 This chronology may reconcile the figure of 1100 years given by Rabbeinu Bechayei to Shemot 12:2 in contrast to the note at the bottom of the Mosad HaRav Kook edition of the Rabbeinu Bechayei commentary on page 87 where the figure of 972 years is suggested from Yetziat Mitzrayim to Antignos.

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when 11 calendar days were lost from 3 September 1752 to 13 September 1752 when Britain switched from the Old Style Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar. However, the opinion that one can go back to each and every year and know the kevia of the calendar for any year is problematical for several reasons: (1) There is a tradition that our present calendar dates back only to the time of Hillel in the Year 4119 towards the end of the era of the Amoraim. (2) There are many examples of holidays occurring in the Mishnah and Gemara that are not consistent with our current calendar. (3) The testimony of witnesses to declare a new month would serve no purpose if calculating the moladot and applying the rules of the calendar suffices to declare a new month. On the other hand, one would need to examine the authority of Hillel to fix the calendar based on calculations rather than relying on visual sighting of the new moon. Hillel could have invoked something akin to the rule of eit laasot heifeiru toratecha (Tehillim 119:126) once it became impossible for the Sanhedrin to continue to function. Alternatively, there could have been some built in mechanism in the rules of the calendar that one declares the new month based on visual sighting of the new moon when the Sanhedrin is functioning but one declares the new month based on calculations when the Sanhedrin is not functioning. According to the latter theory, the calculations in their entirety must be halachah leMoshe MeSinai but were in some respects in abeyance until Hillel. Hillels role would then have been to activate the calculations. A third possibility is that the details of the calendar were not all halachah leMoshe MeSinai. Rather it was only halachah leMoshe MeSinai that the Sanhedrin could fix the rules of the calendar. It also needs to be determined how new months were sanctified and how leap months were added prior to Matan Torah. Pirkei DeRabbi Eliezer Chapter 8 lists the sequence from Adam to Moshe of those who were entrusted with Sod HaIbbur. Our calendar was in its final form, like many of our ritual practices, in the time of the Gaonim. The Ramban44 to Gitin 36a (Sefer HaZechut on 18a on the pages of the Rif) mentions Hillel45 the Amora as having established our calendar in 4119 (Year 670 of the Seleucid Era46)

44 45

R. Moshe Ben Nachman, 1194-1270 (12 Elul, 4954 11 Nissan, 5030). Hillel is mentioned in this regard by the Gaonim. Interestingly, the Rambam does not mention Hillel in regard to fixing the calendar.

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when it was becoming impossible for the Sanhedrin to continue to function or to accept the testimony of witnesses that they saw the new moon. The Rambam in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 5:3 dates the beginning of the use of calculations to fix the calendar from the end of the time of Chachamei haTalmud and states visual sighting to establish the new month continued until the time of Abaye and Rava. Sefer HaKabbalah by R. Avraham Ibn Daud places Abaye and Rava in the fourth of seven generations of Amoraim and dates their deaths in 4099 and 4113 respectively. However, it is not entirely clear whether Hillel established all of the present rules of the calendar in their entirety. Also it is unclear how many and which of the rules for fixing our calendar are halachah leMoshe MeSinai and whether the calculations for the moladot or the other rules for our calendar influenced the acceptance by the Sanhedrin of the witness testimony prior to 4119. For a complete discussion, see the appendix to the Tashbetz (Machon Yerushalayim, 5748) by R. Z. Koren. According to the Rambam, as understood by the Meshech Chochmah47 in his comments to Shemot 12:2, there were three distinct periods. The calendar was determined by the sighting of the new moon by witnesses while the Sanhedrin was located on Har Habayit and not by calculations of the molad. After the Sanhedrin ceased to function on Har Habayit 40 years prior to the Destruction, but while semichah of judges continued to function within Israel, the calendar was set either through witnesses or by using calculations known by tradition. Once the continuous chain of tradition was interrupted by the abolishment of semichah, the calendar has been determined strictly through our calculations. However, the caveat according to the Meshech Chochmahs understanding of the Rambam is that our calculations uphold the calendar only as long as there is a Jewish presence in Israel who determine the calendar by their calculations. The Jewish people outside of Israel follow this calendar as set by the residents of Israel and on the authority of the calendar of the residents of Israel. Even though there are no judges with

46

Minyan Shtarot commenced on 1 Tishrei, 3449, Year 1 of the Seleucid Era, the year Alexandra the Great conquered Jerusalem and 1000 years after Yetziat Mitzrayim. 47 R. Meir Simchah Hakohen of Dvinsk, 1843-1926.

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semichah at that time, since semichah can be potentially re-instated among the residents of Israe l, the matter is dependent on the residents of Israel. The Ramban differs in that he does not distinguish between the periods when the Sanhedrin is located on Har Habayit and when it is elsewhere. As long as there are judges with semichah, the calendar is set by witnesses and not through calculations. This is in distinction to the opinions of R. Saadiah Gaon as cited by the Tashbetz 135 and of Rabbeinu Chananel as cited by Rabbeinu Bechayei to Shemot 12:2 that the calculations were used even during the time of the Sanhedrin. The Rambam in Peirush LeMishnah Rosh HaShanah 2:6 may be referring to R. Saadiah Gaon when he rejects the opinion the contention that the calendar was fixed by calculations during the time of the Sanhedrin. The Tashbetz Responsum 135 also offers another possibility that it is entirely within the purview of the current Beit Din to establish the calendar. The opinion of the Ramban, as stated in his comments to the Rambams Sefer HaMitzvot 153, is that Hillel established the calendar in its entirety. This is similar to the opinion of R. Hai Gaon who also mentions Hillel. R. Hai Gaon differs from the Ramban in his contention that the calendar is halachah leMoshe meSinai as opposed to the Ramban who contends that the calendar is a takkanah of beit din. Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur similarly states that it is Beit Din alone that establishes the calendar and that the Heavenly Court accepts the Worldly Courts rulings. Hillels authority to fix the calendar according to the Tashbetz was that Hillel represented the Beit Din that has authority to set the calendar. It is halachah leMoshe MeSinai that the Beit Din could do so. This appears to be consistent with the opinion mentioned by R. Moshe Shternbuch in Teshuvot VeHanhagot Leket Minhagei R. Chaim MeVolozhin 48: By the time Abaye and Rava died the Sanhedrin had been functioning more as a Beit Din than with the full authority of the Sanhedrin. According to R. Aryeh Leib Gordon in Tikkun Tefilah49, R. Amram Gaon, consistent with the opinion of the Ramban, would announce the new month on Rosh Chodesh itself. The authority of the calendar in the absence of the Sanhedrin
48

48

One of the objections to re-establishing semichah during R. Yosef Karos time was that if semichah would be re-established, the calendar would necessarily need to be determined through witnesses who report seeing the new moon and not through calculations. The potential for disunity was a reason for not reestablishing semichah. 49 In Otzar HaTefillot, 1915.

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rests on the kahal and the calendar and new months are legitimate on account of the kahals calculations and collective will. Announcing the new month replaces the Sanhedrins declaration of mekudash. Further evidence that our calendar was not in force during the time of the Sanhedrin is that many dates given in the Talmud are impossible with our present calendar. For example, Rosh HaShanah of Year 2 was on a Friday, the rule of lo ADU Rosh notwithstanding. As a further example, even though there is a disagreement whether Matan Torah was on 6 Sivan or 7 Sivan, all agree that the Torah was given on Mount Sinai on Shabbat (Shabbat 86b). Yetziat Mitzrayim was by implication necessarily on a Thursday. (The Recanati
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and Rabbeinu

Bechayei51 to Shemot 11:4 both note that kachatzot halaylah is midnight of Yom Chamishi as Tzedek Jupiter gives way to Maadim Mars). Using the rules of the calendar, the kevia of Year 2448 establishes that Rosh HaShanah 2448 is on Shabbat, the year is a simple year 355 days long with Marcheshvan and Kislev each 30 days, and Pesach 2448 is on Tuesday and not on Thursday as indicated by Chazal. If Yetziat Mitzrayim were 2448 years from Adam and not from Shenat Tohu then Yetziat Mitzrayim would have been in Year 2449. The kevia of Year 2449 establishes that Rosh HaShanah 2449 is on Thursday, the year is a leap year 383 days long with Marcheshvan and Kislev each 29 days, and Pesach 2449 is on Sunday and still not on Thursday. (For a discussion of how we number our years and how years are numbered in classical sources such as Seder Olam, see Artscrolls History of the Jewish People, Appendix page 213 and Artscrolls Ezra page 59 in the notes. In short, Adam was born on the last day of Year 1 so an event that is determined to have occurred 2448 years after Adam would more correctly be Year 2449 in our numbering system. Biblical events are usually dated by calculating years from Adams birth and not from Shenat Tohu but we date our calendar from Shenat Tohu). Interestingly, the Beer Moshe 1:42 lists seven possible years for Yetziat Mitzrayim: 2447, 2448, 2449, 2453, 2456, 2458, and 2478. The keviot for Years 2447 and 2478 allow Pesach to

50

Menachem Ben Binyamin Recanati, late 13th century-early 14th century. The Levush has an important commentary to the Recanati on the Torah. 51 Written in 1291 by Bachya Ben Asher, a student of the Rashba, and one of the first commentators on the Torah to include the wisdom of the Zohar.

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fall on a Thursday. R. Ari Leib Lipkin52 in his commentary at the end of the Baraita DeShemuel HaKatan53 suggests that Yetziat Mitzrayim occurred in the Years 2447 or 2550. The Yotzer54 for Shabbat HaChodesh refers to Molad Nissan occurring after chatzot on a Wednesday. This is consistent with Pesach occurring on a Thursday two weeks later. Given a seven or eight hour difference between the average molad used in fixing the calendar and the actual molad, the yotzer could be referring to Molad Nissan of Year 2447 at 4d11h151p or to Molad Nissan of Year 2550 at 5d2h332p. Even if one were to argue that our calendar only took force after Matan Torah but before 4119, there would still be difficulty to explain incidents in the Midrashim and Talmud that contradict the rules of our calendar. For example, a Midrash states that Moshe died on a Shabbat on 7 Adar 2489 even though 7 Adar (or Purim) cannot occur on Shabbat. As well, Succah 43b describes Hoshanah Rabba occurring on Shabbat. However, Rabbeinu Chananel accepts that even though the calendar is set through calculations of the molad, the Beit Din can change individual dates as the need arises.

52 53

A grandson of R. Yisrael Salant.. Reprinted in Sefer Poel Hashem:I 54 More correctly, the additions inserted into the amidah is a Kerovah.

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The Tekufot According to Midrash Rabbah Vayikra 26 and the Yerushalmi Berachot Chapter 1, the day and night are equal lengths at Tekufat Tishrei and at Tekufat Nissan. Since the day and night are each 12 hours between sunrise and sunset near the autumnal and spring equinoxes, the tekufot are considered to be coincident with the equinoxes and solstices. The length of the solar year is given as 365d6h0p. The tekufot according to Shemuel occur every quarter year or every 91d7h540p. If the time of one tekufah is known then the time of all subsequent and all previous tekufot can be calculated. Given the time of a tekufah, the next tekufah will be 13 weeks, 7h540p later. Similarly, given the time of a tekufah, the same tekufah the next year will be 52 weeks, 1d6h0p later. For example, Tekufat Tishrei 5763 occurs at 2d21h0p that is 21h0p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Sheini. Tekufat Tevet 5763 occurs 13 weeks, 7h540p later at 3d4h540p that is 4h540p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Shlishi. Tekufat Nissan 5763 occurs 13 weeks, 7h540p later at 3d12h0p that is 12h0p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Shlishi. Tekufat Tammuz 5763 occurs 13 weeks later at 3d19h540p that is 19h540p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Shlishi. Tekufat Tishrei 5764 occurs 13 weeks, 7h540p after Tekufat Tammuz 5763 or 365d6h0p after Tekufat Tishrei 5763 at 4d3h0p that is 3h0p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Revii. Tekufat Tishrei of Year 1 (Shenat Tohu) occurred at 3d9h0p so Tekufat Tishrei of Year 5763 can also be calculated as 5762 cycles of 365d6h0p later. Tekufat Tishrei of Year 1 is a theoretical tekufah since the luminaries had not yet been created. The first actual tekufah according to R. Yehoshua was half a solar year (182d15h0p) later at 4d0h0p which was 23 Adar. The first actual tekufah according to R. Eliezer was Tekufat Tishrei of Year 2 on 4d15h0p which was 28 Elul. The following timeline of Year 1 helps to illustrate the relationship among moladot and tekufot. Event Day of the Week and Time Time Difference Between Tekufah and Molad Notes

Year 1 Tekufat Tishrei

3d9h0p 12d20h204p

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Molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet Molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan

2d5h204p 3d16h540p 10d2h963p 6d19h423p 4d0h0p 7d9h642p

BaHaRaD of Shenat Tohu

22 Adar Levush: According to R. Yehoshua, the luminaries were created and suspended at 4d0h0p and served together 9h642p followed by 7d of rebuke.

Molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz Molad Tammuz Year 2 Tekufat Tishrei

4d9h462p 4d7h540p 4d16h321p 1d23h861p 4d15h0p Levush: According to R. Eliezer, the luminaries were created and suspended and began their orbits. 1d23h0p Adam was created according to R. Eliezer.

Molad Tishrei

6d14h0p

Although similar nomenclature is used, column two above represents a date: 3d9h0p represents 9h0p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Shlishi. Column three above represents an amount of time: 12d12h204p represents 12 days, 12 hours, and 204 parts that elapsed between Tekufat Tishrei of Year 1 and Molad Tishrei of Year 1. As discussed, there are 91d7h540p from one tekufah to the next. There were 365d6h0p from Tekufat Tishrei of Year 1 to Tekufat Tishrei of Year 2. There were 354d8h796p from Molad Tishrei of Year 1 to Molad Tishrei of Year 2. Most of the figures in the table are found in the Rambam and the Tur (R. Yaakov B. Asher, 1270-1340) and the rest can be interpolated. A similar chart can be constructed for any year. For the Year 5763, the table would be: Event Day of the Week and Time 7d12h982p 30d8h98p Tekufat Tishrei 5763 2d21h0p 1 Marcheshvan 5763 Time Difference Between Molad and Tekufah Notes

Molad Tishrei 5763

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October 7, 2002 Molad Tevet 5763 Tekufat Tevet 5763 5d3h121p 33d1h419p 3d4h540p 4 Shevat 5763 January 6, 2003

Molad Nissan 5763 Tekufat Nissan 5763

4d6h53p 6d5h1027p 3d12h0p 6 Nissan 5763 April 8, 2003

Molad Tammuz 5763 Tekufat 5763 Tammuz

7d20h272p 8d23h268p 3d19h540p 8 Tammuz 5763 July 8, 2003

The length of 19 solar years of 365dh0p each is 6939d18h0p. A machzor katan of 19 lunar years of 235 moladot of 29d12h793p each (12 simple years of 12 moladot each plus 7 leap years of 13 moladot each) is 6939d16h595p. Nineteen solar years exceed 235 moladot by only 1h485p. This 19-year cycle is called the Metonic cycle55. Notice that the tekufot preceded the moladot in Year 1. By year 5763 the tekufot followed the moladot. The solar year of 365d6h0p is longer than 12 moladot of 29d12h793p each of a simple year but shorter than 13 moladot of 29d12h793p each of a leap year. Over the course of a Metonic cycle, 19 solar years exceed 235 moladot by 1h485p. Over the course of a cycle of 19 years the tekufah will advance relative to the molad by 1h485p. The Peirush of R. Ovadiah Ben David Ben Ovadiah on the Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 9:3 notes that at the time of Yetziat Mitzrayim, Tekufat Nissan approximated Molad Nissan. Actually, by cycle number 123 (Year 2337) Molad Nissan started to precede Tekufat Nissan in the first year of every 19-year cycle. In the Year 2433, the first year of the 19-year cycle that included the year of Yetziat Mitzrayim, Molad Nissan preceded Tekufat Nissan by only 7h958p. For completeness, it should be noted that the solar year is 365d6h0p according to Tekufat Shemuel. According the Tekufat Adda, the solar year is 1/19 of 235 moladot or

55

Named for Meton, a fifth century BCE Athenian

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6939d16h595p56. The solar year according to R. Adda is therefore 365d5h997 48/76p. Each tekufah or quarter of the solar year is therefore 91d5h519 31/76p. Tekufat Adda (365.2468222d) is closer than Tekufat Shemuel (365.25d) to astronomical reality (365.24219d) with regard to the length of the solar year. Tekufat Adda is referred to as the shorter tekufah and Tekufat Shemuel is referred to as the longer tekufah. Commentators have variously identified R. Adda since there are three Amoraim by that name. Commentators have also offered various sources for Tekufat Adda which is not explicitly mentioned in the Talmud or by the Gaonim. Researchers have attempted to identify when Tekufat Adda first appeared in the literature and in calculations to determine the calendar. (A related issue is when the current rules of the calendar became fixed in their final form). Even the Rambam, who devotes Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh Chapter 10 to a discussion of a tekufah of 365d5h997 48/76p, does not mention R. Adda by name. In Maamar HaIbbur, the Rambam does not mention Tekufat Adda at all. Commentators have also offered explanations why we commonly use Tekufat Shemuel for purposes of shimur, asking vten tal umatar, and birchat hachamah. Tekufat Shemuel is considered the revealed tekufah whereas Tekufat Adda is considered the hidden tekufah long known to only the Chachamei HaIbbur. The practical significance to Tekufat Adda is that the requirement that Tekufat Nissan precede chatzot of 16 Nissan (18h0p) so that the omer is brought in the spring refers to Tekufat Adda rather than Tekufat Shemuel (Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur and the Yesod Olam). As well, Pesach must occur within one month of Tekufat Nissan. Tekufat Adda currently precedes chatzot of 16 Nissan at its latest but Tekufat Shemuel does not. However, there is some confusion whether the critical date that Tekufat Adda must precede is indeed 16 Nissan or perhaps 15 Nissan or even 14 Nissan. Researchers have also attempted to determine if the current cycle of leap years is predicated on Tekufat Adda. A related issue is the necessity for Tekufat Tishrei to precede the end of Succoth (see Sanhedrin 13) since if Tekufat Adda occurs on 16 Nissan then

56

Note the typographical error in The Complete Hebrew Calendar, A. Spier, page 14. Note the typographical error in ArtScrolls Birchas Hachammah page 43 note 4: 997 48/76p is 55 minutes and 25 25/57 seconds. As well, note the typographical error in Sefer Abudraham, Even Yerushalayim, 1995, page 349 column 1.

