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Mobile users continue to demand higher data rates. With the continued growth in cellular services, laptop computer use and the Internet, wireless network providers are beginning to pay an increasing amount of attention to packet data networks. Enhanced Global acket !adio "ervice #EG !"$ offers a substantial improvement in performance and capacity over e%isting G !" services, in return for a relatively minimal additional investment. primarily by implementing changes to the EG !", commonly called E&GE, achieves these enhancements to the G !" system hysical layer and to the Medium +he significant 'ccess (ontrol)!adio *ink (ontrol #M'()!*($ layer.

improvements are a new modulation techni,ue, additional modulation coding schemes, a combined *ink 'daptation and Incremental !edundancy techni,ue, re-segmentation of erroneously received packets, and a larger transmission window si.e.

E&GE is the ne%t step in the evolution of G"M and I"- /01. +he ob2ective of the new technology is to increase data transmission rates and spectrum efficiency and to facilitate new applications and increased capacity for mobile use. With the introduction of E&GE in G"M phase 34, e%isting services such as G !" and high-speed circuit switched data #5"("&$ are enhanced by offering a new physical layer. +he services themselves are not modified. E&GE is introduced within e%isting specifications and descriptions rather than by creating new ones. +his paper focuses on the packet-switched enhancement for G !", called EG !". G !" allows data rates of //6 kbps and, theoretically, of up to /17 kbps on the physical layer. EG !" is capable of offering data rates of 089 kbps and, theoretically, of up to 9:0.1 kbps. ' new modulation techni,ue and error-tolerant transmission methods, combined with improved link adaptation mechanisms, make these EG !" rates possible. +his is the key to increased spectrum efficiency and enhanced applications, such as wireless Internet access, e-mail and file transfers. G !")EG !" will be one of the pacesetters in the overall wireless technology evolution in con2unction with W(&M'. 5igher transmission rates for specific radio resources enhance capacity by enabling more traffic for both circuit- and packet-switched services. 's the +hird-generation artnership ro2ect #0G $ continues standardi.ation toward the G"M)E&GE radio access network #GE!';$, GE!'; will be able to offer the same services as W(&M' by connecting to the same core network. +his is done in parallel with means to


Many new protocols and new nodes have been introduced to make this possible. both for real-time and best-effort services. EG !" offers significantly higher throughput and capacity. +he goal is to boost system capacity. and to compete effectively with other thirdgeneration radio access networks such as W(&M' and cdma3777.ue and new channel coding that can be used to transmit both packet-switched and circuit-switched voice and data services. G !" has a greater impact on the G"M system than E&GE has. 0 .org increase the spectral efficiency.Uandistar. G !" has introduced packet-switched data into G"M networks. <y adding the new modulation and coding to G !" and by making ad2ustments to the radio link protocols. Technical differences between GPRS and EGPRS Introduction !egarded as a subsystem within the G"M standard. E&GE only introduces a new modulation techni. E&GE is therefore an add-on to G !" and cannot work alone. E&GE is a method to increase the data rates on the radio link for G"M. <asically.www.

+his decreases the number of radio resources re. the same time slot can support more users. thus freeing up capacity for more data or voice services. therefore. E&GE makes it easier for circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic to coe%ist .org =ig /> G !" and EG !" have different protocols and different behavior on the base station system side. !euse of the e%isting G !" core infrastructure #serving G! " support node)gateway G !" support node$ emphasi. G !" and EG !" share the same packet-handling protocols and. EDGE technology E&GE leverages the knowledge gained through use of the e%isting G !" standard to deliver significant technical improvements.Uandistar. on the core network side. 5owever. 9 .uired to support the same traffic. With E&GE. In addition to enhancing the throughput for each data user. E&GE may also be seen as a capacity booster for the data traffic.while making more efficient use of the same radio the fact that EG !" is only an ?add-on@ to the base station system and is therefore much easier to introduce than G !" #=igure /$. behave in the same way. +hus in tightly planned networks with limited spectrum.www. E&GE also increases capacity.

