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Numerical Modelling of

Deep Mixed Columns


Harald Krenn
University of Strathclyde
Urs Vogler
University of Glasgow
Outline of Presentation
- Deep mixed columns under embankment fill
- Numerical modelling deep mixed columns
- Results of numerical study
- Enhanced numerical 2D model volume averaging technique
- Future work
Columns under embankment fill
Improve stability
Reduce settlements
Reduce the time
for settlements
Reduce vibrations
c
Embankment
Column
c
Deep mixed columns
2D Numerical Modelling
2D model
PLAXIS 2D v8.2 finite element
code
Axisymmetric unit cell
Radii of the unit cell
dependent on the c/c
spacing
Restriction:
Not a true geometric
representation

c
R =
3D Numerical Modelling
3D model
PLAXIS 3D beta version
True unit cell
All calculation phases
fully drained
Restrictions:
Idealisation of columns in
square/triangular grid
under the centreline of an
embankment
Column
Soil
Soil
Column
Embankment
fill
Volume averaging technique
Columns and soil
Composite system
Idea: model 3D column behaviour within 2D calculations
Idealised Soil Profile
Vanttila clay (Finland)
Dry crust (0-1m depth)
over-consolidated (POP
30kPa)
Limited lab data available
WT at 1 m depth
Soft Vanttila clay (1-12 m
depth)
Lightly over-consolidated
(POP 10 kPa)
Plenty of lab data
available
S-CLAY1S Model

q
p
p
m
p
mi

M
1
M
1

1
CSL
CSL
p

z


mi m
' p ) x 1 ( ' p + = Intrinsic yield surface (Gens & Nova 1993)
{ } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] 0 ' p ' p ' p
2
3
M ' p ' p
2
3
F
m d
T
d
2
d d
T
d d
=

=
Soil Parameters
Soil Depth e
0
POP [kPa] x
Dry crust 0 - 1 1.7 30 0.63 90
Vanttila clay 1 - 11 3.2 10 0.46 20
Soil
[kN/m
3
]
M k
x
=k
y
[m/day]
Dry crust 13.8 0.029 0.2 0.25 1.6 -
Vanttila clay 13.8 0.032 0.2 0.88 1.2 6.9E-5
Soil
i
a b
Dry crust 1.07 15 0.07 11 0.2
Vanttila clay 0.76 40 0.27 11 0.2
Deep-Stabilised Columns
Drained and undrained
triaxial tests
Stiffness is highly non-
linear and dependent on
confining pressure
Hardening Soil model
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0
Axial strain,
1
, %






q

[
k
P
a
]
CADC C29
HS-model
E
50
ref
E
oed
ref
E
ur
ref

ur
M c
[kPa] [kPa] [kPa] - - kPa [ ] [kN/m
3
]
12000 12000 27000 0.35 0.8 27 36 15
Reference stress for stiffness, p
ref
=100kPa
Predicted Settlements
c/c - spacing [m]
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
s

[
m
]
-0.8
-0.7
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
2D MCC
2D S-CLAY1
2D S-CLAY1S
3D S-CLAY1 Preliminary
Vertical Stress Distributions
1 m c/c 1.2 m c/c 1.4 m c/c
d'
v

[kN/m]
-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0
D
e
p
t
h

[
m
]
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
d'
v

[kN/m]
-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0
d'
v

[kN/m]
-250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0
Soil
Column
Soil
Soil
Column
Column
2D MCC
2D S-CLAY1
2D S-CLAY1S
3D S-CLAY1 Preliminary
Principal Stress Directions
Conclusions (numerical study)
Anisotropy and destructuration have a
minor effect on the predicted vertical
stresses
greater effect on the predicted settlements
Hardening soil model gives a realistic stress-
strain relationship for deep-stabilized columns
2D - unit cell
3D model versus 2D - unit cell
Preliminary simulation less settlements
Volume averaging technique
Columns and soil
Composite system
Aim: model 3D column behaviour within 2D calculations
- Obtain overall response of system
- Save computational costs
- Feed model with known behaviour of constituents
(soil and column)
Volume averaging technique
Columns and soil
Composite system
- Assumptions for volume averaging technique
- Determination of equivalent constitutive material matrix
- Solution strategy
- Example
- Further work
Assumptions
- Perfect bonding between in-situ soil and columns
- Volume ratio of the columns is not negligible
- Columns have a regular pattern
( )
soil soil soil
D
& &
=

( )
column column column
D
& &
=

J .-S. Lee, 1993:


Finite Element Analysis of Structured Media
Assumptions
( )
eq eq eq
D
& &
=

( )
soil soil soil
D
& &
=

( )
column column column
D
& &
=

- Equilibrium and kinematics satisfied between constituents


- Analysis with equivalent stress/strain relationship
- Separate yield function for soil and column
J .-S. Lee, 1993:
Finite Element Analysis of Structured Media
Equilibrium and Kinematics
Local equilibrium conditions:
column
yz
soil
yz
eq
yz
column
xy
soil
xy
eq
xy
column
z
soil
z
eq
z
column
x
soil
x
eq
x
= =
= =
= =
= =
& & &
& & &
& & &
& & &
x
y
z
A
column
A
soil
Kinematic conditions (bonding):
column
zx
soil
zx
eq
zx
column
y
soil
y
eq
y
= =
= =
& & &
& & &
Averaging Rules
column
column
soil
soil
eq
column
column
soil
soil
eq


& & &
& & &
+ =
+ =
Volume fraction of soil / column:
A
A
;
A
A
column
column
soil
soil
= =
Determination of D
eq
By combining the constitutive equations
with the kinematic and equilibrium conditions:
column
1 column column
soil
1
soil
soil
eq
S D S D D + =
( )
column soil
soil
column , soil
1
, , f D D S =
With the material matrixes S
1
soil
and S
1
column
:
Solution Strategy
-Calculate equivalent material matrix
D
e
eq
or D
ep
eq
-Calculate strain increment
B
P K
&
&
& &
=
=

eq
1
eq column column eq soil soil
S S
&
&
&
&
1 1
= =
-Calculate stress increments
( ) ( )
column column column soil soil soil
D D
& & & &
=

-Trial stresses
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

=

+


column
n
column
n
column soil
n
soil
n
soil

& &
1 1
Solution Strategy
-Check yielding
( ) ( ) 0 0
column column soil soil
F F
-Return mapping soil/column
-Adjust stress components if necessary
column
yz
soil
yz
column
yz
column
xy
soil
xy
column
xy
column
z
soil
z
column
z
column
x
soil
x
column
x
d d
d d


= =
= =
( ) ( ) ( )

column
n
column
n
column
d
1
-Recheck column yielding
( ) 0
column column
F
-Calculate stress in equivalent material
column
column
soil
soil
eq

& & &
+ =
First Example
Single integration point program triaxial loading
Soil: Mohr-Coulomb model, linear elastic ideal plastic
Columns: Linear elastic columns with 50% area ratio
E
column
= 2 E
soil
-0.018
-0.016
-0.014
-0.012
-0.01
-0.008
-0.006
-0.004
-0.002
0
-400 -300 -200 -100 0

2

2
equivalent
soil
column
Sig_soil(1)
Sig_column(1)
Future Work
full 3D simulations of embankments on deep mixed columns
use of advanced constitutive models for soil and columns
for homogenisation technique (S-CLAY1S, )
implementation of averaging technique as constitutive model into
2D finite element code (Plaxis)
comparison of volume averaging method with full 3D simulations
Thank you very much for your attention