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Tekufat Tishrei will occur after Succoth. However, the Rambam does not mention the requirement for Tekufat Tishrei to precede the end of Succoth in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh. According to both Shemuel and R. Adda Tekufat Nissan of Year 1 when the luminaries were created according to R. Yehoshua occurred at 4d0h0p. However, according to R. Adda this Tekufat Nissan of Year 1 preceded Molad Nissan of Year 1 by 9h642p and occurred on 29 Adar. According to Shemuel this Tekufat Nissan of Year 1 preceded Molad Nissan of Year 1 by 7d9h642p and occurred on 22 Adar. Note that according to R. Adda, the time difference between Tekufat Nissan and Molad Nissan can be determined from the year of the 19-year cycle of leap years. For example, Tekufat Nissan precedes Molad Nissan by 9h642p in Year 1, again in Year 20 and again every subsequent 19 years. In 5764, Tekufat Nissan is 5d19h661.79p after Molad Nissan, as it is in every 7th year of the 19-year cycle. Tekufat Nissan is at its latest relative to Molad Nissan at the 16th year of every 19-year cycle when Tekufat Nissan follows Molad Nissan by 1dd3h457.47p but currently precedes chatzot of 16 Nissan even at the 16th year. We need to know when the tekufot occur for three reasons. First, outside of Israel, one starts to request vten tal umatar on the evening of the beginning of the sixtieth day after Tekufat Tishrei. The day that Tekufat Tishrei falls is day one and then 59 days later we start to request vten tal umatar at maariv. The consensus of poskim is that we start at maariv regardless at what time of the day Tekufat Tishrei occurred. That is to say, we do not wait 59 complete days from Tekufat Tishrei to start requesting vten tal umatar. For example, Tekufat Tishrei 5763 occurs at 2d21h0p or 21h0p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Sheini which can be determined to be 1 Marcheshvan 5763. We start requesting vten tal umatar 59 days later at maariv on Wednesday night, December 4, 2002, 30 Kislev, the sixth night of Chanukah even though 59 x 24 hours will not have not elapsed until 21 hours later. However, bedieved, if one were to omit vten tal umatar on 30 Kislev 5763 before 21h0p Jewish Equal Time, one may not need to repeat shemoneh esrei. Secondly, birchat hachamah is recited on the morning of the day that Tekufat Nissan fell on 4d0h0p the previous evening. This occurs every 28 years or the first year (rosh machzor) of every machzor gadol lachamah. In Year 1, Tekufat Nissan fell on 4d0h0p. Tekufat Nissan fell on

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4d0h0p in Year 29 and then in every subsequent twenty-eight years. Hence birchat hachamah is recited on the morning following Tekufat Nissan most recently in Year 5741 and next in Year 5769 on Erev Pesach. Throughout the 20 and 21 centuries birchat hachamah happens to fall on April 8th . The Year 2100 is not a leap year even though it is divisible by four so birchat hachamah in the 22nd century will fall on April 9th. From one tekufah to the next is 91d7h540p so the time of day of the following tekufah advances by 7h540p once the 13 weeks are cast off. From one tekufah to the same tekufah the following year is 365d6h0p so the following year the tekufah advances by 1d6h0p once the 52 weeks are cast off. Tekufat Nissan returns to 4d0h0p every 28 years. On that Wednesday morning one recites birchat hachamah according to Abayes statement in Berachot 59b and Shemuels statement in Eruvin 56a The following table of shows how the tekufot cycle through 28 years. Year of the Machzor 1 Rosh Machzor 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
57 57 th st

Tekufat Tishrei 3d9h0p 4d15h0p 5d21h0p 7d3 h0p 1d9 h0p 2d15h0p 3d21h0p 5d3h0p 6d9h0p 7d15h0p 1d21h0p 3d3h0p 4d9h0p 5d15h0p 6d21h0p 1d3h0p 2d9h0p 3d15h0p 4d21h0p 6d3h0p 7d9h0p 1d15h0p 2d21h0p 4d3h0p 5d9h0p 6d15h0p 7d21h0p

Tekufat Tevet 3d16h540p 4d22h540p 6d4h540p 7d10h540p 1d16h540p 2d22h540p 4d4h540p 5d10h540p 6d16h540p 7d22h540p 2d4h540p 3d10h540p 4d16h540p 5d22h540p 7d4h540p 1d10h540p 2d16h540p 3d22h540p 5d4h540p 6d10h540p 7d16h540p 1d22h540p 3d4h540p 4d10h540p 5d16h540p 6d22h540p 1d4h540p

Tekufat Nissan 4d0h0p 5d6h0p 6d12h0p 7d18h0p 2d0h0p 3d6h0p 4d12h0p 5d18h0p 7d0h0p 1d6h0p 2d12h0p 3d18h0p 5d0h0p 6d6h0p 7d12h0p 1d18h0p 3d0h0p 4d6h0p 5d12h0p 6d18h0p 1d0h0p 2d6h0p 3d12h0p 4d18h0p 6d0h0p 7d6h0p 1d12h0p

Tekufat Tammuz 4d7h540p 5d13h540p 6d19h540p 1d1h540p 2d7h540p 3d13h540p 4d19h540p 6d1h540p 7d7h540p 1d13h540p 2d19h540p 4d1h540p 5d7h540p 6d13h540p 7d19h540p 2d1h540p 3d7h540p 4d13h540p 5d19h540p 7d1h540p 1d7h540p 3d13h540p 3d19h540p 5d1h540p 6d7h540p 7d13h540p 1d19h540p

Note that the Encyclopedia Judaica XV p.518 is in error with regard to the civil dates of birchat hachamah.

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28

2d3h0p
rd

2d10h540p
th

2d18h0p

3d1h540p

The Year 5763 is the 23 year of the 206 28-year cycle. Thirdly, there is a custom of shimur mentioned by the Rishonim and codified as late as the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 33:8 and 109:9 It is considered a danger or sakanah to drink water that is not guarded during one of the four tekufot. The poskim discuss whether shimur is required during all four tekufot or just at Tekufat Nissan. Guarding can be accomplished by placing iron in the water. The poskim discuss if iron is required to safeguard the water or if any metal is protective. The poskim also discuss if the iron must be placed within the water or if iron securing the container or even within the structure of the building is sufficient. If iron is not placed in the water then the water must be spilled out, just like we spill out water that is in the home of a dead body58. The poskim discuss if indeed the water must be discarded or if it is sufficient not to drink the water during the moment of the molad (see the Mishnah Berurah OC 206:26) or for some time before and after the molad. The poskim also discuss if only plain water requires shimur or if wet foods or water with other ingredients require shimur or if only drawn water requires shimur or even fresh water had needed to be guarded. Some Acharonim such as the Mor Uketzia OC 455 citing his father, the Chacham Tzvi (since this minhag is not mentioned in the Talmud) and the Aruch HaShulchan OC 455:7 question whether this minhag is still applicable. Other Acharonim such as the Chida emphasize that a custom mentioned by the Rishonim should be maintained (see the Mor Uketzia OC 455 Note 7, Machon Yerushalayim, 5756). The Abudraham in Shaar Hatekufot quotes Ibn Ezra as negating the necessity for the custom of shimur. The Abudraham in turn is cited by the Darchei Moshe to the Tur and the Taz to YD 116:4. However, the context of Ibn Ezras comment as he writes in Sefer HaIbbur is that Tekufat Shemuel is in error. Rather, Tekufat Adda is the prime consideration in calculating the tekufot for Ibn Ezra. Since one does not need to be concerned with Tekufat Shemuel, there is therefore no need for shimur at the moment of Tekufat Shemuel.

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In the movie, Angelas Ashes, the Irish Catholic residents are seen throwing out water as a funeral hearse passes through the neighbourhood.

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It is because of shimur that the poskim discuss what time of day the tekufot occur. The Rama mentions this custom in YD 116:5. The Mechaber does not mention this custom of shimur in the Shulchan Aruch but does mention this custom in the Beit Yoseph OC 455. The context for the Beit Yoseph is mayim shelanu. Freshly drawn water may not be used for baking matzah. Rather, the water must sit overnight before being used. The problem is that Pesach falls just after Tekufat Nissan so the issue is what to do about the water that is designated for use in a mitzvah that sits overnight through Tekufat Nissan. The Beit Yoseph quotes the source for this custom as the Mordechai Siman 593 at the end of Pesachim Chapter 2 who in turn quotes the Sefer Chasidim
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Siman 851. However, according to Peirush Azulai by the Chida, the original

formulation of the Sefer Chasidim is not stringent and only requires that water not be consumed during the moment of the tekufah. According to the Chida the Sefer Chasidim further differs from the Rama by not requiring unused water to be spilled out. The Abudraham in Shaar HaTekufot discusses why we avoid drinking water during the tekufot. The Sefer Taamei HaMinhagim60 Siman 900 discusses why placing iron (barzel) in the water is a remedy. Sod HaIbbur 30 by the Tifereth Yisrael in his introduction to Mishnayot Moed mentions that this custom applies to all wet uncooked foods. See the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 33:8. Additionally, there is a custom to avoid Torah study on the night of Tekufat Tevet. See Taamei HaMinhagim Likutim Simanim 19 and 20 as well as the Responsa of R. M. Shternbuch in Teshuvot VeHanhagot Siman 551. Tekufat Tevet, 5764 is at 4d10h540p or on Yom Revii, 13 Tevet, 5764 or Wednesday, January 7, 2004. Note that January 7 in the Gregorian calendar is December 25 in the Julian calendar used by the Greek Orthodox in Russia. It should be noted that the definition of the tekufot indirectly influences the length of time to walk the distance of a mil. The Beit Yoseph, the Rama, and the Levush in various places (OC 459 with regard to the time for flour to become chametz and YD 69 with regard to the time for melicha) define the time to walk a mil as 18 minutes and cite the Terumat HaDeshen Siman 167. This assumes that the length of a day is measured from dawn to nightfall and that there are twelve hours from dawn to nightfall at Tekufot Tishrei and Nissan. If the length of the day is
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R. Yehudah HaChassid, 1150-1217, a student of the Ri. His yahrtzeit is 13 Adar. R. Avraham Yitzchak Sperling, published in 1896.

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measured from sunrise to sunset, then a mil is necessarily not 18 minutes. The Maadenei Yom Tov notes this problem with the Levush in several locations, including his comments to the Rosh Berachot Siman 10 (9). The Yabia Omer OC 7:41 discusses the various opinions as to the amount of time required to walk one mil. There are more than 12 hours from dawn to nightfall at the equinoxes. Leo Levi in the Hebrew section of Jewish Chrononomy argues that a mil as 18 minutes is anachronous and the Terumat HaDeshens definition of an hour in Siman 167 differs from our contemporary definition of an equal hour. The Terumat HaDeshens 18 minutes per mil would actually be 22.5 or 24 minutes according to the time kept by our watches. Perhaps one could support the contention that the Terumat HaDeshens definition of a mil as the distance during which one walks in 18 minutes as measured by our watches by establishing a model in which Tekufot Tishrei and Nissan occur originally not at the equinoxes but on days when the time from dawn to nightfall is indeed 12 equal hours. R. Moshe Ben Shimon Margoliot in his commentary to the Yerushalmi Berachot 1:1, Mareh HaPanim, suggests such a model. The suggestion is that the Tekufot do not occur at the astronomical equinoxes. Tekufat Tishrei would occur after the autumnal equinox when the time from sunrise to sunset has shortened so that the time from dawn to nightfall is 12 hours. Tekufat Nissan would occur before the spring equinox the time from dawn to nightfall is 12 hours. With regard to the difference between the calculated tekufot and astronomical reality see the Tashbetz 108 note 22. The author discusses when Tekufat Shemuel and Tekufat Adda were coincident with one another and when Tekufat Shemuel and Tekufat Adda corresponded with astronomical reality. Given that Tekufat Shemuel preceded Tekufat Adda by 7d just prior to Molad Nissan of Year 1 and given that Tekufat Shemuel is slightly longer than Tekufat Adda, the two tekufot were coincident with one another at around the Year 2203 (see the Yesod Olam Maamar 4 Chapter 13) during the time of the Avot. The author also notes that Tekufat Shemuel corresponded with the astronomical autumn equinox one generation prior to Shemuels time. This would have been during the time of Chanania Ben Achi according to whom one starts to request vten tal umatar on the sixtieth day following Tekufat Tishrei (Taanit 10a). Tekufat Adda

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corresponded with the astronomical vernal equinox shortly before Hillel fixed the calendar in 4119. (Note that accordingly Adam would have been created close to the tekufot but not necessarily the astronomical equinoxes). Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur states that Tekufat Shemuel coincided with astronomical reality during Shemuels life. However, in his first of seven proofs that Tekufat Adda is the true tekufah, Ibn Ezra points out that Tekufat Shemuel is not coincident with the equinox.

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The First Molad One can derive the date of the first Tekufat Nissan and the period between the tekufot according to Shemuel from sources in the Talmud (Abayes statement in Berachot 59b and Shemuels statement in Eruvin 56a). We also know the period between the moladot from Rabban Gamliels statement in Rosh HaShanah 25a. The Levush OC 428 explains how the date of the first actual molad is derived: Sanhedrin 38b gives a chronology of events at every hour for Yom Shishi when Adam was created. At the beginning of the ninth hour which is the end of the eighth hour of the day (8 shaot bayom) or 6d20h0p Jewish Equal Time, Adam was commanded not to eat from the eitz hadaat. The Levush states that Adam was similarly commanded about all other applicable mitzvot including kiddush hachodesh. Adam sanctified the visible new moon immediately so 6d20h0p was phasis - when the new moon was first visible. Since the moon is hidden between conjunction and phasis for six hours, the molad was necessarily six hours earlier at 6d14h0p. Six hours represents the earliest time the new moon is visible following the molad under ideal circumstances. This was the day and time of the first actual Molad Tishrei of Year 2 according to R. Eliezer who states that the world was created on Sunday, 25 Elul. All previous theoretical and all subsequent actual moladot can be calculated by repeatedly subtracting or adding 29d12h793p to 6d14h0p. According to this chronology, the sun and the moon were created and suspended together at 4d15h0p or 3 shaot bayom of Wednesday, 28 Elul which was Tekufat Tishrei of Year 2. The sun and the moon were therefore suspended 1d23h0p prior to Molad Tishrei of Year 2. The moon complained and was rebuked (see Rashi to Bereishit 1:16) and its light was not seen for 1d23h0p until the molad and Adam then sanctified the new moon. According to R. Yehoshua that the world was created in Nissan, the sun and the moon were created and suspended at the beginning of Yom Revii, 23 Adar at 4d0h0p. This was Tekufat Nissan of Year 1. The sun and the moon served together for 9h642p at which time the moon complained and was rebuked for seven days. Molad Nissan of Year 1 therefore follows Tekufat Nissan of Year 1 by 7d9h642p.

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According to R. Eliezer, just as Adam was created fully grown (see Rashi to Bereishit 1:25 which is based on Chullin 60a) the sun was created in the middle of the morning (3 shaot bayom or 15h0p) at full strength. According to R. Yehoshua, the sun was created at the very beginning of the day, at 0h0p of Yom Revii, the fourth day of Creation. Note that the Peirush on the Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 9:3 has a slightly different chronology than the Levush according to R. Eliezer. The Peirush there states that even according to R. Eliezer the sun was created at the very beginning of day, at 0h0p of Yom Revii. However, the sun was not created at the tekufah and Tekufat Tishrei of Year 2 did not occur until 15 hours later at 4d15h0p. Both R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua agree that there was a molad at 6d14h0p and that there was a tekufah at 4d15h0p. Even R. Adda who has a different opinion than Shemuel as to the times of the tekufot agrees with Shemuel as to the times of the moladot. There is universal agreement that there was a molad at 6d14h0p (Molad Tishrei of Year 2) and therefore a theoretical molad one year previously at 2d5h204p (Molad Tishrei of Year 1). According to R. Adda, Molad Nissan of Year 1 followed Tekufat Nissan of Year 1 by 9h642p, not 7d9h642p. The Peirush to the Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 6:8 has a different chronology of events for the Friday that Adam was created. According to the Peirush there, at the beginning of the third hour of the day or 6d14h0p, Adam was created and this was the moment of Molad Tishrei of Year 2. The Pesikta DeRabbi Kahana quoted by R. Kitov in Sefer Hatodaah page 11 has yet another sequence of events for the day Adam was created, as does Avot DeRabbi Nathan Chapter 1. It is interesting to consider if these hours in the Midrash and other Midrashim are shaot zemaniyot or equal hours. The time on Adams proverbial watch at 6d14h0p Jewish Equal Time is a matter of dispute. If one knew the time on Adams watch at astronomical noon or at sunset on the day of his creation, then one could convert between Jewish Equal Time (shaon BaHaRaD) and Standard Time.

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The Seven Heavenly Bodies Rashi to Berachot 59b and to Shabbat 129b mentions seven heavenly bodies called shivah kochavei lechet that were known prior to the invention of telescopes. These bodies are very bright and can be seen with the naked eye. The seven heavenly bodies are: Shabbtai (Saturn), Tzedek (Jupiter), Maadim (Mars), Chamah (the Sun), Nogah (Venus), Kochav (Mercury), and Levanah (the Moon) and are abbreviated ShTzM ChNKL. These seven bodies exert some sort of influence that flows from them. The word mazal is cognate with nozel which means flow. Each of these seven bodies is considered to be in ascendancy or to rule during one particular hour of the 24-hour day. This hour during which each of these bodies is in ascendancy is not a temporary seasonal hour but is an hour that is 1/24 of a mean solar day and does not vary during the course of a year. These hours are the same as the 60-minute equal hours on our watches and are known as shaot shavot and are not shaot zemaniyot. The planet that is ascendancy during each hour is known as the controller. The planet that is in ascendancy during the first hour of the day is known as the regent. This is not to say that these bodies necessarily have any influence on the mazal of Bnei Yisrael. Shabbat 156a records the dispute between R. Chanina who contends that the heavenly bodies influence ones mazal and R. Yochanan who states that the heavenly bodies do not influence the mazal of Bnei Yisrael. Rashi comments that other factors such as prayer can alter ones mazal. R. Saadiah Gaon in his commentary to Sefer Yetzirah 4:1 similarly comments that prayer can change the mazal of Bnei Yisrael. There has long been a dispute among the commentators and poskim regarding the significance of astrology. Although the Rambam was opposed to astrology, others such as Ibn Ezra attached significance to astrological considerations. The Beit Yoseph to YD 179 discusses which aspects of astrology do not violate the injunctions against divination and sorcery. The Eliyahu Rabba to OC 489 Hilchot Sefirat HaOmer states that Shavuot is specifically after 49 days have elapsed from Pesach to demonstrate that these seven bodies in fact have no influence and that the Torah is beyond the influence of these seven bodies. The Besamim Rosh in Siddur Otzar HaTefillot also cites this idea.

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The heavenly bodies were suspended on 28 Elul at 4d15h0p on the fourth day of Creation. This was the moment of Tekufat Tishrei at the end of Year 1 (Shenat Tohu) and was one day and 23 hours before the first actual Molad Tishrei of 6d14h0p on the sixth day of Creation. This Molad Tishrei at 6d14h0p on the last day of Year 1 occurred on the Friday that Adam was created. Saturn was in ascendancy for one hour when the heavenly bodies were created on 28 Elul at 4d0h0p, followed by Jupiter, then Mars, then the Sun, then Venus, then Mercury, then the Moon. The cycle then repeats so Saturn is again in ascendancy for one hour beginning at 4d7h0p until right before 4d8h0p when Jupiter then begins its one-hour rule. Given that there are seven heavenly bodies and 24 hours in a day and seven days in a week and hence 168 hours in a week, at the beginning of each day a different heavenly body will be in ascendancy. On Sunday, at 1d0h0p Mercury is in ascendancy. At 2d0h0p, Jupiter is in ascendancy. At 3d0h0p, Venus is in ascendancy. At 5d0h0p the Sun is in ascendancy. At 6d0h0p the Moon is in ascendancy. At 7d0h0p Mars is in ascendancy. Right before the ascendancy of Mars at the beginning of Shabbat at 7d0h0p, Jupiter had been in ascendancy at the end of Friday from 6d23h0p. The seven heavenly bodies are in ascendancy for one hour each based on the 24-hour clock of Jewish Equal Time regardless of the day of the year. The following chart demonstrates the heavenly body that rules each hour of the week for one hour starting at the beginning of the hour. The cycle then repeats in the same order. Note that a different body rules during the first hour of each day. Hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Wednesday Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Thursday Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Friday Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Shabbat Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Sunday Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Monday Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tuesday Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah

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14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim

Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav

Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek

Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah

Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai

Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah

Nogah Kochav Levanah Shabbtai Tzedek Maadim Chamah Nogah Kochav Levanah

R. Saadiah Gaon in his commentary to Sefer Yetzirah and Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur note that according to Shemuel a new tekufah begins every 91d7h540p. Therefore every subsequent tekufah advances by half of a heavenly body. Every seven years a tekufah that began at the beginning of a particular hour when a particular heavenly body was in ascendancy will return and again coincide with this same heavenly body. For example, Tekufat Tishrei, 5764 was at 4d3h0p or at the beginning of the fourth hour of Yom Revii when Chamah was in ascendancy. Tekufat Tevet, 5764 begins 91d7h540p later when Chamah is again in ascendancy but halfway through the hour that Chamah is in ascendancy. Tekufat Nissan, 5764 begins 91d7h540p later at the beginning of the ascendancy of Nogah. Seven years later, at the beginning of Tekufat Tishrei, 5771, Chamah is again in ascendancy. These seven heavenly bodies were believed to orbit around the Earth with their order of ascendancy corresponding to their distance from the Earth with the Moon closest and Saturn furthest and the Sun as the middle heavenly body orbiting the Earth. The Romans also recognized that each of these seven heavenly bodies ruled in turn. Each of the seven days of the week was named during the time of Augustus from the body that rules at the beginning of that day. Saturn rules at the beginning of Saturday, the Sun rules at the beginning of Sunday, the Moon rules at the beginning of Monday, Mars rules at the beginning of Tuesday (mardi), Mercury rules at the beginning of Wednesday (mercredi), Jupiter rules at the beginning of Thursday (jeudi) and Venus rules at the beginning of Friday (vendredi). The order cited by Rashi corresponds to this order. The Ramban in his Drashah LeRosh HaShanah and Rabbeinu Bechayei to Shemot 12:2 note that the Gentiles name the days of the week according the heavenly body that rules at