the modulation bit rate differs. each shift in the phase represents one bit. +ransmitting a . +his 089 kbps data rate corresponds to 98 kbps per time slot.www. assuming an eighttime slot terminal. 'lthough G !" and E&GE share the same symbol Fig 2 =igure 3 compares the basic technical data of G !" and E&GE. EDGE Modulation Technique +he modulation type that is used in G"M is the Gaussian minimum shift keying #GM"A$. which is a kind of phase modulation.ero bit or one bit is then represented by changing the phase by increments of 4 C p. +hese different ways of calculating throughput often cause misunderstanding within the industry about actual throughput figures for G !" and EG !".ed in an I)B diagram that shows the real #I$ and imaginary#B$ components of the transmitted signal #=igure 0$. +he differences between the radio and user data rates are the result of whether or not the packet headers are taken into consideration. 6 . +his can be visuali. E&GE can transmit three times as many bits as G !" during the same period of time.Uandistar. Every symbol that is transmitted represents one bitD that is. +he data rate of 089 kbps is often used in relation to E&GE.uired for a service to fulfill the International Mobile +elecommunications-3777 #IM+-3777$ standard in a pedestrian environment. +his is the main reason for the higher E&GE bit rates. +he International +elecommunications Union #I+U$ has defined 089 kbps as the data rate limit re.

org +o achieve higher bit rates per time slot than those available in G"M)G !". 8-phase shift keying #8 "A$. the modulation method re. +his makes it possible to integrate E&GE channels into an e%isting fre. channel width.uency plan and to assign new E&GE channels in the same way as standard G"M channels. channel coding and the e%isting mechanisms and functionality of G !" and 5"("&.www.uirements. fulfills all of those re. 8 "A modulation has the same . or the number of symbols sent within a certain period of time. +he symbol rate. remains the same 1 . E&GE is specified to reuse Fig 3: the channel structure. +he 8 "A modulation method is a linear method in which three consecutive bits are mapped onto one symbol in the I)B plane.Uandistar.uires change.ualities in terms of generating interference on ad2acent channels as GM"A. +he modulation standard selected for E&GE.

four different coding schemes. but each symbol now represents three bits instead of one.correcting coding. Coding schemes =or G !". nine modulation coding schemes. <oth G !" ("/ to ("9 and EG !" M("/ to M("9 use GM"A modulation with slightly different M"(6 to M"(F$ use 8 "A modulation. +herefore the E&GE coding schemes are a mi%ture of both GM"A and 8 "A. whereas the upper five their ma%imum throughputs. +hese fulfill the same task as the G !" coding schemes. are defined. +he total data rate is therefore increased by a factor of as for GM"A. however. G !" user throughput reaches saturation at a ma%imum of 37 kbps with ("9. are introduced. Enly under very poor radio environments is GM"A more efficient.www. Each has different amounts of error-correcting coding that is optimi. Under good radio conditions. this does not matter. Under poor radio conditions.ed for different radio environments.3 kbps.Uandistar. designated M("/ through M("F. =igure 9 shows both G !" and EG !" coding schemes. +he ?e%tra@ bits will be used to add more error. whereas the EG !" bit rate continues to increase as the radio . until throughput reaches saturation at 6F. along with : . it does. +he distance between the different symbols is shorter using 8 "A modulation than when using GM"A.uality increases. "horter distances increase the risk for misinterpretation of the symbols because it is more difficult for the radio receiver to detect which symbol it has received. and the correct information can be recovered. =or EG !". +he lower four EG !" coding schemes #M"(/ to M"(9$ use GM"A. designated ("/ through ("9.

Packet handling 8 .e #and payload si. +his makes it possible to resegment EG !" packets.www.uires changes in the payload si.uires it. +his is due to differences in the header si. can be retransmitted with a lower coding scheme #more error correction$ if the new radio environment re. which is why EG !" and G !" do not have the same performance for the GM"Amodulated coding of the radio blocks.e$ of the EG !" throughput performances.Uandistar. ' packet sent with a higher coding scheme #less error correction$ that is not properly received. !esegmentation is not possible with G !". +his resegmenting #retransmitting with another coding scheme$ re.

www. the link adaptation algorithm in the base station controller decides to send the ne%t radio blocks #e.Uandistar.2 '. Ence packets have been sent. resegmentation is not possible. =ig> 9 'bove is an e%ample of packet transfer and retransmission for G !". 59. =or G !".g. &uring the transmission of these packages. +he G !" terminal receives data from the network on the downlink. they must be retransmitted using the original coding scheme even if the radio environment has changed. the network polls for a new F . &ue to a G !" measurement report that was previously received. the carrierto-interference ratio #()I$ decreases 'nother improvement that has been made to the EG !" standard is the ability to retransmit a packet that has not been decoded properly with a more robust coding scheme. +his has a significant impact on the throughput. 'fter the packets have been transmitted. numbers / to 9$ with ("0. as the algorithm decides the level of confidence with which the link adaptation #*'$ must work. changing the radio environment.

