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Cell Structure

The cell is a building block of the body. Muscle cells are elongated into fibers, liver cells
are hexagonal and column shaped for the ones that line in the intestine.

The Lysosome is a tiny, membranous sac containing acids and digestive enzymes, the
lysosome breaks down large food molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, and
nucleic acids into materials that the cell can use. It destroys foreign particles in the cell
and helps to remove nonfunctioning structures from the cell. It’s like a recycling plant
that produces molecules for transport around the cell.

The Golgi Apparatus is a stores and secretes large products like proteins and lipids
ready for transport, basically acts like an airport packaging and sorting through
everything.

The Nucleus is the command center of the cell. It controls the overall activity of the cell.
It is the largest organelle in the cell making up to 10% of the cells total volume and
holds a complete set of genes. The outermost part of this organelle is the nuclear
envelope, which is composed of a double-membrane barrier, each membrane of which
is made up of a phospholipid bilayer. It contains DNA vital to all life. It is surrounded by
the nuclear membrane composed of a double layer of lipids and proteins. The nuclear
membrane controls access to the DNA , which contains genes coded messages to
make proteins to live. The instructions are passed on to successive cells as they divide.

Chromatin condenses and forms rod shaped bodies called chromosomes that are in
charge of carrying hereditary information from one cell to the next as they divide.

The Endoplasmic reticulum is for transportation around the cell. No transport thus no
functioning cell. This is the only organelle with direct links to the nucleus. It is a network
of flattened sacs for communication which synthesizes molecules for transportation
around the cell.
Cytoplasm is the chemical environment in which the other cell structures work, a
highly complex solution composed of water, proteins, carbohydrates & lipids. Many
chemical reactions occur. This leads to the Mitochondria can break down microbes and
has the energy to do so like the sun . This is the main site for energy production within
the cell.

Centrosome is the cell organizer, Microtubules sprout from this structure, which is
located next to the nucleus and is composed of two centrioles — arrays of
microtubules — that function in separating genetic material during cell division.

Ribosomes have RNA like the nucleus and act like a manufacturing plant. These
roughly 25-nanometer structures may be found along the endoplasmic reticulum or
floating free in the cytoplasm. Composed of 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein,
they translate the genetic information on RNA molecules to synthesize, or produce, a
protein molecule.

Centrioles get involved with cell division

Outer vacuole of the cell acts like a storage center for the cell, In animal cells, food
vacuoles are membranous sacs formed
when food masses are pinched-off from the cell membrane and passed into the
cytoplasm of the cell. This process, called endocytosis (from the Greek words meaning
“within the cell”), requires energy to move large masses of material into
the cell. Vacuoles also help to remove structural debris, isolate harmful materials, and
export unwanted substances from the cell.
These processes are very rapid and occur until cell division occurs. This is essential to
the function of all life and modifying the DNA composition can create a chain reaction
throughout the cells.
19. c. Cytoplasm; 20. n. Vesicle formation; 21. g. Nucleolus; 22. h. Nucleus; 23. m.
Vacuoles;
24. k. Rough endoplasmic reticulum; 25. d. Golgi apparatus; 26. i. Plasma (cell)
membrane;
27. b. Cilia; 28. f. Mitochondrion; 29. j. Ribosomes; 30. l. Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum; 31.
e. Lysosome; 32. a. Centriole