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the beginning of each day. In distinction, Jews number the days of the week sequentially relative to Shabbat in order to fulfill the mitzvah of zachor. Rashi to Divrei Hayamim 2 2:7 and Baal HaTurim to Bamidbar 8:9 see an allusion to these seven bodies in the seven branches of the menorah. Rabbeinu Bechayei to Bereishit 1:18 points out that the middle body, the sun, corresponds to the middle branch of the menorah. The Baal HaTurim to Bereishit 1:1 also sees an allusion to these seven bodies in the seven words of the first verse of Bereishit. Note that the 28 letters of Bereishit 1:1 corresponds to the 28 letters of the Hebrew names of the seven heavenly bodies. The Abudraham mentions that each of the seven heavenly bodies are hinted at in the last paragraph of the berachah, Yotzer Or beginning with poel gevurot which refers to the sun. The five planets appear as bright stars. The Metzudat David comments that the kochevei or in Tehillim 148:3 refers to the five plants that appear as bright stars and the Metzudat Tziyon comments that the kochevei boker in Iyov 38:7 refers to these same five planets. Mars is in ascendancy at the start of every Shabbat at 7d0h0p. Mars is appointed over destruction and war and therefore this hour is not seen as providential. The Sefer Taamei HaMinhagim in Siman 258 states that we start Shabbat early on Fridays lehosif baShabbat mechol al hakodesh in order to avoid starting Shabbat when Mars is in ascendancy. There is a thorough explanation of the astrological significance of the various heavenly bodies in Sefer Yetzirah, Chapter Four, by R. Aryeh Kaplan. The Magen Avraham OC 271:1 mentions the custom not to recite kiddush at the beginning of Shabbat when Mars is in ascendancy. The Machatzit HaShekel on the Magen Avraham refers to the Tzemach Tzedek Responsum 14 for calculating at what time 7d0h0p occurs. The Machatzit HaShekel as well as the Maharil may be referring to shaot zemaniyot when determining when to avoid reciting kiddush during the ascendancy of Maadim: at sunset or nightfall for one hour, as opposed to at a fixed time of day every day of the year. Commentaries on the 17th century poem, Shalom Aleichem, note that the poem is based on the Midrash in Shabbat 119b about two angels who accompany the person home at the start of Shabbat. Sheelot Utehuvot Maharil Siman 163 identifies these two angels as Jupiter and Mars

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that rule in the last hour of Friday and in the first hour of Shabbat respectively. Jupiter is seen as a positive force and Mars is seen as a negative force. The Eliyahu Rabbah OC 262:2 states that the two angels that belong to Jupiter and Mars are the angels referred to in Shabbat 119b. Saturn is in ascendancy at the start of every Yom Revii at 4d0h0p. Birchat hachamah is recited every 28 years the morning following the occurrence of Tekufat Nissan on 4d0h0p. In other words, birchat hachamah is said at the coincidence of the ascendancy of Saturn and Tekufat Nissan. Berachot 59b, which is the source for reciting birchat hachamah, describes 4d0h0p as being in Shabbtai as the third day turns to the fourth day. Eruvin 56a similarly links the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies. Shabbat 129b notes that Mars is in ascendancy during certain times of the day with the implication, as noted by the commentaries, that each of the seven heavenly bodies is in ascendancy during particular hours of the day. Tosefot Eruvin 56a notes that if equal are used then the 24 hour cycle of the heavenly bodies would not synchronize with the days which are shorter in the winter and longer in the summer. However, the Maharil 152 raises the possibility that indeed the hours of the seven heavenly bodies are coordinated with the shaot zemaniyot of the day only at the equinoxes. For purposes of the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies the day begins for the Maharil six hours after chatzot or sunset at any latitude near the dates of the equinoxes or sunset at any longitude along the equator on any day of the year. Interestingly, assuming all seven heavenly bodies were created at the same time, both according to the Levush OC 428 that the sun was created at 4d15h0p (at Tekufat Tishrei of Year 2) and according to the Peirush on Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 9:3 that the sun was created at 4d0h0p (15 hours prior to Tekufat Tishrei of Year 2), the cycle of seven heavenly bodies and their hours of respective ascensions would be identical. This is because at both 4d0h0p and at 4d15h0p Saturn (Shabbtai) is in ascension. The time of day on our watches when each of the seven heavenly bodies begins its ascendancy is obviously dependent on the offset between Standard Time and Jewish Equal Time. The simple view is that kiddush should not be recited for one hour from 6:00 PM Standard Time. However, it could be argued that the Prime Meridian Conference of 1884 should not have

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the power to influence Jewish customs. As we have noted, 6:00 PM Standard Time is a convention. If we take 0h0p for any day to be six hours after local mean solar noon, then Mars is in ascendancy for one hour from 5:39 PM Standard Time in Jerusalem (6:18 PM in Toronto and 5:56 PM in New York) as Friday afternoon becomes Shabbat. The custom not to recite kiddush when Saturn is in ascendancy would apply at 5:39 PM and for the next hour in Jerusalem on any day of the year. As the Sheelot Utehuvot Maharil Siman 163 points out, this is really only an issue at the autumnal and spring equinoxes. In the winter Shabbat begins earlier than 7d0h0p Jewish Equal Time (5:39 PM Standard Time) and in the summer Shabbat begins later than 7d0h0p Jewish Equal Time (5:39 PM Standard Time). On the other hand, if 0h0p were considered to be six hours after chatzot for that particular day, then kiddush would not be recited for one hour from 5:39 PM Standard Time on April 16, June 14, September 1, and December 25 only when the equation of time is zero. On other days of the year, chatzot fluctuates according to the equation of time for that particular day of the year. Kiddush would then not be recited in Jerusalem for one hour from somewhere between 5:22 PM and 5:53 PM Standard Time depending on the day of the year. However, if we take 0h0p to be at sunset or nightfall throughout the year, then there would be a problem reciting kiddush at the start of Shabbat throughout year. One should not confuse these seven heavenly bodies, or kochavei lechet (mobile stars), with the constellations (mazalot) which belong to the group of kochavei shevet (stationary stars). The seven heavenly bodies each exert an influence at regular intervals during a one-hour block of time and cycle through their respective influences 24 times during the week. The influence of each of these bodies in turn is in no way related to their actual rising, movement across the sky, or setting. In distinction, the constellations each rise in turn about every two seasonal hours (shaot gedolot) depending on the location of the observer and the day of the year. Each of the twelve constellations exerts an influence during the two-hour block during which it rises (ones star sign). As well, the particular constellation that rises behind the sun during a particular month also exerts an influence (ones sun sign).

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These seven heavenly bodies are said to occupy seven concentric spheres that surround the Earth. The Moon occupies the innermost sphere (the only sphere in which the Earth is centered in the middle), followed by the spheres of Mercury and Venus. The Sun occupies the middle sphere (the only sphere without secondary spheres), followed by the spheres of Mars and Jupiter. Saturn occupies the outermost sphere. The sphere beyond Saturns sphere is occupied by the kochavei shevet and includes the twelve constellations. The twelve constellations are those particular kochavei shevet along the suns ecliptic in front of which the sun passes. These kochavei shevet are stationary with respect to their relation to each other but are seen in the Northern Hemisphere to move across the sky from east to west as they rotate clockwise around a point directly above the North Pole. The heliacal rising of a star is on the date that the star is first seen around dawn just before the glare of the rising sun blocks the star. Rashi and Tosefot to Rosh HaShanah 12b discuss the twelve constellations that are located along the ecliptic of the sun and each rise in turn every two hours. According to R. Koren, the shaot gedolot61 mentioned in Pirkei DeRabbi Eliezer Chapter 7 in the context of the time between a lunar conjunction and the first sighting of the new moon, may refer to two-hour blocks. (However, the commentary of the RaDaL to Pirkei DeRabbi Eliezer 7:45 suggests that the shaot gedolot in that context refer to equal hours). Just as the Sun rises and sets and different times of the day depending on the location of the observer and the day of the year, so does the constellation behind the Sun rise and set and different times of the day. The shaot gedolot are therefore not two equal hours. As well, just as the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky for the day at chatzot which varies minimally within a 31 minutes span, so do the constellations reach their highest point in the sky within a narrow time span. The rotation of the earth returns the observer to face the same direction relative to the stars every 23 hours and 56 minutes (the sidereal day) so the shaot gedolot are actually slightly less than two hours each. R. Steinsaltz62 in his commentary to Rosh HaShanah 12b states that each constellation rises in turn every 1 hour 59 minutes and 40 seconds. The constellations rise and set four minutes earlier on each successive morning and night so at then end of one month the
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The text actually refers to shaot gedolim. R. Adin Steinsaltz. The first volume of his Talmud commentary was published in 1967.

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next constellation rises behind the sun and after one year the cycle repeats so that at the beginning of each season the same constellation should be behind the sun at sunrise as in the previous year (see Rashi to Bereishit 1:14). However, because of the precession of the constellations the constellation that currently rises behind the sun at sunrise at the beginning of a particular month is no longer the same constellation that rose behind the sun at sunrise at the beginning of that same month during the time of Chazal. During the time of Chazal, the heliacal rising of Tleh (Aries) was around the vernal equinox (Nissan). The precession of the constellations is 25,800 years so after 2,150 years the next constellations heliacal rising is at the vernal equinox. Today, the heliacal rising of Dagim (Pisces) is around the vernal equinox. R. Z. Koren in his appendix to the Tashbetz, Part 1, opines that the Rambam Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 3:7 is explaining the precession of the equinoxes when the Rambam refers to the ninth sphere beyond the kochavei hashevet. One can keep time at night by the successive rising of each of the constellations. This star clock essentially counts off two-hour intervals. One can also use the constellations as a star calendar since each month a different constellation rises behind the sun at sunrise. One can argue that the morning star (kochva detzafra) is not Venus but is in fact the star whose heliacal rising is on that day. Venus is seen in the morning on only certain days of the year and the rise of Venus is not actually related to the apparent motion of the sun except in as much as Venus closely orbits the sun. Rather, Venus rises coincidentally with the sun under certain conditions. However, one can accurately predict which star will rise before sunrise on every day of the year. This star clock using the constellations may be a more accurate and accessible way of telling time prior to sunrise than using the Venus. Dawn may be when the kochva detzafra, the last constellation of the night, rises about two hours before sunrise. Sefer Yetzirah links the seven heavenly bodies to the seven double letters (BeGeD KeFReT) that can take a daggesh. (Note that the letter, reish, is included). The seven days of the week and the seven orifices of the human body are similarly linked to the seven double letters. The twelve simple letters are linked to the zodiac and to the twelve months of the year. (The

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remaining three letters, aleph, mem, and shin, are linked to air, fire, and water that surround the Earth).

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The Onah of the Aviasaf Another area of Jewish law where equal hours and Jewish Equal Time are used according to a minority opinion is with regard to onot, the block of time during which one abstains from intimacy. Although one could argue that the esoteric calculations surrounding the tekufot are merely parparot (Avot 3:18), equal hours are also used in determining the onat haveset, which are gufei halachot (ibid.) according to the Aviasaf. Artscrolls The Laws of Niddah, by R. B. Forst, Volume 1 page 404 summarizes the opinion of the Aviasaf. According to most poskim, one must refrain from intimacy during the anticipated time of a menstrual flow during between sunrise and sunset or between sunset and sunrise depending on the onah of the most recent flow or fixed cycle. Similarly, cycles are fixed by three successive flows during the same onah, that is, sunrise to sunset or sunset to sunrise. According to the Aviasaf, cited by Hagahot Maimoniyot63 Hilchot Biah 4:9, an onah is 12 equal hours regardless of the season. The implication is that each onah starts at some fixed time of day every day of the year at 0h0p or at 12h0p Jewish Equal Time. Undefined are the Standard Times of day of 0h0p or 12h0p. Artscroll states simply that the onah is 12 hours from whatever time sunrise to sunset are at the equinox. The start of the day at 0h0p throughout the year would therefore be the time of sunset at the equinox. However, classical sources do not identify the start of the 24-hour day as sunset at the equinox. Alternatively, the intent may be six hours after chatzot or perhaps sunset at the day in question. With regard to the Artscrolls contention that the day starts at the time of sunset at the equinox, one would have to determine whether Artscroll is referring to the autumnal or vernal equinox or if Artscroll really means the time of sunset when the day is 12 hours long, or some other fixed time. However, the definition of the shaon BaHaRaD in the Luach Davar Bieto implies that sunset on the day of the autumnal equinox is an acceptable conversion for 0h0p. According to the Luach Davar Bieto 0h0p is at 5:35 PM Standard Time in Jerusalem and not 5:39 PM Standard Time. Note that the Yad Avraham commentary to the Chochmas Adam64 (Dr. Y. Cohen, Judaica Press) states that

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R. Meir Ben Yekutiel HaKohen, d. 1298, a student of the MaHaRaM MeRothenburg. By Avraham Ben Yechiel Michal Danzinger, 1748-1820, author of the Chayei Adam, and a student of the Noda BiYehudah.

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the Aviasafs onah begins six hours after chatzot. The Shulchan Aruch HaRav65 in his Kuntres Acharon to YD 184:12 (3) as well as the Machatzit HaShekel YD 184:2 note that at least according to the Shach
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the onah of the Aviasaf extends from six hours before chatzot to six

hours after chatzot. Regardless, there is apparently some fixed time of day on every day of the year at which the day starts for purposes of the Aviasafs onah. Alternatively, one could argue that sunset on the day of the autumnal equinox, sunset on the day of the spring equinox, and six hours after mean solar noon are all essentially within the 15 minute margin of error apparent from the Rambam in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 14:5. There may be no expectation to be more accurate. Although the Beit Yoseph YD 184 dismisses the opinion of the Aviasaf, the Bach67 in his commentary to the Tur YD 184 cites the Aviasaf and the Shach in his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch YD 184:7 in turn cites the Bachs view that one must consider the onah of the Aviasaf. This view is also consistent with the Shach YD 196:4. R. Yom Tov Heller in his Maadenei Yom Tov to the Rosh Niddah Chapter 1 Siman 30 finds support for the Aviasaf from Niddah 65a. In contrast, the Taz68 YD 184:2 supports the view of the Mechaber that one does not need to be concerned with the onah of the Aviasaf. The Chachmat Adam 108:2 states that one should be stringent and consider an onah to be both sunrise to sunset as well as 12 equal hours. However, the Aruch HaShulchan 184:20 states the view of the Beit Yoseph and the Taz is primary in terms of the practical halachah.

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Sheneur Zalman of Liadi, 1745-1812 (18 Elul, 5505 24 Tevet, 5573), the first Lubavitcher Rebbe. Siftei Kohen, R. Shabbetai Ben Meir Hakohen, 1621-1662, student of the senior Penei Yehoshua, R. Yehoshua Ben Yoseph Falk. The commentary by the Shach on YD was published in 1646 when the author was 24. 67 Bayit Chadash, R. Yoel Sirkes, 1561-1640. His yahrtzeit is 20 Adar. 68 Turei Zahav, David Ben Shemuel HaLevi, 1586-1667, married to Rivkah, daughter of the Bach.

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How to Convert from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time If the time on Adams proverbial watch at the moment of the Molad Tishrei of Year 2 were known, one could easily convert from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time. Alternatively, if one knew the time of astronomical noon or sunset on the day of Adams creation, then one could convert between Jewish Equal Time and Standard Time. The Luach Davar Bieto refers to the time on Adams watch as shaon BaHaRaD (Creation Time). Let us assume (1) that Adam was standing in Jerusalem (2) on the day of the autumnal equinox and (3) that on the day of the equinox the equation of time is zero so that local mean solar noon would be at astronomical noon and (4) that on the day of the equinox that day is exactly 12 hours long. Given those four assumptions, if the molad occurred at 6d14h0p, then Adams watch would have read 8:00 AM local solar or sundial time or 7:39 AM Standard Time. Adam presumably would have avoided reciting kiddush for one hour from 5:39 PM Standard Time at 7d0h0p when Mars would have been in ascendancy. Every 24 hours at 5:39 PM Standard Time would be 0h0p and a new Jewish day would begin. One would simply subtract 21 minutes from Jewish Equal Time to convert to Standard Time. The problem is that (1) Adam was in Gan Eden, may not have been in Jerusalem, although many meforshim comment that indeed Gan Eden and Jerusalem were one and the same and (2) Molad Tishrei of Year 2 was close to the equinox but not quite coincident with Tekufat Tishrei, the molad occurring one day and 23 hours after the tekufah and (3) on the day of equinox the equation of time is about 7 minutes and even more two days later and (4) at the equinox the day is not twelve hours long, the 12-hour day occurring a few days later. (It is a misconception that the extremes of sunrise and sunset are at the solstices or that the day is twelve hours long at the equinoxes. The Iggeroth Moshe makes this latter point in EH 1:58). On the day of equinox the equation of time is not zero due to the tilt of the Earths axis and to the eccentricity of the Earths elliptical orbit around the sun. One needs to know the conversion from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time in order to know the earliest and latest times of day to recite birchat kiddush levanah, at what time of day to

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practice shimur, at what time of day to avoid reciting kiddush and at what time of day the 12-hour onah of the Aviasaf begins. Birchat kiddush levanah can be recited until the midpoint between moladot. There are 29d12h793p between moladot so the midpoint between moladot occurs 14d18h396.5p after the molad. Shimur is practiced at the moment of the tekufah. One avoids reciting kiddush for one hour beginning at 7d0h0p as Shabbat begins each week. For example, one could calculate that according the Rama, birchat kiddush levanah for Av 5763 may be recited until 4d3h431.5p or 3h431.5p of Yom Revii, 15 Av (Tuesday evening, August 12, 2003). However, one would need to know the time of day of 4d0h0p in order to know by implication the time of day of 3h431.5p later at 4d3h431.5p. The poskim have offered proposals as to the time of 0h0p and by implication the conversion from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time. 1. 0h0p is 6:00 PM Standard Time 0h0p as 6:00 PM Standard Time is the simplest conversion and is basically just restating Jewish Equal Time from a 24-hour format that begins in the evening to a 12-hour format that begins at midnight. This is the system that is used in some calendars and is sometimes used when publicly announcing the molad on Shabbat Mevarchim. For example, Molad Nissan 5763 is at 4d6h53p. This would commonly be announced on Shabbat Mevarchim as very early Wednesday morning, 17 chalakim after 12:02 AM or just after midnight. (6h after 6:00 PM is 12:00 AM. Additionally, 53p is 2 minutes of 18 parts each with a remainder of 17 parts). This would be the conversion using local time for any location whether in Jerusalem, New York, or Toronto. However, the impression given that this conversion yields a time that has a connection to the time on our watches is debatable. Molad Nissan 5763 is 12:02 AM and 17p only if the starting point of 0h0p were 6:00 PM Standard Time. When clocks were switched from local railroad or local mean solar time to Standard Time on the Sunday of Two Noons on Sunday, November 18, 1883, Mars did not suddenly come into ascension just because everyone switched their clocks to 12:00 PM noon. If the moladot and tekufot were to be calculated by the time on our watches, then we would need to change the