uality information. including the acknowledged)unacknowledged bitmap that tells the network which radio blocks were received measurement report.uence of radio blocks because resegmentation is possible. With EG !". it is assumed that packets 3 and 0 were sent erroneously. 5owever. although there is a significant risk that these packets still may not be decoded correctly. <ased on the new link . (. <. if re. +he G !" handset replies with a packet downlink acknowledged)unacknowledged message containing the information about he link . packets 3 and 0 must be retransmitted using ("0.Uandistar. the G !" link adaptation algorithm will adapt the coding scheme to the new radio environment using ("/ for the new packets 6 and 1. 's a result. ackets sent with little error protection can be retransmitted with more error protection. In this scenario.www.uality and the bitmap.uired by the new radio environment. the link adaptation for G !" re. +he rapidly changing radio environment has a much smaller effect on the problem of choosing the wrong coding scheme for the ne%t se. resegmentation is possible. Addressing window /7 . because G !" cannot resegment the old packets. the EG !" linkcontrolling algorithm can be very aggressive when selecting the modulation coding schemes. +herefore.uires careful selection of the coding scheme in order to avoid retransmissions as much as possible.

the addressing numbers have been increased to 3798 and the window has been increased to /739 in order to minimi. +he packets in G !" are numbered from / to /38. minimi. in turn.www.ueue. the packet sending process can run out of addresses after 19 packets.uence of coded radio link control packets or radio blocks can be transmitted over the Um #radio$ interface. 'fter transmission of a se. it may have the same number as a new packet in the . /7 packets$. the transmitter must address the packets with an identification number. If an erroneously decoded packet must be retransmitted. "ince the number of packets is limited to /38 and the addressing window is 19. In EG !" <efore a se. the transmitter asks the receiver to verify the correctness of the packets received in the form of an acknowledged)unacknowledged report..uence of packets #e. and all the packets belonging to the same lowlayer capability frame must be the risk for retransmitting low-layer capability frames and prevents decreased throughput // .e the risk for stalling. +his information is then included in the header of every packet. +his report informs the transmitter which packet or packets were not successfully decoded and must be retransmitted. +his. If so.Uandistar. the protocol between the terminal and the network stalls.

's a result. ' very accurate estimation of the <E is then possible to achieve. the time dispersion of the signal and the velocity of the terminal. +hese results are then filtered for all radio blocks sent within the measurement period. G !" measures the radio environment by analy. erforming these measurements takes time for a mobile station. +he channel analysis procedure that is used for G !" makes the selection of the right coding scheme difficult since measurements for interference are performed only during idle bursts. In a packet-switched environment. Estimated for every burst. bit error rate.uency hopping.uickly in order to adapt the coding toward the new environment. =or EG !".ing the channel for carrier strength. etc. which is of no concern in the speech world as the same coding is used all the time. the <E is a reflection of the current ()I. it is essential to analy.www. +his results in highly accurate measurements even /3 . the standard does not rely on the same ?slow@ measurement mechanism.e the radio link . measurements can only be performed twice during a 397-millisecond period. ' mean <E is calculated per radio block #four bursts$ as well as the variation #standard deviation of the <E estimation divided by the mean <E $ over the four of the terminal.Uandistar. Measurements are taken on each and every burst within the Fig :5 Measurement accuracy 's in the G"M environment.uali. +he variation of the <E value over several bursts will also provide additional information regarding velocity and fre. resulting in an estimate of the bit error probability #<E $.

the interleaving procedure has been changed within the EG !" standard. "hort measurement periods. each burst may e%perience a completely different interference environment. In the case of ("9 for G !". hardly any error protection. If 2ust one of the four bursts is not properly during short measurement periods.uick reaction to changes in the radio environment. in turn. <ecause a radio block is interleaved and transmitted over four bursts for G !". the radio environment is changing on a per-burst level. enable .Uandistar.uency hopping is used. It is therefore possible to achieve a better and more fle%ible link adaptation for EG !". When fre. Interleaving +o increase the performance of the higher coding schemes in EG !" #M(": to M("F$ even at low ()I. the entire radio block will not be properly decoded and will have to be retransmitted.www. is used at all /0 .