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times of birchat kiddush levanah and shimur on the whim of the timekeepers of the Prime Meridian Conference of 1884. With regard to Daylight Saving Time, the molad is traditionally calculated as a time difference from a certain starting point for the day. For example, 4d6h53p is strictly speaking 6h53p from the start of Yom Revii. It would not matter if the clocks were switched for Daylight Saving Time. If the clocks were moved ahead or behind, the molad would still be 6h53p from the start of Yom Revii, whenever that would be. On the other hand, when announcing the molad as a time of day, one would have to adjust for Daylight Saving Time. However, if everyone understands that when we announce 17 chalakim after 12:02 AM we really mean not 12:02 AM oclock on our watches but rather another way of stating 6h53p from the start of the day as a convenience, then no adjustment for Daylight Saving Time is necessary. The molad on Shabbat Mevarchim is actually announced in Standard Time even when Daylight Saving Time is in effect. That being said, when the molad is announced on Shabbat Mevarchim, most listeners probably assume 17 chalakim after 12:02 AM mean 12:02 AM oclock on their watches. More correctly, Molad Nissan, 5763 should be announced in Jerusalem as 17 chalakim after 1:02 AM IDT. In New York and Toronto, Daylight Saving Time does not come into effect until after Molad Nissan 5763 so the molad would be announced as 17 chalakim after 12:02 AM EST. This approach that 0h0p is 6:00 PM Standard Time is, however, consistent with the Iggeroth Moshes opinion that chatzot is always at 12:00 PM. 0h0p would therefore be six hours after chatzot or 6:00 PM. Molad Nissan 5763 (4d6h53p) would be 6 hours, 2 minutes and 17 parts after 6:00 PM or 17 chalakim after 12:02 AM Standard Time Wednesday morning, just as the molad is commonly announced on Shabbat Mevarchim. Note that this conversion is dependent neither on the location of the observer nor on the day of year. City 0h0p Molad Nissan 5763 4d6h53p Jewish Equal Time Wednesday, April 2, 2003 1:02 AM IDT & 17 chalakim Wednesday, April 2, Tekufat Nissan 5763 3d12h0p Jewish Equal Time Tuesday, April 8, 2003 7:00 AM IDT Tuesday, April 8,

Jerusalem

7:00 PM IDT

New

York

and

6:00 PM EST

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Toronto

2003 12:02 AM EST & 17 chalakim

2003 7:00 AM EDT

Typically, no adjustment is made for Daylight Saving Time when the molad is announced on Shabbat Mevarchim. When announcing Molad Nissan 5763 as 4d6h53p there is no impact by changing the clocks between Standard Time and Daylight Saving Time. The molad is 6h53p after 0h0p regardless of the time of day of 0h0p. Even when announcing Molad Nissan 5763 as 17 chalakim after 12:02 AM no adjustment is made for Daylight Saving Time. There are three possible explanations for this. First, as discussed above, the molad is strictly speaking a time difference after the start of the day. When the molad is announced as 17 chalakim after 12:02 AM what is really meant is 6 hours, 2 minutes, and 17 chalakim after the start of the day (0h0p) whenever that is. Secondly, perhaps everyone understands that the molad is announced in Standard Time rather than in Daylight Saving Time throughout the year. Thirdly, there is the unlikely possibility that 0h0p is 6:00 PM on our watches throughout the year regardless of the change of the clocks for Daylight Saving Time. If one considers the moment of the molad to be according to Jerusalem time rather than local time then one would make an adjustment of eight hours between Israel Daylight Time and Eastern Standard Time in New York and Toronto. For example, the moment of Molad Nissan 5763 in Jerusalem would be on Tuesday, April 1, 2003 at 17 chalakim after 5:02 PM Eastern Standard Time in New York and Toronto. If one considers the moment of the tekufah to be according to Jerusalem time rather than local time then one would make an adjustment of seven hours between IDT in Jerusalem and EDT in New York and Toronto. For example, the moment of Tekufat Nissan 5763 in Jerusalem would be at 12:00 AM midnight, Tuesday, April 8, 2003. Further west than the Eastern Time Zone, the tekufah would occur when it is still Monday, April 7, 2003. 2. 0h0p is Six Hours After Local Mean Noon 0h0p as six hours after local mean noon is the opinion cited in certain luchot and in Artscrolls Birchas Hachammah, page 75. Local mean noon is the mean time of astronomical noon when averaged over the course of a year. Six hours after local mean noon is 6:00 PM

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apparent solar or sundial time. This is the time that is shown on a horizontal sundial facing due south after correcting for the equation of time for the particular date of the year. This is 6:00 PM Standard Time only at longitudes that are the meridians for each time zone (every 15 degrees from Greenwich) and only on four days of the year when the equation of time is zero: On April 16, June 14, September 1, and December 25. To convert from local mean time to local apparent solar time, one corrects for the equation of time. To convert from local apparent solar time to Standard Time, one needs to correct for the longitude (-21 minutes in Jerusalem, -4 minutes in New York, and +18 minutes in Toronto). Local mean solar noon is the average time of astronomical noon or chatzot throughout the year. For example, in Jerusalem, chatzot throughout the year is between 11:22 AM and 11:53 AM, with the average time being 11:39 AM Standard Time. The advantage to this conversion of Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time is that every day will begin 24 hours apart six hours after local mean solar noon throughout the year and the moladot and tekufot will be calculated from this one consistent starting point in each location. This is certainly more reasonable than taking 0h0p as 6:00 PM Standard Time because with 0h0p as six hours after local mean noon one is at least correcting for the longitude of the observer. With regard to the ascension of the seven heavenly bodies, Saturn would be in ascension for one hour from 5:39 PM (for the observer in Jerusalem) on Tuesday afternoon and the heavenly bodies would cycle through their ascension in turn every hour on the 39-minute mark. However, the problem is that local mean noon and hence this conversion to Standard Time is still only a convention based on a mathematical convenience. Local mean noon has no real astronomical significance except on the four days of the year noted above. Molad Nissan 5763 is at 4d6h53p. If the Jewish day starts six hours after local mean noon then in Jerusalem the molad would be 6h53p after 5:39 PM Standard Time of Yom Revii or 6 hours, 2 minutes and 17 parts after 5:39 PM or 17 chalakim after 11:41 PM Standard Time. The appropriate starting and ending times for reciting birchat kiddush levanah would be calculated from 17 chalakim after 11:41 PM. However, Israel is on IDT by April 1, 2003 so Molad Nissan 5763 is actually at 17 chalakim past 12:41 AM on Wednesday, April 2, 2003.

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Tekufat Nissan 5763 is at 3d12h0p. If the Jewish day starts six hours after local mean noon then in Jerusalem the tekufah would be 12h past 5:39 PM Standard Time of Yom Shlishi so the appropriate time for shimur would be 5:39 AM Standard Time in Jerusalem. If one guards water when it is the tekufah in Jerusalem, one would use Jerusalem time with the appropriate correction for the time difference. One would also need to correct for Daylight Saving Time. Mars would be in ascension in Jerusalem every Friday night throughout the year for one hour from 5:39 PM IST. The following table gives the appropriate times for various cities. City Longitude Correction in Minutes Local Noon Mean 0h0p as 6 Hours after Local Mean Noon 5:39 PM IST Molad Nissan 5763 4d6h53p Jewish Equal Time Wednesday, April 2, 2003 12:41 AM IDT & 17 chalakim Tuesday, April 1, 2003 11:58 PM EST & 17 chalakim Wednesday, April 2, 2003 12:20 AM EST & 17 chalakim Tekufat Nissan 5763 3d12h0p Jewish Equal Time Tuesday, April 8, 2003 6:39 AM IDT Tuesday, April 8, 2003 6:56 AM EDT

Jerusalem

-21

11:39 AM IST

New York

-4

11:56 EST

AM

5:56 PM EST

Toronto

18

12:18 EST

PM

6:18 PM EST

Tuesday, April 8, 2003 7:18 AM EDT

Note that Mean Local Noon is dependent only on the longitude of the observer. This conversion is not dependent on the day of the year. 3. 0h0p is Six hours After Chatzot 0h0p as six hours after chatzot or astronomical noon is the opinion of the Pri Chadash and the preferred opinion of the Levush. The Luach Davar Bieto cites 0h0p as six hours after chatzot as the opinion of R. Tucazinski. 0h0p as six hours after chatzot is the same as saying 0h0p is sunset at the equator at the longitude of the observer. If 0h0p were six hours after chatzot, it would not matter where Adam was standing at the moment of the Molad Tishrei of Year 2 at 6d14h0p in order to synchronize a time zero for Jewish Equal Time. Regardless of where Adam was standing or on what day the first actual molad was

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relative to the equinox, the conversion from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time would be in a narrow 31-minute range. This narrow range of error may be considered insignificant. 0h0p would be 5:43 PM and 6:14 PM solar time or between 5:26 PM and 5:53 PM IDT in Jerusalem, between 5:39 PM and 6:10 PM EST in New York and between 6:01 PM and 6:32 PM EST in Toronto. When the Sod HaIbbur by the Tifereth Yisrael refers to mittag and mitternacht it is unclear if chatzot or local mean solar noon (or midnight) is meant. Again, chatzot differs from local mean solar noon by the equation of time for the particular day of the year. Local mean solar noon differs from Standard Time by the longitude correction . The Jewish day starts for the purposes of the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies six hours after local solar noon, which is the same as six hours after chatzot. This conversion from Jewish Equal Time to Standard Time would be ideal if local apparent solar noon, or the time shown as noon on a sundial, were the same as a particular watch time in a given location throughout the year. However, the period between astronomical noon of one day and the next is not 24 hours so we are no longer dealing with equal hours. However, many poskim state that the calculations for the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies involve equal hours and not temporary seasonal hours or shaot zemaniyot. The time shown as noon on a sundial that is already corrected for the longitude (for example, there is already a -21 minute correction for Jerusalem, -4 minutes for New York, and +18 minutes for Toronto) will fluctuate throughout the year within a 31-minute span depending on the equation of time. Therefore astronomical noon on successive days throughout the year are not every 24 hours equally spaced. However, the poskim were probably not too concerned with this small fluctuation of astronomical noon around local mean noon. The poskim may have considered chatzot to be at essentially the same time of day throughout the year for practical purposes. Molad Nissan 5763 is at 4d6h53p. If the Jewish day starts six hours after local mean noon then Molad Nissan 5763 is 12 hours and 53 parts after astronomical noon of the previous
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Note the typographical error in Sod HaIbbur 50: Tekufat Tevet 5605 is 1h540p prior to noon.

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day, Tuesday, April 1, 2003. The equation of time on April 1 is 4 minutes anywhere in the world. By correcting for the equation of time and also for longitude, chatzot in Jerusalem on April 1 is 11:43 AM IST (12:43 PM IDT). Chatzot is at 12:00 PM EST in New York and 12:22 PM EST in Toronto. 0h0p is six hours after chatzot at 5:43 PM IST (6:43 PM IDT) in Jerusalem, 6:00 PM EST in New York and 6:22 EST PM in Toronto. Molad Nissan 5763 is another 6 hours and 53 parts (53 parts are 2 minutes and 17 parts) later when it is Yom Revii at 11:45 PM IST (12:45 AM IDT) and 17 chalakim in Jerusalem, 12:02 AM EST and 17 chalakim in New York, and 12:24 AM EST and 17 chalakim in Toronto on April 2, 2003. The moment of the molad in Jerusalem for the observer in New York and Toronto would be eight hours prior to 17 chalakim past 12:34 AM IDT or at 17 chalakim past 4:02 PM EST on April 1, 2003 on Yom Shlishi. This example illustrates one of the paradoxes of using the moment of the molad in Jerusalem: The molad in New York and Toronto will be on Yom Shlishi as opposed to Yom Revii in Jerusalem. However, Rosh Chodesh is on Yom Chamishi regardless of the location. Tekufat Nissan 5763 is at 3d12h0p or 18 equal hours after astronomical noon of the previous day, Tuesday April 7, 2003. Chatzot in Jerusalem on April 7 is at 11:42 AM Standard Time in Jerusalem, 11:59 AM (12:59 PM Daylight Saving Time) in New York, and 12:20 PM (1:20 PM Daylight Saving Time) in Toronto. 0h0p is six hours after chatzot at 5:42 PM in Jerusalem, 5:59 PM in New York, and 6:20 PM in Toronto. Tekufat Nissan 5763 is another 12 hours later when it is Yom Shlishi at 5:42 AM in Jerusalem, 5:59 AM in New York, and 6:20 AM in Toronto. However, Israel, New York and Toronto are on Daylight Saving Time so Tekufat Nissan 5763 is actually at 6:42 AM IDT in Jerusalem, 6:59 AM EDT in New York and 7:20 AM EDT in Toronto on April 8, 2003. Note that this conversion is dependent on the longitude of the observer and on the day of the year.

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4. 0h0p is Sunset or Nightfall 0h0p as sunset or nightfall was possibly the common practice during the time of the Maharil in the 15th century, the time of the Levush in the 16th century and the time of the Tosefot Yom Tov in the 17th century. The Luach Davar Bieto assumes 0h0p is at sunset at the equinox in Jerusalem so that the time of the molad announced on Shabbat Mevarchim is relative to sunset. The Luach Davar Bieto suggests a constant conversion of about -25 minutes between Jewish Equal Time (shaon BaHaRaD) and Standard Time. Sunset in Jerusalem at the autumnal equinox is at 5:35 PM Standard Time. The opinion of the Magen Avraham may be that 0h0p is nightfall when the stars emerge. Based on an understanding of the Zohar, the Magen Avraham cites an opinion in OC 1:7 that tikun chatzot is recited six equal hours after nightfall notwithstanding that in northern latitudes in the summer this could approach morning. By setting the start of the day at sunset when using equal hours, the starts of the day on successive days are no longer 24 hour mean solar days apart. Rather, successive days may be either longer or shorter than 24 hours by about 50 seconds in mid-northern latitudes. However, starting the day at 0h0p at sunset eliminates the practical problem of the day starting before sunset in the summer or after sunset in the winter. Molad Nissan 5763 is at 4d6h53 or 6h53p after sunset or nightfall or Yom Revii. The time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah would be determined from that time. Similarly, Tekufat Nissan 5763 at 3d12h0p would be 12 hours after sunset or nightfall. Mars would be considered to be in ascendancy for one hour from sunset or nightfall. This conversion seems intuitive in that the calendar day in terms of both shaot shavot and shaot zemaniyot would begin at the same time of day. However, the problem with this conversion is that we are no longer dealing with equal hours and the consensus may be that the calculations for the moladot, tekufot, and seven heavenly bodies involve shaot shavot and not shaot zemaniyot. Between the summer and winter solstices, sunset (and nightfall) is progressively earlier so there are less than 24 complete equal hours between successive

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sunsets. There would therefore not be 29d12h793p of equal hours between moladot, nor be 91d7h540p between tekufot. As well, there would not be 24 complete hours between successive sunsets for the cycle of seven heavenly bodies, each of which rule for a complete hour. The Maharil Siman 155 notes this problem when he states that from one day to the next there may be less than 24 complete equal hours. The twenty-fourth hour at the end of the day would be cut short. Between the winter and summer solstices, sunset is progressively later so there are more than 24 equal hours between successive sunsets. 0h0p is a fixed time of day, later relative to sunset (or nightfall) in the winter and earlier relative to sunset (or nightfall) in the summer. 0h0p is at sunset only near the autumnal and spring equinoxes. The Sheelot Utehuvot Maharil Siman 163 states this clearly as does the Machatzit HaShekel OC 271:1. It is possible that while Adam was in Gan Eden and was taught Sod HaIbbur, day and night were essentially equal in length all year. By the time Sod HaIbbur was transmitted to Bnei Yisrael, the nature of world had changed such that days were no longer equal in length to the nights all year. However, the criteria of Sod HaIbbur that were used to determine the start of the day may have remained in effect for purposes of the moladot and tekufot only and not for other areas of halachah concerning the start of the Jewish calendar day. The problem with this conversion that 0h0p is sunset (or nightfall), as with the conversion that 0h0p is six equal hours after chatzot, is that we are no longer dealing with equal hours between moladot, tekufot, or ascensions of the seven heavenly bodies. On the other hand, the appeal of this conversion is that the Jewish calendar day starts in terms of both shaot shavot and shaot zemaniyot at the same time so the following paradox is avoided: Molad Av 5770 is at 7d0p143p on July 10, 2010. This would be announced on Shabbat Mevarchim as 143 parts (or 7 minutes and 17 chalakim) past 6:00 PM (or past 5:39 PM in Jerusalem or 5:56 PM in New York or 6:21 PM in Toronto) on the following Shabbat. The problem is that the molad would be announced to occur prior to sunset while it is still Yom Shishi but our calculations clearly make the molad fall on Shabbat.

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Molad Nissan 5763 is at 4d6h53p. On April 1, when the day of the molad begins, sunset in Jerusalem is at 6:58 PM IDT so Molad Nissan is 6h53p later at 17 chalakim past 1:00 AM IDT on Wednesday, April 2, 2003. On April 1, sunset in New York is at 6:20 PM EST so Molad Nissan is 6h53p later at 17 chalakim past 12:22 AM EST. On April 1, sunset in Toronto is at 6:44 PM EST so Molad Nissan is 6h53p later at 17 chalakim past 12:46 AM EST. Again, if one were using the time of the molad as the moment of the molad in Jerusalem, then Molad Nissan 5763 in both New York and Toronto would be eight hours prior to the time of the molad in Jerusalem at 17 chalakim past 5:00 PM EST on April 1. Tekufat Nissan 5763 is at 3d12h0p. On April 7, sunset in Jerusalem is at 7:02 PM IDT so Tekufat Nissan is 12h later at 7:02 AM IDT on Wednesday, April 8, 2003. On April 7, sunset in New York is at 7:27 PM EDT so Molad Nissan is 12h later at 7:27 AM EDT. On April 7, sunset in Toronto is at 7:51 PM EDT so Molad Nissan is 12h later at 7:51 AM EDT. Depending on the opinion one follows for nightfall as the stars emerge, one could similarly calculate the times of the moladot and tekufot using the conversion of 0h0p as nightfall. According to the Pri Chadash OC 428, the Tzemach Tzedek calculates 0h0p as nightfall as the stars emerge and not as sunset. Note that this conversion is dependent on both the longitude and latitude of the observer as well as on the day of the year. Summary of Opinions Molad Nissan 5763 at 4d6h53p on 29 Adar II, Wednesday, April 2, 2003 0h0p is 6:00 PM 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours Standard Time Past Mean Solar Past Past Sunset Noon Astronomical Noon Jerusalem 1:02 AM IDT & 12:41 AM IDT & 12:45 AM IDT& 1:00 AM IDT & 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim New York 12:02 AM EST & 11:58 PM EST & 12:02 AM EST & 12:22 AM EST & 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim Toronto 12:02 AM EST & 12:20 AM EST & 12:24 AM EST & 12:46 AM EST & 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim City

City

Tekufat Nissan 5763 at 3d12h0p on 6 Nissan, Tuesday, April 8, 2003 0h0p is 6:00 PM 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours Standard Time Past Mean Solar Past Past Sunset Noon Astronomical

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Jerusalem New York Toronto

7:00 AM IDT 7:00 AM EDT 7:00 AM EDT

6:39 AM IDT 6:56 AM EDT 7:18 AM EDT

Noon 6:42 AM IDT 6:59 AM EDT 7:20 AM EDT

7:02 AM IDT 7:27 AM EDT 7:51 AM EDT

Note that by Molad Nissan 5763 Jerusalem has already moved its clocks ahead one hour to Daylight Saving Time. At Tekufat Nissan 5763, Jerusalem, New York and Toronto are on Daylight Saving Time. According to the opinion that the times of the moladot and tekufot in Jerusalem are universally applicable, one would subtract the time difference between Israel Time and Eastern Time for the appropriate times in New York and Toronto. Molad and Tekufat Nissan 5763 would be at the following times: Molad Nissan 5763 at 4d6h53p on 29 Adar II, Wednesday, April 2, 2003 0h0p is 6:00 PM 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours Standard Time Past Mean Solar Past Past Sunset Noon Astronomical Noon Jerusalem 1:02 AM IDT & 12:41 AM IDT & 12:45 AM IDT& 1:00 AM IDT & 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim New York and 5:02 PM EST & 4:41 PM EST & 4:45 PM EST & 5:00 PM EST & 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim 17 chalakim Toronto City

Tekufat Nissan 5763 at 3d12h0p on 6 Nissan, Tuesday, April 8, 2003 0h0p is 6:00 PM 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours 0h0p is 6 Hours Standard Time Past Mean Solar Past Past Sunset Noon Astronomical Noon Jerusalem 7:00 AM IDT 6:39 AM IDT 6:42 AM IDT 7:02 AM IDT New York and 12:00 AM EDT 11:39 PM EDT 11:42 PM EDT 12:02 AM EDT Toronto City

Nissan is near the vernal equinox. The discrepancy between the opinions that 0h0p is six hours after chatzot and 0h0p is at sunset (or nightfall) is greater at the solstices. According to the opinion that 0h0p is nightfall as opposed to sunset, one has to adjust the time of 0h0p by the time difference between sunset and nightfall, that is 18 minutes (3/4 of a mil where each mil is 24 minutes) 50 minutes (Iggeroth Moshe OC 4:62) or 72 minutes (4 mil where each mil is 18 minutes) or more (5 mil or 4 mil where each mil is 22.5 minutes). According to almost all the poskim, the time difference between sunset and nightfall involves shaot zemaniyot.

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Its worth noting the Machatzit HaShekel OC 235:3 and Pri Megadim OC 261:9 (the latter according to some interpretations, including the Biur Halachah) who state that nightfall follows sunset by 72 minutes or 1 1/5 equal hours. In fact, the Luach Ezras Torah assumes 72 minutes of equal hours between dawn and sunrise and between sunset and nightfall when calculating the latest times for reciting keriat shema in the mornings. It is also worth noting that the discussion of when and how to calculate the start of the Jewish day in the evening finds a parallel in how to calculate the latest time for reciting keriat shema according to the opinion (the Penei Yehoshua in his Likutim to Berachot 3a, Mahadura Batra and the Mor Uketzia OC 58) that the three hour time limit involves equal hours. The Iggeroth Moshe OC 2:20 rules that this is of theoretical interest only since the halachah is that keriat shema may be recited until three shaot zemaniyot of the day and not according to equal hours. That being said, the three equal hours are variably calculated from 6:00 AM, from sunrise (Artscrolls Birchas Hachammah, Appendix and the Iggeroth Moshe OC 2:20), or backwards from a variable chatzot (R. M. Shternbuch in Hilchot HaGRA UMinhagav Siman 1). Similarly, chametz may be eaten on Erev Pesach until the fourth hour of the day. The Rama OC 443 first states the accepted opinion that four shaot zemaniyot are meant. The Terumat HaDeshen70 Siman 121 is then cited by the Rama where the fourth hour of the day is actually two equal hours prior to a variable chatzot. The Terumat HaDeshen also discusses and dismisses the possibility that the fourth hour of the day is ten hours from the previous chatzot halaylah.

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R. Yisrael Ben Petchayah Isserlein, 1390-1460 (Germany and Austria). The Rama is a descendent of R. Isserlein.

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The Tzemach Tzedek Responsum 14 The Sheelot Uteshuvot Tzemach Tzedek71 in Siman 14 discusses how to determine at what time of day the tekufot occur. The issue for the Tzemach Tzedek is at what time one has to guard water (shimur) from danger (sakanah) by placing iron (barzel) in the water. The Tzemach Tzedek notes that this is a widespread custom and the time of the tekufah is announced publicly, much like we announce the molad on Shabbat Mevarchim today. Apparently the Tzemach Tzedek was disturbed by the widespread custom to consider 0h0p as nightfall. There were those however who wanted to consider 0h0p as six hours after chatzot which would be earlier relative to nightfall in the summer and later relative to nightfall in the winter. The Tzemach Tzedek quotes the Levush OC 428 that correctly one should consider 0h0p as six hours after chatzot but even the Levush recognized that he could not speak out against the widespread custom to consider 0h0p as nightfall. The Tzemach Tzedek then considers the position of the Maharil Responsum 152 who was personally machmir like both opinions. (The Tzemach Tzedek refers to the Maharil Responsum 163. The numbering of the teshuvot depends on the publication). Note that the Chida in Yoseph Ometz 42 states that the Maharil seems to imply that he was personally stringent to consider the calculations of the moladot and tekufot using shaot zemaniyot. However, the Chida introduces the concept of shaot zemaniyot that are actually equal hours but that start each day at sunset or nightfall. (This may also explain the comment of the Sidrei Taharah YD 184. The Sidrei Taharah corrects the text of the Shach 184:7 to reflect the opinion that the onah of the Aviasaf involves equal hours. However, in light of the Chidas comments which are based on the Pri Chadashs understanding of the Tzemach Tzedek, perhaps the Shach was referring to equal hours that begin at sunset or nightfall).

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R. Menachem Mendel Ben Avraham Krochmal, 1600-1661, a student of the Bach. His yahrtzeit is 2 Shevat.

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The Tzemach Tzedek asked the Tosefot Yom Tov72 his opinion. The Tosefot Yom Tov replied that regardless of what should theoretically be the correct practice, the widespread custom that we observe among the nation is the halachah and the minhag uproots the halachah. There does, however, still seem to be some ambiguity as to whether 0h0p Jewish Equal Time is sunset or nightfall. Note that the Levush is a primary source for calculating shaot zemaniyot from sunrise to sunset. As well, note that at times near the equinoxes, six equal hours after chatzot is sunset and not nightfall. However, the Pri Chadash OC 228 states clearly that the opinion of the Tzemach Tzedek is that the tekufot are calculated daily from nightfall when the stars emerge. When the Tzemach Tzedek discusses the opinion of the Maharil that the tekufot are calculated from sunset, the Tzemach Tzedek could possibly referring to the end of shekia which is right before nightfall as opposed to the beginning of shekia which is astronomical sunset. Note that the Rambam in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh, at least in Chapters 11-19, clearly uses sunset in his calculations. The conclusion of the Tzemach Tzedek is that 0h0p Jewish Equal Time for practical purposes is nightfall. At Tekufat Nissan and Tishrei sunset is approximately six hours after chatzot but even Tekufot Tevet and Tammuz would be calculated from nightfall and not from six hours after chatzot. The Tzemach Tzedek Siman 14 is widely quoted: By the Machatzit HaShekel OC 271:1 in the context of the seven heavenly bodies, by the Pitchei Teshuva YD 116 in the context of shimur at the tekufot, and by the Eliyahu Rabba on the Levush OC 428. However, the Pri Chadash at the end of OC 428, after referring to the Tzemach Tzedek, states that the Tzemach Tzedeks opinion that 0h0p is at nightfall is incorrect. Rather, the tekufot are calculated from six hours after chatzot since calculations from nightfall would not involve shaot shavot.

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R. Yom Tov Lipmann Ben Nathan HaLevi Heller, 1579-1654, author of the Tosefot Yom Tov on the Mishnah (finished 22 Marcheshvan, 5377/1616) and the Malbushei Yom Tov on the Levush and the Maadenei Yom Tov and Maadenei Melech on the Rosh. A student of the Maharal and dayyan in Prague at the age of 18 and later Rav of Cracow after the Bach.

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The Maharil: Eclipses and Astronomical Reality Chazal were under no illusions that the molad of 29d12h793p for the moons synodical period or that Tekufat Shemuel or even Tekufat Adda for the suns tropical year and lengths of the four seasons reflect astronomical reality. The poskim base this assumption on the Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 7:7. The Pri Chadash OC 427 states that the molad is an average figure representing the mean orbit of the moon. Similarly, the Pri Chadash OC 428 and the Tifereth Yisrael in Sod HaIbbur 29 state that the tekufot are average figures reflective of the mean orbit of the earth. The Levush OC 427 and the Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 7:7 even state that the seemingly weak reasons for the four dechiyot that delay Rosh HaShanah past the day of Molad Tishrei are to allow for correction of our inaccurate calculations and to bring the calendar closer to a true calendar 73. The Tzemach Tzedek Responsum 14 also states that even though the tekufot do not represent astronomical reality, the times of danger necessitating guarding water (shimur) revolve around the times that we calculate based on Tekufat Shemuel rather than the actual astronomical equinoxes and solstices. See also Sod HaIbbur where the Tifereth Yisrael states that the moladot and tekufot differ from astronomical reality. Many books have already thoroughly discussed the differences among the figures quoted by the poskim for the molad and the tekufah and astronomical reality. See for example Artscrolls Birchas Hachammah. The differences among the calculated times for the moladot and tekufot as transmitted by Chazal and the true astronomical times of the conjunctions, equinoxes and solstices increase every year as the inherent errors compound. The true seasons vary in length, with spring currently 92.8 days, summer 93.7 days, autumn 89.9 days, and winter 88.8 days. Tekufat Nissan, 5763 falls on April 8, 2003, which is more than two weeks after the true spring equinox. The Rambam in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 12:2 explains how to determine the actual tekufot as opposed to Tekufot Shemuel or Adda by correcting for the different speeds of the sun relative to the earth over the course of the year.

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Interestingly, this comment by the Rambam as to the reasons for the dechiyot elicited the RaAvaDs only comment in Hilchot Kiddush Hachodesh. The RaAvaD suggests that the reasons for the dechiyot are not as the Rambam states but rather to keep certain holidays from occurring on certain days.

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It is apparent from Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh Chapter 12 that the Rambam did not consider even Tekufat Adda to be astronomically accurate. The Rambam uses 59 minutes 8 seconds and 19.8 thirds (0.98656472 degrees) as the average apparent motion of the sun across the sky disregarding the rotation of the earth on its axis. At that rate, it takes the sun 365.242249 days74 or 365d5h879p to make an apparent complete 360 degree revolution around the earth. This figure for the length of the solar year is based on the best astronomical data at the time of the Rambam and is not based on Tekufat Adda. The molad is very close to astronomical reality. Researchers note that the accumulated error between the average molad as transmitted by Chazal and the average lunar conjunction is only about two hours today and was only about one hour during the time of the Rambam and Ibn Ezra and may have been close to Jerusalem time during the time of Chazal. In other words, the calculated time of the molad, assuming the molad is given in Jerusalem time, is about two hours after the mean lunar conjunction today. However, the actual lunar conjunction for any particular month fluctuates around the mean lunar conjunction similar to the fluctuation of chatzot around mean solar noon. The length of the lunar month on average is about 29 days 12 hours and 44 minutes but the length of any particular month fluctuates between 29 days 6.5 hours and 29 days 20 hours. (These calculations by Yaakov Levinger have been reprinted in several locations, including Yad Yitzchak75). The Rishonim deal with the problems of solar and lunar eclipses. Solar and lunar eclipses should allow correction of any accumulated differences between the calculated times for the moladot and astronomical reality. A complete solar eclipse can only occur at a lunar conjunction when the moon passes between the earth and the sun. The lunar conjunction is the molad so a solar eclipse should only occur at the moment of the molad.

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Note that there are some implications in halachah to the civil date or a calendar year of 365 days. For example, a house sale within a walled city can be nullified by the seller within one solar year when the yovel is in force according to the minority opinion of Rabbi in Arachin 9:3. Hence a house sold on 17 June, 2004, could be redeemed by the original owner before 17 June, 2005. Also note that the astrological forces of the seven heavenly bodies may follow a solar calendar. Hence it may have been on his civil birthday that Amalek tried unsuccessfully to harness the heavenly forces to combat Benei Yisrael as the Yerushalmi relates in Rosh HaShanah 3:8 (17b). 75 Simchah Walner ed., Machon LeLimudei Kiddush HaChodesh, Yeshivat Kerem BeYavnah, 5763. Yaakov Levingers article in Luach Davar Beito 5756 is also widely quoted.

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A complete lunar eclipse can only occur at a full moon when the earth passes between the sun and the moon. The full moon is the midpoint between lunar conjunctions (moladot) and is the latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah each month. The occurrence of a lunar eclipse should indicate that birchat kiddush levanah could no longer be recited. Since the time between moladot is 29d12h793p, the Maharil Siman 19 and Siman 155 states that birchat kiddush levanah can be recited until 14d18h396.5p have elapsed from the molad. The Rama OC 426:3 cites the Maharil as the accepted halachah. The Ramas time frame is from the calculated average molad. (According to the Mechaber, as understood by R. Ovadiah Yoseph in Yabia Omer 8:42, one can recite birchat kiddush levanah until 15 complete 24-hour days (15d0h) have elapsed from the molad. R. Ovadiah Yoseph also states there that the Rama does not disagree with the Mechaber, rather that the Rama is merely stating that initially one should comply with the opinion of the Maharil. Followers of the Mechaber therefore have an extra 5h673.5p to recite birchat kiddush levanah but according to R. Ovadiah Yoseph should initially still recite birchat kiddush levanah by the midpoint between moladot. R. Ovadiah Yoseph points out in Yechaveh Daat 2:24 that it is not actually possible to be yotzeh all opinions with regard to the time frame in which to recite birchat kiddush levanah: The latest start time is later than the earliest end time). However, a solar eclipse at a time other than at the time of a molad as transmitted by Chazal or a lunar eclipse at a time other than at the midpoint between moladot would be problematical. (Perhaps one can draw an analogy to the problem of a molad zakein. The Baal HaMaor to Rosh HaShanah 20b in his commentary to the Rif raises the issue of the molad that occurs on Rosh HaShanah after chatzot. In such a case the new moon would not be seen from any location on Earth on the day of the molad so Rosh HaShanah is deferred to the next day. By deferring Rosh HaShanah the Sanhedrin is not disparaged by declaring a new month without anyone actually seeing a new moon on that day). The Maharil Siman 19 states that generally we rely on the calculations as transmitted by Chazal and not on astronomical reality. Chazal were only concerned with the average orbits of the moon around the earth and the earth around the sun for calculating the moladot and tekufot. In any particular month, the actual orbits of the moon and the earth could differ from the average

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orbits. However, the Maharil rules that if a lunar eclipse were to be observed earlier than the halfway point between moladot, one could not still recite birchat kiddush levanah after the lunar eclipse. The midpoint between moladot is the latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah unless a lunar eclipse were to occur earlier. The Beit Yoseph OC 426 quotes the Maharil that one cannot recite birchat kiddush levanah after a lunar eclipse. (When the Beit Yoseph quotes the Teshuvot Ashkenaziyot, he is referring to the Maharil). However, the Beit Yoseph is not concerned with solar eclipses. The Beit Yoseph states that we rely on our calculations, which reflect an average orbit of the moon around the earth even if in a particular month a solar eclipse were to occur before or after the calculated time for the molad. The Darchei Moshe OC 426 notes that the Maharil himself is concerned only with a lunar eclipse but not with a solar eclipse. A lunar eclipse would indicate that one should no longer recite birchat kiddush levanah that month. Everyone sees a lunar eclipse simultaneously. However, according to the Darchei Moshe, a solar eclipse before or after a molad is less problematical because the time of a solar eclipse is dependent on the observers location on earth and would not necessarily be indicative of a true molad at that moment. A solar eclipse does not allow for an accurate correction for the molad. Whereas a lunar eclipse is a global event seen by all viewers simultaneously, a solar eclipse is seen during a range of time and across a geographical path. One cannot determine the moment of the molad when one sees a solar eclipse except in special circumstances. For example, a complete solar eclipse on Wednesday, March 29, 2006, Adar 29, 5766 will be visible at different times in different locations. The solar eclipse will be seen at 8:35 UT over the east coast of Brazil and will be visible as the eclipse is seen to travel along a swatch 188 km wide until 11:46 UT when it will be visible over Siberia. Molad Nissan, 5766 is at 4d21h234p, or mid-afternoon of 29 Adar, 5766. Mid-eclipse is at 10:11 UT. Note that the Levush OC 426 rules that one cannot recite birchat kiddush levanah after a complete lunar eclipse in accordance with the ruling of the Maharil. However, neither the Mechaber nor the Rama cites the ruling of the Maharil in the Shulchan Aruch. The Hagahot to the

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Tur OC 426 Notes 14 and 15 conjectures that the Mechaber and the Rama retracted their previous rulings in the Beit Yoseph and in the Darchei Moshe. The ruling of the Maharil can be demonstrated using the example of the lunar eclipse on the evening of 14 Iyyar, 5763 (Thursday, May 15, 2003). Molad Iyyar, 5763 is at 5d18h846p or 18h846p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Chamishi, 29 Nissan, 5763. One could therefore recite birchat kiddush levanah until 14d18h396.5p later at 6d13h162.5p or 13h162.5p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Shishi, 14 Iyyar, 5763 (Pesach Sheini). Chatzot in Toronto on 13 Iyyar (May 15) is at 1:14 PM Eastern Daylight Time. 0h0p on 14 Iyyar is six hours later at 7:14 PM. Birchat kiddush levanah could therefore be recited in Toronto until 13h162.5p later or about 8:23 AM Eastern Daylight Time on Friday morning, 14 Iyyar (May 16). However, mid-eclipse of the lunar eclipse occurs at 11:40 PM Eastern Daylight Time in Eastern Canada on May 15. The lunar eclipse is necessarily at the moment of the full moon at the midpoint between lunar conjunctions (moladot). According to the Maharil, if one had not yet recited birchat kiddush levanah by the time of the lunar eclipse, one could no longer recite the berachah. According to the calculations as transmitted by Chazal for the average molad, one would have been able to recite birchat kiddush levanah until the next morning. However, astronomical reality cannot be completely ignored according to the Maharil. Interestingly, since Toronto is seven hours behind Jerusalem, this lunar eclipse is only about an hour before the same moment that birchat kiddush levanah could no longer be said in Jerusalem. Latest Time for Birchat kiddush levanah Iyyar 5763 at 6d13h162.5p on 14 Iyyar Chatzot on May 6 Hours Past 13h162.5p past Latest Time in 15 Chatzot 0h0p Jerusalem Jerusalem 12:36 PM IDT 6:36 PM IDT 7:45 AM IDT 7:45 AM IDT & 38/76 chalakim & 38/76 chalakim New York 12:53 PM EDT 6:53 PM EDT 8:02 AM EDT 12:45 AM EDT & 38/76 chalakim & 38/76 chalakim Toronto 1:14 PM EDT 7:14 PM EDT 8:23 AM EDT 12:45 AM EDT & 38/76 chalakim & 38/76 chalakim Mid-eclipse at 11:40 PM EDT City

It is difficult to know with certainty the offset between Jewish Equal Time and Standard Time. It has been suggested in Artscrolls Birchas Hachammah page 75 that one use the offset between local mean solar noon and Standard Time in Jerusalem. In any event, for practical

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purposes perhaps one should follow the poskim and calculate the times for the moladot, tekufot and seven heavenly bodies from six hours past chatzot or from sunset or nightfall. It is worth noting that although observing a lunar eclipse allows the observer to praise and glorify the acts of Creation, there is a problem al pi kabbalah to stare at the moon. The Shaar HaTziyon 426:14 compares the prohibition of staring at the moon to the prohibition of staring at a rainbow. The source for the Shaar HaTziyon is the Shenei Luchot Habrit (the SheLaH) Shaar Haotiyot Kedusha, page 74. (The same passage in the SheLaH is also a source for the custom of women not reciting birchat kiddush levanah). The source for the SheLaH in turn is the Sefer Chareidim76. The Sefer Chareidim cites Sefer Sodot Shoshan77. The reason for not looking at a rainbow as given by the Sefer Chareidim is that the appearance of the Shechinah is compared to the appearance of the rainbow, based on Yechezkel 1:28. Seeing the new moon and reciting birchat kiddush levanah is seen as greeting the Shechinah (Sanhedrin 42a). Also relevant is the prohibition against creating images of the moon (see YD 141).

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Prohibitions from Kabbalah and the Soferim Dependent on the Eye. Like the SheLaH, the Sefer Chareidim does not have numbered chapters or sections or uniform pagination that would make reference to specific passages in the books more accessible. Sefer Chareidim was written by R. Eleazar Ben Moshe Azikri (1522-1600), author of Yedid Nefesh, and published posthumously in 1601. 77 R. Moshe Ben Yaakov, 1449-1520.