Uandistar. M("8 and M("F actually transmit two radio blocks over the four bursts.uency hopping. +he likelihood of receiving two consecutive error. to select the most appropriate modulation coding scheme for transmission of the ne%t se. the network informs the mobile station which coding scheme to use for transmission of the ne%t se. =or an uplink packet transfer. +his means that the higher coding schemes for E&GE have a better robustness with regard to fre. and the interleaving occurs over two bursts instead of four. #ink ada$tation *ink adaptation uses the radio link . the standard handles the higher coding scheme differently than G !" to combat this =ig >1 With EG !". M(":. (ompared to a pure link adaptation solution. this combination of mechanisms significantly improves performance. EGPR link! controlling "unction +o achieve the highest possible throughput over the radio link. measured either by the mobile station in a downlink transfer or by the base station in an uplink transfer. EG !" uses a combination of two functionalities> link adaptation and incremental bursts. +he modulation coding scheme can be changed for each radio block /9 .uence of bursts is higher than receiving four consecutive error. +his reduces the number of bursts that must be retransmitted should errors occur.uence of packets.www.

< and (.9 99. there is a relationship between the payload estimates.3 8. (hannel coding schemes M("F M("8 M(": M("1 M("6 M("9 M("0 M("3 M("/ +hroughputG+" =amily ' ' < ' < ( ' < ( 6F.www. Within each family.8 //. additional coding is transmitted and then so t com%ined in the receiver with the previously received in ormation# So t&com%ining increases the pro%a%ility o decoding the in ormation# 'his procedure will %e repeated until the in ormation is success ully decoded# 'his means that in ormation a%out the radio lin! is not necessary to support incremental redundancy# /6 . which makes resegmentation for retransmissions #four bursts$. +here are three families> '.Uandistar.1 /9. Modulation and coding schemes Incremental redundancy Incremental redundancy initially uses a coding scheme.3 69.8 3F.9 /:. such as MCS9. with very little error protection and without consideration or the actual radio lin! "uality# $hen in ormation is received incorrectly. +he practical adaptation rate is therefore decided by the measurement interval.8 =igure : .1 33. but a change is usually initiated by new .

3 8.9 99.3 69.www.1 33. incremental redundancy support is mandatory in the standard# "cheme M("F M("8 M(": M("1 M("6 M("9 M("0 M("3 M("/ Ma%imum rate#kbps$ 6F.1 /9. can %e deployed with limited investments and within a short time rame# Standardization /1 . the mpact o )*+S on the e-isting )SM.8 3F.().9 /:.)*+S networ! is limited to the %ase station system# 'he %ase station is a ected %y the new transceiver unit capa%le o handling . a networ! capa%le o . modulation as well as new so tware that ena%les the new protocol or pac!ets over the radio inter ace in %oth the %ase station and %ase station controller# 'he core networ! does not re"uire any adaptations# (ue to this simple For the mo%ile stations.)*+S.Uandistar.().8 Modulation 8psk 8psk 8psk 8psk 8psk Gmsk Gmsk Gmsk Gmsk Figure 8 Incrementel redundancy Impact of EGPRS on e istin! GS"#GPRS networ$s (ue to the minor di erences %etween )*+S and .8 //.

.org Background Standardi/ation o the irst releases o the third generation cellular systems that comply with I'0.)*+S# EDGE Standard and References 'he .().uropean 'elecommunications Standards Institute 2.Uandistar.().3)**3 +elease 99# 'wo such ma4or systems are 0niversal Mo%ile 'elecommunications System 20M'S3 and )SM.IM'& 2111 re"uirements has now %een inali/ed with .(). networ! support su%system wor! item de ines the networ! changes to acilitate the physical layer# 5ccording to the wor! item descriptions. whereas the .. %ase station system wor! item provides a plat orm to employ new modulation techni"ues. standardi/ation can %e divided in three areas:  standardi/ation o the physical layer changes 2de inition o the modulation and coding schemes3  the protocol changes or .'SI.www.# Fulfilling the EDGE Standardization .CS( and  .(). will provide two phases: /: .().

the re"uirements were set accordingly: Fig :9 /8 .www. is !nown as ). the standardi/ation o .(). currently standardi/ed in 3)**.org *hase 6: Single& and multislot pac!et&switched services and single and # # multislot circuit switched services that are not included in *hase 6 *hase 6 has %een completed with 3)** +elease 99# *hase 2 is ongoing in the 3)** standardi/ation.+57# *hase 2: +eal&time services employing the new modulation techni"ues Requirements on EDGE From the %eginning. was restricted to the physical layer and to the introduction o a new modulation scheme# Since .Uandistar. and its scope has %een e-tended to cover the alignment with $C(M5 and the provisioning o Internet protocol 2I*3 multimedia# 'his concept. was intended as an evolution o the e-isting )SM radio access technology.().