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The Rambam Menachot 10:5: Jerusalem Time versus Local Time The lunar conjunction, equinoxes, and solstices are astronomical events that each occur at one instant in time as the moon orbits the earth and as the earth orbits the sun. In distinction, sunrise and sunset occur along a continuum of time as the earth rotates and are unique to the observers location. It is generally but not universally agreed that Chazal transmitted the calculations for the moladot and tekufot using Jerusalem time as the Tifereth Yisrael in Sod HaIbbur Paragraph 3 states, zecher lamikdash. The Baal HaMaor78 to Rosh HaShanah 20b also assumes that the moladot are calculated according to Jerusalem time. (According to both the Baal HaMaor and the Kuzari, for purposes of visual sighting of the moon, the critical location is 90 degrees east of Jerusalem. By placing the International Date Line 90 degrees east of Jerusalem, it is Shabbat for one moment everywhere simultaneously. As well, there is a theoretical potential for the new moon to be seen within 270 degrees west of Jerusalem sometime on Shabbat. If the molad occurs by chatzot in Jerusalem then the new moon could be visible within 24 hours of the start of Shabbat at some longitude within 270 degrees west of Jerusalem.) Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur similarly states that the moladot were stated in Jerusalem time as does the Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 11:17. Indeed, R. Moshe Shternbuch in Moadim U-zemanim 1:19 Note 1 and in Responsum 1:120 rules that on Shabbat Mevarchim the molad should be announced as specifically Jerusalem time. Note that the longitude of Jerusalem is generally used as the meridian for the calculations of the moladot because Bnei Yisrael were first commanded regarding Shabbat and the calendar at Marah which is south of Jerusalem but at essentially the same longitude as Jerusalem. (However, Moshe was first informed about the new month on Rosh Chodesh Nissan while still in Mitzrayim). Alternatively, according to the Chazon Ish in Kuntres LeShemoneh Esrei Shaot, Adam was in Jerusalem when he was first commanded about the molad or shortly thereafter. The Chazon Ish79 in Kuntres LeShemoneh Esrei Shaot 1:16 rules that the times of the moladot are calculated according to Jerusalem time. Other

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A commentary on the Rif by the Razah, R. Zerachiah Ben Yitzchak HaLevi Gerondi, 1125 (Spain) 1186 (Provence). Sefer HaMaor was started in 1144 when the author was 19 years old. 79 R. Avraham Yeshayahu Karelitz, 18781953. His yahrtzeit is 15 Marcheshvan.

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opinions place the longitude for which the moladot are calculated elsewhere within Israel if not necessarily Jerusalem. Other opinions such as the Tashbetz 3:115 indicate the calculated times for the moladot are given for the longitude at the extreme east of the Eurasion landmass (sof mizrach or ketzeh mizrach) which is about 90 degrees east of Jerusalem or the tabbur olam. Some opinions have the longitude for with the moladot are calculated running through Bavel where Chazal promulgated the rules of the calendar. According to the Yesod Olam80 Maamar 4 Chapter 7 the times for the moladot and tekufot are calculated according to the longitude of about 24 degrees (1h642p) east of Jerusalem and along the equator. This longitude, the tabbur olam (navel or center of the land mass) is the midpoint from the islands on the west coast of Africa to the East coast of Asia according to Ptolemy and runs through Iran and the Persian Gulf of today. The Yesod Olam places Jerusalem 66 degrees east of the western end of the land mass and 114 degrees west of the eastern end. This land mass was believed to be 180 degrees from west to east or the distance the sun travels in 12 hours (see Ibn Ezra to Tehillim 113:3). The Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 11:17 also refers to the center of the habitable land mass as 24 degrees east of Jerusalem. At the equator, the days are 12 hours in length throughout the year so sunset is always 6 hours after chatzot. 0h0p according the Yesod Olam may be six hours after chatzot at any location and on any day. According to the Yesod Olam, there may not be a need to use Jerusalem time for determining the latest time to recite birchat kiddush levanah since the times of the moladot are not given in Jerusalem time. The Chazon Ish in Kuntres Shemoneh Esrei Shaot disagrees that the moladot are calculated for the longitude of the tabbur olam. However, there are several problems with this understanding of the Yesod Olam. First, the premises of the Yesod Olam are that at chatzot the sun is directly overhead and that the moladot and tekufot are stated using equal hours and that chatzot from one day to the next is 24 equal hours (Maamar 2 Chapters 13 and 14). However, even along the equator astronomical noon when the sun is directly overhead differs from mean solar noon by the equation of time.
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Written in 1310 by R. Yitzchak Ben Yoseph Yisraeli, a student of the Rosh, in Toledo, Spain and published 1777, Berlin

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Therefore either chatzot is at the same time every day when the sun is essentially overhead or at chatzot the sun is directly overhead and chatzot is at essentially the same time of day every day. Secondly, it is not immediately clear that the Yesod Olam would place chatzot at mean local solar noon. Mean local solar noon is the mathematical average time of astronomical noon (11:39 AM IST in Jerusalem, 11:56 AM EST in New York, and 12:18 PM EST in Toronto) and is a modern scientific convenience. In Jerusalem, astronomical noon fluctuates between 11:22 AM IST (when the equation of time is -17 minutes) and 11:53 AM IST (+14 minutes). One could also set chatzot to be fixed at, for example, astronomical noon on the day of the autumn equinox when the equation of time is 7 minutes so that the equation of time fluctuates between 10 minutes and +21 minutes. Oh0p would therefore be at 5:32 PM IST rather than at 5:39 PM IST. Thirdly, the Yesod Olam Maamar 4 Chapter 7 verified the meridian for setting the times of the moladot and tekufot by inspection. The Yesod Olam used the lunar eclipse of mid-Elul, 5069 (1309 CE). Since the eclipse occurred at 5d21h90p and mid-molad between Molad Elul, 5069 and Tishrei, 5070 occurred at 6d1h234p, the Yesod Olam was able to conclude that the tabbur olam was 4h144p east of Toledo or 24 degrees (0h864p or 48 minutes) east of Jerusalem. At that eclipse the difference between the actual particular astronomical full moon and mid-molad, which represents an average figure, may have been at a maximum. As well, the accumulated error between the average lunar conjunction and the molad of 29d12h793p may have been about one hour at the time of the Yesod Olam. The Yesod Olam saw the difference between the actual time of the eclipse and the moment of mid-molad reflecting the fact that the moladot are calculated for a longitude east of Jerusalem. However, the time difference may have been because of the difference between the length of the molad and the moons actual synodical period. Curiously, the Yesod Olam himself notes that the Rambam uses Jerusalem time as the prime meridian for the moladot and tekufot at the end of Maamar 2 Chapter 17. Yet both the Yesod Olam and the Rambam use the same starting point for the moladot of BaHaRaD (2d5h204p). This may imply that indeed the calculations for the moladot and tekufot were revealed by Chazal for their own reasons and not because they are necessarily coincident with

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actual astronomical events. The numbers themselves are important in that they trigger calendar calculations but may not be an actual time of day on ones watch. The Engineer Yaakov Levinger in Sheloshet Sugei HaMoladot
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argues that the Rambam

places the longitude for the calculations of the moladot east of Jerusalem as does the Yesod Olam notwithstanding the opinion of the Chazon Ish. Levinger argues as follows: The Rambam explains that if one were to know the positions of the sun and the moon at a particular point in time and the rates of their subsequent motions, one could then calculate their actual positions at any future points in time. The Rambam Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 11:16 chose 0h0p on Yom Chamishi, 3 Nissan 4938 as the starting point for his subsequent calculations of the positions of the sun and the moon. Molad Nissan, 4938 was at 3d1h721p or 1h721p of Yom Shelishi. Levinger assumes that the new moon was first visible 20 minutes after 0h0p of Yom Chamishi or at 5d0h360p. Therefore there were 1h22h719p between the calculated molad and the first sighting of the new moon at phasis. However, the Rambam in 12:2 places the sun at 7 degrees 3 minutes 32 seconds and in 14:4 places the moon at 31 degrees 14 minutes 43 seconds. There were therefore 24 degrees 11 minutes 11 seconds (24.186389 degrees) of separation between the sun and the moon. From Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 14:1 and 12:1 the moon has an apparent motion of 12.90742 degrees per day faster than the sun. Therefore the separation of 24.186389 degrees between the sun and the moon is a separation of 1.9839965 days or 1d23h665p. The difference between 1d23h665p and 1d22h719p is 1026p or 57 minutes82. Therefore the moladot are actually calculated for a longitude of 57 minutes or almost 15 degrees east of Jerusalem. The Rambam was aware that the average molad occurred 57 minutes earlier than the molad used in the calendar calculations. Levinger opines that the Rambams statement in 11:17 that he used Jerusalem time only applied to the calculations in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh Chapters 11-19 for determining the actual positions of the sun and the moon but not for the moladot and tekufot in Chapters 1-10. Chazal knew that the earth rotates and that astronomical events observed at a certain time in Jerusalem occur later in the day east of Jerusalem and earlier in the day west of
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Repreinted in Yad Yitzchak, 5763. Levingers calculation of 58 minutes is due to rounding.

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Jerusalem. It was known in classical times that the earth is round. This was known from evidence that ships traveling beyond horizon did not shrink out of sight. Rather, their hulls were seen to sink before their masts as the ships traveled along the curvature of the earth. As well, the round shadow of the earth could be seen crossing the face of the moon at lunar eclipses. It can be inferred from Avodah Zarah 41a and the Yerushalmi Avodah Zarah 2:1 (18b) that Chazal knew the earth is round. In some places Chazal describe the Earth as flat or as an inverted bowl but by Ptolemys time the earth as a sphere was commonly accepted. R. Avraham Ibn Daud in Sefer HaKabbalah notes that Ptolemy lived during the time of R. Akiva and Bar Kochva in the 2
nd

generation after the Destruction of the Temple. The dispute between R. Yehudah and the Chachamim in Pesachim 94b regarding the apparent motion of the sun at night may be interpreted as hinging on whether the earth is spherical. The Ben Ish Chai83 Parshat Shemot (First Year) cites the Zohar Vayikra 10a as indicating Chazal knew the earth is round. In any event, it is clear from the discussion in Rosh HaShanah 20b regarding the observations of the moon from Israel and Bavel that Chazal knew astronomical events occur later in the day in the east. In the time of Chazal distances between locations were measured by noting the differences in the time of day at each location at which global astronomical events such as lunar eclipses occurred. Note that Ptolemys interest in geography was secondary to his interest in the heavenly spheres and cosmography. For a true definition of time, one needs a true definition of place84. Given that the moladot and tekufot are calculated according to Jerusalem time, it would follow that to obtain an accurate time for a particular molad or tekufah, one would have to compensate for the time difference between ones location and Jerusalem. Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur notes this problem in calculating the time of the Tekufat Shemuel for locations east and west of Jerusalem.

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R. Yoseph Chayyim ben Eliyahu, 1833/5 1909. In Mercator, by Nicholas Crane, the author notes that Mercators globes were actually part of a set a terrestrial globe and a celestial globe.

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There is an obligation to announce the date of the new month. The Abudraham in Seder Rosh Chodesh states that the day of Rosh Chodesh is announced after the Torah reading and before Ashrei on the Shabbat preceding Rosh Chodesh. The Machzor Vitry Siman 190 states that the date of the new month is publicly announced on the preceding Shabbat in order to make the congregants mindful of their upcoming obligations. The Magen Avraham codifies this custom in OC 417:1. The Shabbat preceding Rosh Chodesh is commonly referred to as Shabbat Mevarchim HaChodesh. This custom to announce the new month dates from the time of the Gaonim and is mentioned in the Siddur of R. Amram Gaon. The custom later developed to announce the time of the actual molad in addition to the date of Rosh Chodesh. (Note that the molad can actually precede the announcement on Shabbat Mevarchim as it did on Erev Rosh Chodesh Adar 5764). The custom to announce the time of the molad is codified in Sefer Yereiim85 and in Shaarei Ephraim86 10:37 and discussed in the accompanying commentary Shaarei Rachamim Note 47. In codifying this custom, the Aruch HaShulcan OC 517:8 uses the statement of R. Yosa in the Yerushalmi Sanhedrin 5:3 (25a or 24d) as a source for the obligation to know the time of the molad. R. Yosa states there that he did not pray mussaf without knowing the time of the yareach. It is unclear if R. Yosa is referring to the mussaf of the Shabbat preceding Rosh Chodesh (as the Aruch HaShulchan states) or the mussaf of Rosh Chodesh itself (as the Penei Moshe87 states). Secondly, it is unclear if R. Yosa is referring to the time of molad (as the commentary to the Yerushalmi, Tziyon VeYerushalayim88 states) or the date of Rosh Chodesh. Note that according to R. Aryeh Leib Gordon in Tikkun Tefilah, R. Amram Gaon, consistent with the opinion of the Ramban, would announce the new month on Rosh Chodesh itself. The authority of the calendar in the absence of the Sanhedrin rests on the kahal and the calendar and new months are legitimate on account of the kahals calculations and collective will.

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R. Eliezer ben Shmuel of Metz, a 12th century Tosafist. The discussion regarding birchat hachodesh is found in Siman 259 or 103, depending on the edition. 86 R. Ephraim Zalman Ben Menachem Mannes Margolioth 1760-1828, author of the Mateh Ephraim and editor of the Darchei Teshuvah written by his brothers, R. Chaim Mordechai. 87 R. Moshe Ben Shimon Margolioth, died 1781. Author of the parallel commentary Mareh HaPanim as well. A teacher of the GRA. 88 R. Yoseph Shaul HaLevi Nathansohn.

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Announcing the new month replaces the Sanhedrins declaration of mekudash. However, the custom of announcing the date of the new month on the preceding Shabbat is consistent with the view of the Rambam that the authority of the calendar rests on predetermined calculations ever since the Sanhedrin ceased to function. It would follow that we should use Jerusalem time for calculating the appropriate times to recite birchat kiddush levanah. This is the opinion of R. Henkin , Executive Director of Ezras Torah, in Eidut LeYisrael90 (Principles for Establishing the Month and the Year, 15). R. Henkin rules that possibly logically someone west of Jerusalem should only be able to recite birchat kiddush levanah until the midpoint between moladot as calculated for Jerusalem. Someone in the Eastern Time Zone would therefore need to subtract seven hours from the midpoint between moladot as calculated for his location. R. Moshe Shternbuch in Responsum 1:120 rules similarly to R. Henkin. R. Menashe Klein in Mishnah Halachot 11:344 cites R. Henkins ruling. Note that using Jerusalem time for a person west of Jerusalem involves a stringency with regard to the latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah. However, the earliest time one can recite birchat kiddush levanah is 72 hours after the molad according to Rabbeinu Yonah91 as cited by the Beit Yoseph OC 426 and as codified by the Mishnah Berurah OC 426:20. Therefore a leniency would be involved in starting to say birchat kiddush levanah 72 hours after the moment of the molad in Jerusalem for person west of Jerusalem. (Sephardim al pi kabbalah do not recite birchat kiddush levanah until seven days past the molad. The Rambam in Hilchot Berachot 10:16 allows birchat kiddush levanah to be recited essentially as soon as the moon is first visible). It is unclear if R. Henkin would rule leniently with regard to the earliest time to recite birchat kiddush levanah. However, reciting birchat kiddush levanah earlier than 72 hours after the molad is not so problematical since strictly speaking, at least according to the Rambam in Hilchot Berachot 10:17
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R. Yoseph Eliyahu Ben Eliezer Kolonimus Henkin, a contemporary of R. Moshe Feinstein. Published 5741, New York. 91 Rabbeinu Yonah in his comments to Berachot 21a actually refers to the earliest time to recite birchat kiddush levanah as after 2-3 days. Engineer Yaakov Levinger reconciles the consensus of poskim that one must wait 72 hours from the molad by suggesting that Rabbeinu Yonah only allows birchat kiddush levanah to be recited 2-3 days following the true molad or actual astronomical lunar conjunction. To remove any doubt arising from not knowing the time of the true molad, the poskim require a minimum wait of 72 hours from the average commonly calculated molad.

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the Abudraham and others, it may be permissible to recite birchat kiddush levanah from the first day as soon as the new moon is first visible. As well, a person east of Jerusalem should be able to recite birchat kiddush levanah later in the night while it is still earlier in Jerusalem. Indeed, R. Moshe Shternbuch Responsum 1:204 rules that one should actually be stringent according to both opinions of using Jerusalem time or local time. Although someone west of Jerusalem should only recite birchat kiddush levanah until it can no longer be recited in Jerusalem, a person east of Jerusalem should apply the calculations of the moladot to local time and should not be lenient to consider the midpoint between moladot in Jerusalem. It would follow as well that one should practice shimur at the moment of the tekufah as calculated for Jerusalem. For example, Tekufat Nissan, 5763 occurs when it is 6:42 AM IDT in Jerusalem. Shimur should therefore be practiced throughout the world when it is 6:42 AM IDT in Jerusalem. This would be 11:42 PM EDT while it is still nighttime in New York and Toronto. The exact same reasoning for using Jerusalem time for the moladot and hence birchat kiddush levanah would be applicable to the tekufot and hence shimur. The molad is an event that occurs at a certain time in Jerusalem. At the lunar conjunction, the moon is not visible. The new moon first becomes visible at phasis sometime after the conjunction. (Rosh HaShanah 20b discusses how long after the molad the new moon is seen). At phasis, the moon becomes visible just after sunset in the western sky where the sun has just set. According to the Rambam in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh, the moon becomes visible 20 minutes after sunset. The moon faces the sun with the horns away from the sun and sets soon after the sun. The moon sets in the west each successive night of the month about 48 minutes later than the previous night, having risen about 12 hours earlier. Strictly speaking, the molad that we calculate is based on the conjunction, when the moon is not actually visible. The new moon that is seen at phasis is somewhat later. The time difference between the lunar conjunction and the visible new moon is variable and depends on the location of the observer, the time of day of the conjunction, the day of the year, and atmospheric conditions. The Rambam in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh 1:3 states that the time from the molad until the new moon is visible is approximately

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one day (24 hours) and explains in Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh chapters 11 to 17 how to calculate the time difference exactly. The Rishonim and astronomers discuss the minimum and maximum time difference. For example, Ibn Ezra in Sefer HaIbbur 11b mentions a figure of 14 hours from the actual lunar conjunction to the mean lunar conjunction or molad and a further 6 hours until the new moon is first visible in Tishrei for a total of 20 hours. According to Rashi Rosh HaShanah 20b and the Levush OC 428 the minimum time difference is 6 hours under ideal circumstances. Similarly, several factors influence the minimum and maximum time that the moon is not visible from the last sighting of the new moon until the first sighting of the new moon. The dispute between Rabban Gamliel and R. Yochanan in Rosh HaShanah 2:8 may hinge on the minimum time between the old and new moons. Note 7 to the Tashbetz 104 (R. Y. Katan, ed., Machon Yerushalayim 5758) has fascinating comment that indeed at Molad Av 3848 and at Molad Tammuz 3866 the old moon would have been visible on the morning of the 28th of the previous month and the new moon would have been visible during the following night. Sefer HaKabbalah dates this incident during the second generation of Tanaim following the Destruction of the Beit HaMikdash. It should be emphasized that our present calendar is based on the occurrence of the average molad, or inferior lunar conjunction. The average molad differs from the true astronomical molad at any particular month. As well, this average molad occurs at the average moment of a new moon when the moon is not actually visible. The new moon is first visible sometime later at phasis. Therefore, a molad on Erev Rosh HaShanah that occurs just before chatzot may trigger Rosh HaShanah on that day. However, when visual sighting of the new moon is required to declare a new month, since the new moon may not be actually visible for some time, Rosh HaShanah may have been deferred to the next day. The Rishonim discuss whether our present calendar, which is based on the conjunction of Molad Tishrei, differs from the calendar during the time when Rosh HaShanah was based on the actual sighting of the new moon. The Tashbetz 135 discusses this issue. For example, Molad Elul 5762 occurs at 6d0h189p or Thursday night, August 28, 2003. Molad Tishrei 5763 occurs on

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the thirtieth day following Molad Elul at 7d12h982p or Shabbat morning, September 7, 2002. Rosh HaShanah 5763 is therefore on Shabbat, the day of the molad. However, the new moon would not actually be seen until Saturday night after sunset so perhaps if the new month would be determined by visual sighting of the new moon then Rosh HaShanah would be on Sunday or perhaps on Monday but certainly not on Shabbat. The Baal HaMaor deals with this problem and states that as long as the calculated time for the molad, albeit in Jerusalem time, occurs before chatzot, then the new moon will be visible somewhere on Earth while it still the day of the molad. Since the molad occurs at a moment calculated relative to the observer in Jerusalem and the molad itself occurs at one instant globally, the Luach Ezras Torah cites the opinion of R. Henkin, that birchat kiddush levanah should only be said until the berachah can no longer be said in Jerusalem. However, the same reasoning is not extended to the tekufot. Molad Nissan 5763 is 4d6h53p on 29 Adar II. Birchat kiddush levanah according to the Rama can be said until 14d18h396.5p after the molad which would be 5d0h449.5p (about 25 minutes past 0h0p) on 15 Nissan, the first night of Pesach. On Wednesday, April 16 (when the equation of time is zero), chatzot in Jerusalem is at 12:39 PM IDT. Birchat kiddush levanah could be said until about 7:04 PM IDT in Jerusalem. According to R. Henkin birchat kiddush levanah could be said anywhere in the world until it is 7:04 PM IDT in Jerusalem: The latest time in New York and Toronto to say birchat kiddush levanah would be seven hours earlier at 12:04 PM EDT on 14 Nissan. On the other hand, given that chatzot on April 16 in New York is at 12:56 PM EDT and in Toronto at 1:18 PM EDT, the latest time to recite birchat kiddush levanah would traditionally be calculated as 7:21 PM EDT in New York and 7:43 PM EDT in Toronto. The other place in halachah where we follow Jerusalem time is with regard to new grains or chadash. New grains cannot be eaten until the omer is brought in Jerusalem. During the time of the Beit HaMikdash, outside of Jerusalem one could eat new grains after chatzot since it is assumed that the omer was brought by chatzot. The Rambam in his Mishnah commentary to Menachot 10:5 (page 68a in the gemara) has an incredible comment. The Rambam states there that we can eat new grains once it is chatzot in Jerusalem that is, Jerusalem time, not local time. A person living east of Jerusalem would have to wait until past chatzot locally and a person

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living west of Jerusalem could eat new grains earlier in the day once it is already chatzot in Jerusalem. According to the Rambam, one needs to know where on the earth she lives relative to the longitude of Jerusalem. The Tosefot Yom Tov in his commentary to the Mishnah echoes the same opinion. The Rambam in Hilchot Maachalot Asurot 10:2 codifies that during the time of the Beit HaMikdash when the omer is waved, one can eat new grains in distant locations after chatzot of 16 Nissan. In light of the Rambams commentary on the Mishnah Menachot 10:5, the Rambam in Hilchot Maachalot Asurot is evidently speaking of chatzot Jerusalem time, not local time. One could make the analogy and cite these comments of the Rambam and the Tosefot Yom Tov to support the reasoning of R. Henkin. Just as bringing the omer occurs by a certain time in Jerusalem, so too do the moladot and tekufot occur at a certain time as calculated for the observer in Jerusalem. We see from this comments of the Rambam and the Tosefot Yom Tov that we can and should know our location on earth relative to Jerusalem and that it is not unreasonable to calculate the time in Jerusalem. On the other hand, one could argue that one cannot derive the rules of one law from the other. After all, the Tosefot Yom Tov makes this comment regarding chadash but may not obviously make a similar statement with regard to the moladot and tekufot in the laws of Rosh Chodesh neither in the Maadenei Yom Tov on the Rosh nor in the Malbushei Yom Tov on the Levush. Several reasons could be proposed for using Jerusalem time for eating chadash but using local time for the moladot and tekufot in opposition to the rulings of R. Henkin and R. Moshe Shternbuch. The fact that the molad is given in Jerusalem time may not compel a resident elsewhere to use Jerusalem time when determining the latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah. The most obvious difference is that chadash involves the extra stringency of an issur dorayta and hence requires greater accuracy whereas the calculations for the moladot and tekufot involve mitzvot derabbanan. Of course, the Tosefot Yom Tov stated his ruling regarding chadash both lechumrah and lekulah. Note that even if reciting a brachah levatalah were an issur dorayta, the time constraint on birchat kiddush levanah is possibly only derabbanan.

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Also, calculating the time of chatzot in Jerusalem relative to local solar time on one day of the year, which is soon after Tekufat Nissan, is not too arduous, especially given that at the time one would have had the benefit of the guidance of the Sanhedrin. However, calculating the times of the moladot and tekufot throughout the year in each household so one could recite birchat kiddush levanah or spill out water at the tekufot is complicated for many people, all the more so by then adding the conversion from Jerusalem time to local time. The Minchat Chinuch92 in his commentary to Sefer HaChinuch Mitzvah 303 raises the issue that apparently the gemara in Succah 41a seemingly did not presume that one waits until chatzot Jerusalem time to eat new grains. If that were so, then the inability of common people to calculate chatzot Jerusalem time would have been the obvious answer to the gemaras question why it was necessary to enact a gezeira derabbanan that one can not eat new grains the entire day of 16 Nissan in the absence of the Beit HaMikdash. The Minchat Chinuch assumes an ability of common people to determine chatzot Jerusalem time but the gemara still questioned the need for a gezeira with regard to locations close enough to Jerusalem that local chatzot would essentially be at the same time as chatzot in Jerusalem. However, even so, it may still be possible to conjecture that one cannot extrapolate the law of birchat kiddush levanah from the law of chadash. Either because of the difference between an issur dorayta and a gezera derabbanan, or because even following the cessation of the korban omer the Sanhedrin was still in existence to provide guidance when the gezeira derabbanan discussed in Succah 41a was enacted. As well, there is the issue that the Tosefot Yom Tov was seemingly silent on the possibility that one use Jerusalem time for determining the moladot and tekufot for practical applications. Further, R. Moshe Shternbuch holds that the moladot are stated in Jerusalem time because of astronomical reality. The Rambam invokes the verse, Ki miTziyon teizei Torah (Yeshayahu 2:3) to demonstrate that Jerusalem has primacy when determining the calendar. However, if the reason for using the longitude of Jerusalem as he meridian for calculating the

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R. Yoseph Ben Moshe Badad, 1800-1874/5.

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moladot and tekufot were astronomical reality, the Rambam may not have needed to invoke any verse. As well, several paradoxes that are not an issue with regard to chadash are apparent in using Jerusalem time for the moladot and tekufot. The Maor Hakatan Rosh HaShanah 20b places the Jewish Date Line 90 degrees east of Jerusalem just west of Korea. (Other opinions place the Jewish Date Line at the antipode 180 degrees from Jerusalem). Interestingly, according to the Baal HaMaor, it is still sometime on 16 Nissan at every location on earth when it is chatzot in Jerusalem on 16 Nissan. One would start eating chadash still sometime on 16 Nissan no matter where one is on earth, be it earlier or later in the day. (The Chatam Sofer in his Sheelot UTeshuvot OC 102 uses the discussion in Rosh HaShanah 20b to allow birchat kiddush levanah to be recited in extreme circumstances up to 18 hours after the midpoint between moladot. The interesting result is that if one calculates the latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah using local time, one is always within 18 hours of the latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah in Jerusalem regardless of ones location on Earth according to the understanding of the Baal HaMaor. The leniency of the Chatam Sofer would render moot the concern of R. Henkin. Further, apparently the Chatam Sofer used local time and not Jerusalem time for determining the latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah). However, the moladot and tekufot can occur at any time of the day and several problems then arise by using Jerusalem time. For example, Tekufat Tishrei 5763 is calculated as 2d21h0p or 21h0p Jewish Equal Time of Yom Sheini, 1 Marcheshvan. We start requesting vten tal umatar 59 days later (the sixtieth day including the day of the tekufah) on the sixth night of Chanukah. It is already Yom Shlishi for a person in New York or Toronto when the tekufah occurs in Jerusalem. Yet that person using Jerusalem time in New York or Toronto would not start requesting vten tal umatar on the seventh night of Chanukah. With regard to birchat hachamah, the issue is not as problematical. Birchat hachamah is recited in Jerusalem on the morning after Tekufat Nissan, or about 15 hours after the tekufah. Even a person east of Jerusalem such as a chaplain in the DMZ in Korea would recite birchat

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hachamah after the tekufah, albeit before birchat hachamah is recited in Jerusalem. A person sufficiently west of Jerusalem would recite birchat hachamah when it is already the next day in Jerusalem. Further, the Yabia Omer 8:42 cites an opinion that the latest time to recite birchat kiddush levanah is dependent on the calendar day of the month rather than the time of the previous molad. Astronomical reality, that is to say the passing of the full moon, is not the determining factor. Rather, the upper moon (halevanah haelyonah) is not diminished until the 16th of the month. The latest time for reciting birchat kiddush levanah would therefore be dependent on local time just as the calendar is determined by local time. For a person outside of Jerusalem, practicing shimur at the moments of the tekufot in Jerusalem may be counter to the intention of Chazal: The Tzemach Tzedek essentially says that the times of danger are dependent on our calculated times, not on astronomical reality. When discussing the appropriate times for shimur, we do not find the Maharil, the Levush, or the Tosefot Yom Tov concerned with converting Jerusalem time to local time. Just as we use local time in determining appropriate times for reciting prayers such as Tikun chatzot, selichot, and tachanun, so too the times of day that the seven heavenly bodies are in ascendancy are probably stated using local time. For example, Mars is in ascendancy for one hour from 0h0p Jewish Equal Time at the start of Shabbat. This is probably true of the first hour of Shabbat for any person in any location. Just as a person in New York or Toronto does not recite Tikun chatzot at the same instant as a person in Jerusalem and just as Shabbat does not begin at the same instant in Jerusalem as in New York or Toronto, so too is Mars probably not considered to be in ascendancy at the same instant for a person in New York or Toronto as for a person in Jerusalem. Similarly, in YD 179:2 the Mechaber cites a custom not to begin a new undertaking on Mondays or Wednesdays due to the mazalot of those days. There is no indication that one relies on Jerusalem time for this consideration. According to Sod HaIbbur 3 by the Tifereth Yisrael, the molad is calculated in Jerusalem time zecher lamikdash even though the molad is seen at different times around the world depending on the observers location. The Sod HaIbbur 30 makes a similar point regarding the

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tekufah. The Sod HaIbbur makes the point that the new moon is not seen around the world at the moment the new moon is seen in Jerusalem. If we were to use Jerusalem time for the moladot, the time difference between the molad and the start of Rosh Chodesh would no longer be within the time frame of the time difference in Jerusalem. For example, Molad Tammuz, 5764 is at 6d5h68p or during the night of Yom Shishi, 29 Sivan. However, if the molad were to be announced in New York or Toronto as seven hours earlier, then the molad would be announced as being at the end of Yom Chamishi even though 1 Tammuz remains on the following Sunday. Similarly, if one were to fast on Yom Kippur Katan, then al pi kabbalah someone in New York or Toronto would have to conclude their fast while it is still Yom Chamishi whereas someone in Jerusalem would be able to fast the entire Yom Chamishi. A similar situation arises for someone who does not recite Tikun Rachel as part of Tikun Chatzot past the molad a person in New York or Toronto would need to say Tikun Leah while a person in Jerusalem could say Tikun Rachel on the same night, albeit seven hours earlier. Perhaps one could go so far as to say that chadash can be eaten once a particular event has occurred in Jerusalem and the latest time of this event is known with certainty. On the other hand, the times of the moladot and tekufot are approximations and are somewhat inaccurate to begin with. There may therefore not be a need to define to the moment the times of these events in Jerusalem. Using the calculations to the best of our ability relative to local time may be sufficient. This may also explain the opinion of those who set 0h0p as nightfall such as the Pri Chadash rather than six hours after chatzot. Again, the times are approximations to begin with and therefore there may not be a need to calculate 0h0p as six hours past chatzot. 0h0p as nightfall might be sufficient. The Maharil Siman 155 is unsure whether one should be stringent with respect to reciting birchat kiddush levanah according to both our calculations as transmitted by Chazal and astronomical reality. However, the Maharil is probably referring to the problem of the occurrence of an early lunar eclipse and is not concerned with the moment of the molad in Jerusalem stated in local time. After all, although by the time of Tosefot Yom Tov in the 17th century one could

104

accurately know ones longitude, in the time of the Maharil in the 15th century ones longitude was not as easily determined nor as widely known. The matter of lunar eclipses also raises an interesting issue. The essential argument of R. Henkin is that the molad is a global event and the time of the molad in Jerusalem is the time of the molad anywhere. Therefore once the midpoint between moladot occurs according to Jerusalem time, birchat kiddush levanah can no longer be said anywhere. By extension, perhaps once a lunar eclipse were to occur over Jerusalem, birchat kiddush levanah might no longer be able to be recited anywhere. As well, once a lunar eclipse were to occur over North America, even though it would not be visible over Israel, perhaps birchat kiddush levanah might no longer be able to be recited in Jerusalem. For example, the latest time to recite birchat kiddush levanah following Molad Marcheshvan, 5764 was at 1d17h600.5p or just before midday of Yom Rishon, 14 Marcheshvan. Since birchat kiddush levanah should only be recited at night, someone in Jerusalem should be able to recite birchat kiddush levanah all Saturday night until dawn. However, a molad is a molad everywhere so by the same token mid-molad is mid-molad everywhere. The complete lunar eclipse at 8:18 PM EST on Saturday night, November 8, 2003 in North America should preclude anyone in Jerusalem from reciting birchat kiddush levanah past 3:18 AM IST early Sunday morning. It could be argued that Chazal meant these laws to be easily followed. Chazal meant for us to look up at the sky. Nowhere are we expected to be scientists, astronomers or chrononomers. In Jewish Chrononomy by Leo Levi there is letter of approbation (haskamah) by R. Henkin who states that we should not be too clever the dinim were not given according to the wisdom of physics. The implication is that the average person should be able to learn Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh, look up at the sky, see the moon before it is full and recite birchat kiddush levanah or see the sun on a Wednesday morning at the rosh machzor gadol recite birchat hachamah baasher hu sham wherever he may be - without worrying about what time it is in Jerusalem. In general, we do not follow Jerusalem time but rather local time. The Aruch HaShulchan OC 58:17 comments bchol moshvoteychem.

105

The thrust of the ShaCh to YD 189:13 is that the essential times are based on our terrestrial clock wherever one may be and not on a universal or primordial clock or calendar. It could further be argued that the times for the moladot and tekufot are not astronomically correct and Chazal knew this to be true. These figures are used for determining the calendar but the difference between these figures and astronomical reality are not a concern. However, this error implies that the calculations for the moladot are not related to astronomical reality and therefore neither a true molad nor an astronomical lunar conjunction necessarily occur at the time of the calculated average molad using Jerusalem time. Even the molad of 29d12h793 which closely approximates the moons synodical period and even Tekufat Adda of 365d5h997 48/76p which closely approximates the earths tropical year, are given as fixed figures even though Chazal knew the moons synodical period and the lengths of the seasons to be variable. Chazal had their own considerations in divulging these figures. For a person outside of Jerusalem, reciting birchat kiddush levanah until the moment between the moladot in Jerusalem or shimur at the moment of the tekufot in Jerusalem may be counter to the intention of Chazal. That being said, one can not simply dismiss any attempt at a conversion between Jewish Equal Time and Standard time since many practices require action or inaction at particular times of the day as given in Jewish Equal Time. The moladot and tekufot may or may not have been stated using Jerusalem time (nor the time at the tabbur olam) and may or may not correspond to an actual time on ones watch. Were that the case, 0h0p as six hours after chatzot in ones particular location may have been the intent of Chazal. The moladot, tekufot, and ascension of the seven heavenly bodies are all linked. It would be difficult to justify selectively using Jerusalem time for some of the calculations only. As with any halachah if one were to avoid saying birchat kiddush levanah past the midpoint of the moladot in Jerusalem, one should be aware of the source and reasoning of this ruling and whether one is accepting a chumra upon oneself or is complying with an essential aspect of this mitzvah derabbanan. In any event, the Chatam Sofer in Responsum OC 102 only considered local time and not Jerusalem time when ruling regarding the latest time to recite birchat kiddush levanah.

106

Similarly, the Tzemach Tzedek Responsum 14 only considered local time regarding the moments of the tekufot. As well, there is no indication that the gemaras discussion in Shabbat 129b regarding inauspicious times for blood letting, which are related to the seven heavenly bodies, assumes any conversion from Jerusalem time to local time. Nor does the Maharil Responsa 19, 152 or 163 give any indication that one must convert from Jerusalem time to local time with regard to the moladot, tekufot, or seven heavenly bodies.

107

Conclusion The molad is calculated to occur at a certain time of the Jewish calendar day that begins at some time in the evening. Some contemporary poskim posit that the time of the molad is a certain number of equal 60-minute hours (and chalakim) from 6 hours after mean solar noon in Jerusalem (5:39 PM IST). The molad occurs at this moment regardless of ones location. Therefore, for example, Molad Marcheshvan, 5765, which occurs at 8h0p of Yom Chamishi, 29 Tishrei, 5764, would be said to occur at 1:39 AM IST, early Thursday morning, 14 October 2004 on the day before Rosh Chodesh Marcheshvan. The molad occurs simultaneously for those in the Eastern Time zone but while it is still Wednesday, October 13, 2004 at 6:39 PM EST or at 7:39 PM EDT. This method of converting the calculated times of the moladot to Standard Time is predicated on a number of assumptions: 1. The molad calculations use uniform, equal 60-minute hours and not shaot zemaniyot. 2. The moladot are calculated from 6 hours past mean solar noon in Jerusalem as opposed to from a variable chatzot (astronomical noon) of the previous day. 3. The moladot are calculated from 6 hours past mean solar noon as opposed to from sunset or nightfall. 4. The moladot are not calculated from 6 hours past chatzot, nor from sunset or nightfall of the day in question. 5. The moladot are not calculated from 6 hours past chatzot nor from sunset or nightfall of the autumn or spring equinoxes nor of the day of the first Molad BaHaRaD nor of the day of the first actual molad when Adam was created. 6. The moladot are calculated along the longitude of Jerusalem as opposed to the longitude of the tabbur olam or any other longitude. 7. The moladot are given in Jerusalem time and therefore one needs to convert to local time to determine the times of the moladot.

108

It would appear as if some poskim considered the moladot were calculated either from 6 hours past a variable chatzot of the previous day or from sunset or nightfall. As well, for practical purposes, the moladot were considered to occur as if calculated using local time. It would appear as if traditionally the times of the moladot were not converted from Jerusalem time to local time for purposes of determining the earliest and latest times to recite birchat kiddush levanah. However, many contemporary and recent poskim hold that the moladot are calculated from mean solar noon in Jerusalem. Refraining from reciting birchat kiddush levanah once the berachah can no longer be recited in Jerusalem is consistent with the definition of the molad but nonetheless may be a chumra and not an essential aspect of the mitzvah derabbanan. Even though one may apply the verses of Hashem protects the simple (Tehillim 116:6) or Whoever keeps the commandment shall feel no evil thing (Koheleth 8:5) or the aphorism, These and these are the words of the living E-lokim, when announcing the molad on Shabbat Mevarchim, one should be aware of the meaning of what is being announced.

109

Appendix: The Keviot, Moladot and Tekufot of Select Years 1 2 3 2448 2449 4682 4938 5069 5605 5763-5765 Shenat Tohu Year of Adams Birth First Leap Year Yetziat Mitzrayim 2448 Years from Adams Birth Year of Calendar Controversy of R. Saadiah Gaon Ikkar year in Rambams Hilchot Kiddush HaChodesh Example in Yesod Olam Example in Sod HaIbbur by the Tifereth Yisrael Machzor Gadol Lachamah Cycle 206

110

1
civil date 3761 BCE 3760 BCE

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Sheini kevia: shelemah (355) Pesach: Yom Chamishi 7 year cycle: 1/7 ma'aser sheni 19 year cycle: 1:1/19 28 year cycle: 1:1/28 Birchat HaChamah All double parshiot are combined. in Israel, Naso on 7 Sivan and Chukat and Balak are separate

Molad simple Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] day Yom Sheini hour 5 17 6 19 8 20 9 22 11 23 12 1 parts 204 997 710 423 136 929 642 355 68 861 574 287 minutes 11 55 39 23 7 51 35 19 3 47 31 15

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 6 7 8 Yom Sheini Yom Revii Yom Shishi

hour 23 12 1 13 2 15 3 16 5 18 6 19

parts 600.5 313.5 26.5 819.5 532.5 245.5 1038.5 751.5 464.5 177.5 970.5 683.5

minutes 33 17 1 45 29 13 57 41 25 9 53 37

parts 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5

Marcheshvan (30) [Akrav] Yom Shelishi Kislev (30) [Keshet] Tevet (29) [Gedi] Shevat (30) [Dli] Adar (29) [Dagim] Nissan (30) [Tleh] Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

9 Yom Shabbat 10 Yom Sheini

11 Yom Shelishi 12 13 14 15 16 17 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii Yom Chamishi

Yom Chamishi Sivan (30) [Teomim] Yom Shabbat Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Rishon

Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Shelishi Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Chamishi

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tishrei -12

9 -20 16 -2 0 -9 7 -16

0 -204 540 -963 0 -642 540 -321

Start Tal U'Matar Thursda y night

Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz -10 Yom Revii -7 Yom Revii -4

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

7 0

0 -9

0.00 -642.00

111

2
civil date 3760 BCE 3759 BCE

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Shabbat kevia: shelemah (355) Pesach: Yom Shelishi 7 year cycle: 2/7 ma'aser sheni 19 year cycle: 1:2/19 28 year cycle: 1:2/28

All double parshiot are combined except Chukat and Balak.