it was also decided that two classes o terminals should %e supported %y the .().&capa%le mo%ile stations should %e a%le to share one and the same time slot#  . standard:  a terminal that provides 8*S9 capa%ility in the downlin! only.().)*+S ena%les %it rates that are appro-imately three times higher than standard )*+S %it rates# $ithin the .org  . wor! item.().().(). this was simply handled %y reusing the )*+S "uality o service 2:oS3 pro iles and e-tending the parameter range to re lect the higher %it rates.& and non&.Uandistar.& and non&.(). or in other words. and  a terminal that provides 8*S9 in the uplin! and downlin!# Service aspects 'he introduction o . should %e possi%le# 'o ease implementation o new terminals while ta!ing into account the asymmetrical characteristic o most services currently availa%le.().&capa%le transceivers should %e deploya%le in the same spectrum#  5 partial introduction o .www. introducing higher throughput values# /F .

)*+S does not %ring a%out any direct architecture impacts 2see )SM 13#. results in a higher ris! o stalling the radio lin! control protocol# 'o mitigate this ris! and to allow the operator to optimi/e networ! %ehavior.13# 'he pac!et control unit may still %e placed either in the %ase station. the ma-imum 37 . in turn.Uandistar.unac!nowledged round&trip times# 'his. any delay introduced %etween the *C0 and the radio inter ace will directly a ect the radio lin! control ac!nowledged. the %ase station controller or the )*+S support rchitecture Fig :10 . since the radio lin! control automatic repeat re"uest unction on the networ! side is located in the pac!et control unit. and the central control unit is always placed in the %ase station# <owever.www.

().)*+S capa%ilities in the mo%ile station radio access capa%ilities in ormation element# 'hese capa%ilities include the .)*+S multislot class. the rest o the protocol stac! remains intact a ter the introduction o .# "ontrol plane protocols and channels 'he introduction o . lin! "uality control and measurement procedures is also introduced 3/ .().().)*+S temporary %loc! lows is introduced as opposed to standard )*+S temporary %loc! lows# Signaling supporting the radio lin! control. support or setting up and maintaining .13# 'here also are some minor modi ications to the %ase station system )*+S protocol# 5part rom these changes. are shaded# 'he protocols closest to the physical layer 2the radio lin! control and mo%ile allocation channel3 are most a ected %y radio lin! control automatic repeat re"uest window si/e has %een e-tended or )*+S# !ser plane protocols 'he transmission plane protocol structure or )*+Sis shown in Figure 66# 'he protocols that are in luenced %y the introduction o . the .Uandistar.(). modulation capa%ility and the 8*S9 power class# >n the radio resource management layer.)*+S also has an impact on these control plane layers: mo%ility management and radio resource management# 'here is no impact on session management# 'he mo%ility management modi ications are related to introducing in ormation on . 2see )SM 1=#.

Uandistar. will %e ade"uately supported# 'his part o the )SM. %ecause ade"uate support or interactive and %ac!ground services already e-ists# 5dditionally.. ). cellular system includes enhancements o service provisioning or the pac!et&switched domain and increased alignment with the service provisioning in 0M'S. multimedia applications will %e supported %y parallel simultaneous %earers with di erent :oS characteristics towards the same MS.(). high&speed transmission techni"ues com%ined with enhancements to the )*+S radio lin! inter ace. evolution ocuses on support or the conversational and st reaming service classes.0'+57 3)** standard# ?ased on . such as multiple media streams handled through IMS domain# 5 driver or such evolution on the pac!et&switched side is the paradigm shi t within the telecommunications world communications# rom circuit to pac!et&switched 20M'S terrestrial radio access networ!3# 'hese enhancements are currently %eing speci ied or the coming releases o the 33 .www. including I* multimedia applications.+57 will provide improved support or all "uality o service 2:oS3 classes de ined or 0M'S: %uture e&olution of GS"'E(GE towards )*("A ali!nment 'he ne-t evolutionary step or the )SM.(). a new range o applications. %ac!ground. streaming and conversational# ?y doing so.()..