Molad simple Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Marcheshvan (30) [Akrav] Kislev (30) [Keshet] Tevet (29) [Gedi] day Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii hour 14 2 15 4 16 5 18 7 19 8 21 10 parts 0 793 506 219 1012 725 438 151 944 657 370 83 minutes 0 44 28 12 56 40 24 8 52 36 20 4

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 0 Yom Shabbat 1 Yom Rishon

hour 8 21 9 22 11 0 12 1 14 2 15 4

parts 396.5 109.5 902.5 615.5 328.5 41.5 834.5 547.5 260.5 1053.5 766.5 479.5

minutes 22 6 50 34 18 2 46 30 14 58 42 26

parts 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5

2 Yom Shelishi 3 4 5 6 7 8 Yom Revii Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

Yom Shevat (30) [Dli] Chamishi Adar (29) [Dagim] Yom Shabbat Nissan (30) [Tleh] Yom Rishon

Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Shelishi Sivan (30) [Teomim] Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Yom Chamishi 9 Yom Shabbat 10 Yom Rishon

Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Shabbat Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Sheini

11 Yom Shelishi

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz

Yom Revii -1 Yom Revii 0 Yom Chamishi 3 Yom Chamishi 6

15 -23 22 18 6 11 13 4

0 0 540 321 0 642 540 963

Start Tal U'Matar Friday night

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

6 10

23 11

997.63 559.63

112

3
civil date 3759 BCE 3758 BCE

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Chamishi kevia: chaserah (383) Pesach: Yom Rishon 7 year cycle: 3/7 ma'aser ani 19 year cycle: 1:3/19 28 year cycle: 1:3/28

All double parshiot are separate.

Molad leap day hour 22 11 0 13 1 14 3 15 4 17 6 18 7 parts 876 589 302 15 808 521 234 1027 740 453 166 959 672 minutes 48 32 16 0 44 28 13 57 41 25 9 53 37

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 12 13 Yom Revii Yom Shishi

hour 17 5 18 7 20 8 21 10 23 11 0 13 1

parts 192.5 985.5 698.5 411.5 124.5 917.5 630.5 343.5 56.5 849.5 562.5 275.5 1068.5

minutes 10 54 38 22 6 50 35 19 3 47 31 15 59

parts 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5

Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Yom Shelishi Marcheshvan (29) [Akrav] Yom Chamishi Kislev (29) [Keshet] Yom Shabbat Tevet (29) [Gedi] Yom Rishon

14 Yom Shabbat 15 Yom Sheini

Shevat (30) [Dli] Yom Shelishi Adar I (30) [Dagim] Adar II (29) [Dagim] Yom Revii Yom Shishi

16 Yom Shelishi 17 0 1 2 3 4 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Nissan (30) [Tleh] Yom Shabbat Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Sheini

Sivan (30) [Teomim] Yom Shelishi Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Av (30) [Aryeh] Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon

5 Yom Shabbat 6 Yom Sheini

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz

Yom Chamishi 8 Yom Shishi 11 Yom Shishi -15 Yom Shishi -12

21 22 4 15 12 -3 19 -10

0 204 540 525 0 -1027 540 -706

Start Tal U'Matar Saturday night

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

6 -8

23 -4

915.26 -111.74

113

2448
civil date 1314 BCE 1313 BCE

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Shabbat kevia: shelemah (355) Pesach: Yom Shelishi 7 year cycle: 5/7 ma'aser sheni 19 year cycle: 129:16/19 28 year cycle: 88:12/28

All double parshiot are combined except Chukat and Balak.

Molad simple Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Marcheshvan (30) [Akrav] Kislev (30) [Keshet] Tevet (29) [Gedi] Shevat (30) [Dli] day Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii hour 15 4 17 5 18 7 19 8 21 10 22 11 parts 589 302 15 808 521 234 1027 740 453 166 959 672 minutes 32 16 0 44 28 13 57 41 25 9 53 37

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 13 Yom Shabbat 14 Yom Rishon

hour 9 22 11 0 12 1 14 3 15 4 17 5

parts 985.5 698.5 411.5 124.5 917.5 630.5 343.5 56.5 849.5 562.5 275.5 1068.5

minutes 54 38 22 6 50 35 19 3 47 31 15 59

parts 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5

15 Yom Shelishi 16 17 0 1 2 3 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

Yom Chamishi Adar (29) [Dagim] Yom Shabbat Nissan (30) [Tleh] Yom Rishon

Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Shelishi Sivan (30) [Teomim] Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Yom Chamishi 4 Yom Shabbat 5 Yom Rishon

Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Shabbat Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Sheini

6 Yom Shelishi

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tishrei 10

3 11 10 4 18 22 1 15

0 491 540 812 0 53 540 374

Start Tal U'Matar Thursda y night

Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tevet 13

Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz 15 Yom Revii 18

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

0 15

-18 3

-675.53 457.47

114

2449
civil date 1313 BCE 1312 BCE

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Chamishi kevia: chaserah (383) Pesach: Yom Rishon 7 year cycle: 6/7 ma'aser ani 19 year cycle: 129:17/19 28 year cycle: 88:13/28

All double parshiot are separate.

Molad leap Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Marcheshvan (29) [Akrav] day Yom Revii hour 0 13 1 14 3 16 4 17 6 18 7 20 9 parts 385 98 891 604 317 30 823 536 249 1042 755 468 181 minutes 21 5 49 33 17 1 45 29 13 57 41 26 10

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 7 8 Yom Revii Yom Shishi

hour 18 7 20 8 21 10 23 11 0 13 2 14 3

parts 781.5 494.5 207.5 1000.5 713.5 426.5 139.5 932.5 645.5 358.5 71.5 864.5 577.5

minutes 43 27 11 55 39 23 7 51 35 19 3 48 32

parts 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 0.5 1.5

Yom Chamishi Kislev (29) [Keshet] Yom Shabbat Tevet (29) [Gedi] Yom Rishon

9 Yom Shabbat 10 Yom Sheini

Shevat (30) [Dli] Yom Shelishi Adar I (30) [Dagim] Adar II (29) [Dagim] Yom Revii Yom Shishi

11 Yom Shelishi 12 13 14 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon

Nissan (30) [Tleh] Yom Shabbat Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Sheini

15 Yom Shelishi 16 17 Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Sivan (30) [Teomim] Yom Shelishi Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Av (30) [Aryeh] Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon

0 Yom Shabbat 1 Yom Sheini

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz

Yom Revii 21 Yom Revii 24 Yom Chamishi -2 Yom Chamishi 0

9 8 16 1 0 -17 7 0

0 695 540 1016 0 -536 540 -215

Start Tal U'Matar Friday night

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

0 -3

-18 -12

-757.89 -213.89

115

4682
civil date 921 922

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Chamishi kevia: shelemah (385) Pesach: Yom Shelishi 7 year cycle: 6/7 ma'aser ani 19 year cycle: 247:8/19 28 year cycle: 168:6/28

All double parshiot are separate except Nitzavim-Vayelech.

Molad leap Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Marcheshvan (30) [Akrav] day Yom Revii Yom Shishi hour 11 0 13 2 14 3 16 5 17 6 19 7 20 parts 932 645 358 71 864 577 290 3 796 509 222 1015 728 minutes 51 35 19 3 48 32 16 0 44 28 12 56 40

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 14 15 16 17 0 1 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

hour 6 18 7 20 9 21 10 23 12 0 13 2 15

parts 248.5 1041.5 754.5 467.5 180.5 973.5 686.5 399.5 112.5 905.5 618.5 331.5 44.5

minutes 13 57 41 25 10 54 38 22 6 50 34 18 2

parts 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5

Kislev (30) [Keshet] Yom Shabbat Tevet (29) [Gedi] Yom Sheini

Shevat (30) [Dli] Yom Shelishi Adar I (30) [Dagim] Adar II (29) [Dagim] Nissan (30) [Tleh] Iyyar (29) [Shor] Sivan (30) [Teomim] Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

Yom Chamishi 2 Yom Shabbat 3 Yom Rishon

4 Yom Shelishi 5 6 7 8 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini

Yom Chamishi Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Shabbat Yom Rishon

Elul (29) [Betulah]

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei

Yom Sheini 19

15 3

0 148

Start Tal U'Matar Wednes day night

Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet

Yom Sheini 21

22 20 6 -23 13 -5

540 469 0 -3 540 -762

Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Nissan -4

Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tammuz -2

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

-7 -12

-21 -20

-6.58 -9.58

116

4938
civil date 1177 1178

Rosh HaShanah: Yom Shabbat kevia: chaserah (383) Pesach: Yom Shelishi 7 year cycle: 3/7 ma'aser ani 19 year cycle: 260:17/19 28 year cycle: 177:10/28

All double parshiot are separate except Matot-Masei and NitzavimVayelech.

Molad leap Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Marcheshvan (29) [Akrav] Kislev (29) [Keshet] Tevet (29) [Gedi] day Yom Shishi Yom Shabbat Yom Sheini Yom Shelishi hour 8 21 9 22 11 0 12 1 14 3 15 4 17 parts minutes 570 283 1076 789 502 215 1008 721 434 147 940 653 366 31 15 59 43 27 11 56 40 24 8 52 36 20 parts 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 1

End Kiddush Levanah day Yom Shabbat Yom Rishon Yom Shelishi Yom Revii Yom Shishi Yom Shabbat Yom Sheini Yom Shelishi

hour 2 15 4 17 5 18 7 20 8 21 10 22 11

parts minutes 966.5 679.5 392.5 105.5 898.5 611.5 324.5 37.5 830.5 543.5 256.5 1049.5 762.5 53 37 21 5 49 33 18 2 46 30 14 58 42

parts 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5

Shevat (30) [Dli] Yom Chamishi Adar I (30) [Dagim] Adar II (29) [Dagim] Nissan (30) [Tleh] Iyyar (29) [Shor] Sivan (30) [Teomim] Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Av (30) [Aryeh] Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Shabbat Yom Rishon Yom Shelishi Yom Revii Yom Shishi Yom Shabbat Yom Sheini Yom Shelishi

2 Yom Chamishi 3 4 5 6 Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz

Yom Shabbat 29 Yom Shabbat 31 Yom Rishon 5 Yom Rishon 7

15 6 22 23 6 4 13 21

0 510 540 831 0 359 540 680

Start Tal U'Matar Monday night

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

-8 -3

-16 -12

-572.89 -213.89

117

5069
civil date 1308 1309

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Sheini kevia: shelemah (355) Pesach: Yom Chamishi 7 year cycle: 1/7 ma'aser sheni 19 year cycle: 267:15/19 28 year cycle: 182:1/28 Birchat HaChamah All double parshiot are combined. in Israel, Naso on 7 Sivan and Chukat and Balak are separate

Molad simple Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] day Yom Sheini hour 10 23 12 0 13 2 15 3 16 5 18 6 parts 823 536 249 1042 755 468 181 974 687 400 113 906 minutes 45 29 13 57 41 26 10 54 38 22 6 50

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 13 Yom Shelishi 14 15 Yom Revii Yom Shishi

hour 5 17 6 19 8 20 9 22 11 23 12 1

parts 139.5 932.5 645.5 358.5 71.5 864.5 577.5 290.5 3.5 796.5 509.5 222.5

minutes 7 51 35 19 3 48 32 16 0 44 28 12

parts 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5

Marcheshvan (30) [Akrav] Yom Shelishi Kislev (30) [Keshet] Yom Chamishi Tevet (29) [Gedi] Yom Shabbat Shevat (30) [Dli] Yom Rishon

16 Yom Shabbat 17 Yom Sheini

Adar (29) [Dagim] Yom Shelishi Nissan (30) [Tleh] Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Revii Yom Shishi

0 Yom Shelishi 1 2 3 4 5 6 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Sivan (30) [Teomim] Yom Shabbat Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Sheini

Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Shelishi Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Chamishi

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tishrei 7

9 22 16 15 0 8 7 2

0 257 540 578 0 899 540 140

Start Tal U'Matar Thursda y night

Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz 10 Yom Revii 13 Yom Revii 16

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

-9 4

-2 6

-563.16 335.84

118

5605
civil date 1844 1845

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Shabbat kevia: chaserah (383) Pesach: Yom Shelishi 7 year cycle: 5/7 ma'aser sheni 19 year cycle: 295:19/19 28 year cycle: 201:5/28

All double parshiot are separate except Matot-Masei and NitzavimVayelech.

Molad leap day hour 18 6 19 8 21 9 22 11 0 12 1 14 2 parts 180 973 686 399 112 905 618 331 44 837 550 263 1056 minutes 10 54 38 22 6 50 34 18 2 46 30 14 58 parts 0 1 2 3 4

End Kiddush Levanah day Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

hour 12 1 14 2 15 4 16 5 18 7 19 8 21

parts 576.5 289.5 2.5 795.5 508.5 221.5 1014.5 727.5 440.5 153.5 946.5 659.5 372.5

minutes 32 16 0 44 28 12 56 40 24 8 52 36 20

parts 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5

Yom Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Chamishi Marcheshvan (29) [Akrav] Yom Shabbat Kislev (29) [Keshet] Yom Rishon

Tevet (29) [Gedi] Yom Shelishi Shevat (30) [Dli] Adar I (30) [Dagim] Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Yom Chamishi 5 Yom Shabbat 6 Yom Rishon

Adar II (29) [Dagim] Yom Shabbat Nissan (30) [Tleh] Iyyar (29) [Shor] Sivan (30) [Teomim] Yom Sheini Yom Revii

7 Yom Shelishi 8 9 Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Yom Chamishi Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Shabbat Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Rishon

10 Yom Shabbat 11 Yom Sheini

Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Shelishi

12 Yom Shelishi

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz

Yom Rishon 23 Yom Rishon 26 Yom Sheini 0 Yom Sheini 2

9 14 16 8 0 -11 7 5

0 900 540 141 0 -331 540 1070

Start Tal U'Matar Tuesday night

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

-10 -11

-19 -6

-432.63 -763.63

119

5763
civil date 2002 2003

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Shabbat kevia: shelemah (385) Pesach: Yom Chamishi 7 year cycle: 2/7 ma'aser sheni 19 year cycle: 304:6/19 28 year cycle: 206:23/28

All double parshiot are separate except Chukat-Balak and MatotMasei and Nitzavim-Vayelech. In Israel, Naso on 7 Sivan and Chukat and Balak are separate.

Molad leap day hour 12 1 14 3 15 4 17 6 18 7 20 8 21 parts 982 695 408 121 914 627 340 53 846 559 272 1065 778 minutes 54 38 22 6 50 34 18 2 47 31 15 59 43 parts 10 11 12 13

End Kiddush Levanah day Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

hour 7 20 8 21 10 22 11 0 13 1 14 3 16

parts 298.5 11.5 804.5 517.5 230.5 1023.5 736.5 449.5 162.5 955.5 668.5 381.5 94.5

minutes 16 0 44 28 12 56 40 24 9 53 37 21 5

parts 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5

Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Yom Shabbat Marcheshvan (30) [Akrav] Yom Sheini

Kislev (30) [Keshet] Yom Shelishi Tevet (29) [Gedi] Shevat (30) [Dli] Adar I (30) [Dagim] Adar II (29) [Dagim] Nissan (30) [Tleh] Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

Yom Chamishi 14 Yom Shabbat 15 Yom Rishon

16 Yom Shelishi 17 0 1 2 3 4 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii Yom Chamishi

Yom Chamishi Yom Shabbat Sivan (30) [Teomim] Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Rishon

Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Shelishi Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Revii

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei

Yom Sheini 30

21 8

0 98

Start Tal U'Matar Wednes day night

Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tevet 33

4 1 12 5 19 23

540 419 0 1027 540 268

Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Nissan 6

Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) Yom Shelishi after molad Tammuz 8

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

-11 -5

-7 -1

-486.84 -539.84

120

5764
civil date 2003 2004

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Shabbat kevia: shelemah (355) Pesach: Yom Shelishi 7 year cycle: 3/7 ma'aser ani 19 year cycle: 304:7/19 28 year cycle: 206:24/28

All double parshiot are combined except Chukat and Balak.

Molad simple Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] day Yom Shishi hour 10 23 11 0 13 2 14 3 16 5 17 6 parts 491 204 997 710 423 136 929 642 355 68 861 574 minutes 27 11 55 39 23 7 51 35 19 3 47 31

End Kiddush Levanah parts day 5 Yom Shabbat 6 Yom Rishon

hour 4 17 6 19 7 20 9 21 10 23 12 0

parts 887.5 600.5 313.5 26.5 819.5 532.5 245.5 1038.5 751.5 464.5 177.5 970.5

minutes 49 33 17 1 45 29 13 57 41 25 9 53

parts 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5

Marcheshvan (30) [Akrav] Yom Shabbat Kislev (30) [Keshet] Tevet (29) [Gedi] Yom Sheini Yom Revii

7 Yom Shelishi 8 9 Yom Revii Yom Shishi

Yom Shevat (30) [Dli] Chamishi Adar (29) [Dagim] Yom Shabbat Nissan (30) [Tleh] Yom Rishon

10 Yom Shabbat 11 Yom Sheini

Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Shelishi Sivan (30) [Teomim] Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Yom Revii Yom Shishi

12 Yom Shelishi 13 14 15 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon

Av (30) [Aryeh] Yom Shabbat Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Sheini

16 Yom Shelishi

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz

Yom Revii 11 Yom Revii 14 Yom Revii 17 Yom Chamishi 19

3 16 10 9 18 3 1 20

0 589 540 910 0 151 540 472

Start Tal U'Matar Friday night

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

-11 5

-7 19

-569.21 661.79

121

5765
civil date 2004 2005

Rosh HaShanah : Yom Chamishi kevia: chaserah (383) Pesach: Yom Rishon 7 year cycle: 4/7 ma'aser sheni, biur Erev Pesach 19 year cycle: 304:8/19 28 year cycle: 206:25/28

All double parshiot are separate.

Molad leap day hour 19 8 20 9 22 10 23 12 1 13 2 15 4 parts 287 0 793 506 219 1012 725 438 151 944 657 370 83 minutes 15 0 44 28 12 56 40 24 8 52 36 20 4 parts 17 0

End Kiddush Levanah day Yom Revii Yom Shishi

hour 13 2 15 3 16 5 18 6 19 8 20 9 22

parts 683.5 396.5 109.5 902.5 615.5 328.5 41.5 834.5 547.5 260.5 1053.5 766.5 479.5

minutes 37 22 6 50 34 18 2 46 30 14 58 42 26

parts 17.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5

Tishrei (30) [Moznayim] Yom Shelishi Marcheshvan (29) [Akrav] Kislev (29) [Keshet] Tevet (29) [Gedi] Shevat (30) [Dli] Adar I (30) [Dagim] Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

1 Yom Shabbat 2 Yom Sheini

3 Yom Shelishi 4 5 6 7 8 Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon Yom Sheini Yom Revii

Yom Adar II (29) [Dagim] Chamishi Nissan (30) [Tleh] Yom Shabbat Iyyar (29) [Shor] Yom Sheini

Sivan (30) [Teomim] Yom Shelishi Tammuz (29) [Sartan] Av (30) [Aryeh] Elul (29) [Betulah] Yom Chamishi Yom Shishi Yom Rishon

9 Yom Chamishi 10 Yom Shabbat 11 Yom Rishon

Tekufat Tishrei (Shmuel) after molad Tishrei Tekufat Tevet (Shmuel) after molad Tevet Tekufat Nissan (Shmuel) after molad Nissan Tekufat Tammuz (Shmuel) after molad Tammuz

Yom Chamishi 22 Yom Chamishi 25 Yom Shishi -1 Yom Shishi 1

9 13 16 7 0 -12 7 4

0 793 540 34 0 -438 540 963

Start Tal U'Matar Saturday night

Tekufat Nissan Adda after Shmuel Tekufat Nissa Adda after Molad Nissan

-11 -12

-7 -20

-651.58 -9.58

122