().(). that allows operators to use e-isting re"uency spectrums 2811.().)*+S networ!s can "uic!ly and cost e ectively evolve with mar!et needs.)*+S introduces a new modulation techni"ue. a cost&e ective. 6811 and 6911 M</3 more e ectively# 'he simple improvements o the e-isting )SM..().. along with improvements to the radio protocol.. which covers all o the a%ove aspects.or data tra ic# . triples the capacity o )*+S# 'his capacity %oost improves the per ormance o e-isting applications and ena%les new services such as multimedia services# It also ena%les each transceiver to carry more voice and. is %eing standardi/ed in 3)** 'S) ). and align with services provided %y $C(M5 networ!s# 'he current evolution o )SM.ricsson supports is to step %y step enhance the pac!et service capa%ilities utili/ing the )% inter ace towards the core networ!# 'he )*+S. 911.)*+S protocols ma!e ?oth the core networ! de ined or )*+S and the current )SM.www.+57# EGPRS benefits "apacity and performance . radio access networ! re"uire modi ications to support enhanced pac!et services# 'he approach that ..(). ena%les new applications at higher data rates# 'his will attract new su%scri%ers and increase an operatorAs customer %ase# *roviding the %est and most attractive services will also increase customer loyalty# 30 . easy&toimplement add&on# So tware upgrades in the %ase station system ena%le use o the new protocol@ new transceiver units in the %ase station ena%le use o the new modulation techni"ue# .

. including wireless multimedia. is designed to integrate into the e-isting networ!# 'he installed %ase evolves@ it is not replaced or %uilt rom scratch. operators can o er more wireless data applications. we% in otainment and positioning services. e&mail.(). personal digital assistants or laptops at the same speed as on stationary personal computers# 5pplication Servers #armonization $ith %"D& 39 .Uandistar.www. or %oth consumer and %usiness users# Su%scri%ers will %e a%le to %rowse the Internet on their mo%ile phones. ma!ing implementation seamless# "omplementary technology . easy rollout means shorter time to mar!et. which in turn can lead to increased mar!et share# $ith .().nhancing a )*+S networ! is accomplished through evolution with .(). and $C(M5 are complementary technologies that together will sustain an operatorAs need or thirdgeneration networ! coverage and capacity nationwide# .(). within the e-isting spectrum and %y deploying $C(M5 in the new re"uency %and# +olling out the two technologies in parallel ena%les aster time to mar!et or new high&speed data services as well as lower capital e-penditures# .

E&GE achieves this increase in throughput rate mainly through enhancements to the physical layer and the !*()M'( layer of the G !" 36 .().org .www. can %e seen as a oundation toward one seamless )SM and $C(M5 networ! with a com%ined core networ! and di erent access methods that are transparent to the end user# Conclusion +his paper has presented an overview of E&GE with particular focus on the physical layer and the data link layer.Uandistar.uate speed for most applications. system. +he goal of E&GE is to provide a packet data network that provides operating rates that are of ade.

=uruskar. 5. *in. Jul 3777. ?5igh-"peed Wireless &ata 'ccess <ased on (ombining E&GE with Wideband E=&M@. '. Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal. 'alto. ?Multi-*ayer rotocol +racing in a G !" . ?E&GE> Enhanced &ata !ates for G"M and +&M')/01 Evolution@.Uandistar. =eatherstone and ". "u.. White aper 'E)*L+ /30 :768 !3. "ollenberger. Ericsson '<. J. IEEE Communications Magazine. "ollenberger. &. ". G.ur.ov /FFF. and M. . and M.etwork@. Ma. Molkdar.. (huang. *. (huang and . ?<eyond 0G> Wideband Wireless &ata 'ccess <ased on E=&M and &ynamic acket ' papersCpdf)edgeCwpCtechnical. .pdf #last visited Ect 3770$. Lhoa. M. 31 H3I H0I H9I H6I H1I . W. June/FFF.air. ! Bibliography H/I J. Mc. = Muller.www. IEEE Mehicular +echnology (onference roceedings #=all 3773$. Ke *i. Gurtov. and 5 Elofsson. =ebruary 3773. E. ?E&GE Introduction of high-speed data in G"M)G !" networks@. '. *. IEEE Personal Communications.uki. *ambotharan. ?'n overview of EG !"> the packet &ata component of E&GE@. <.. IEEE Communications Magazine. (imini Jr. http>))www.

IEEE Communications Magazine. A <alachandran and ".ues in Wireless acket &ata "ervices@. January 3777.Uandistar.www. 3: .org H:I ".anda. Aumar. . ?'daptation +echni.