# Some Ordered Sets With Their Order Topologies

Saurav Bhaumik

Without imposing the algebraic structure upon an ordered set we can investigate into the characteristics of the order topologies of the sets.

1

Introduction

Let (S , <) be an ordered set, T its order topology, we further consider that S is unbounded both above and below, and that the order < is dense. 1. (S , T ) is 2nd countable =⇒ there is a countable basis { Bn }∞ n=1 of S and there is a countable, dense sebset, {ρn }∞ , of S . n=1 2. In view of 1., the following are equivalent: Any closed, bounded subset is countably compact; Any closed, bounded subset is compact; Any closed, bounded subset is sequentially compact. 3. Theorem 1.1 There are two sequences {Γn } and {γn } which are respectively steadily divergent to +∞ and −∞ i.e, (∀G ∈ S )(∃n0 ∈ N)((∀n)(n ∈ N ∩ [n0 , →) =⇒ Γn > G)) and Γm > Γn ⇐⇒ m > n; and similer criteria for {γn }. Proof: Deﬁne an := max{ρ1 , ..., ρn }; clearly, {an } is increasing; and if G ∈ S ,there is a natural n such that ρn > G because {ρn } is dense and (G, →) is nonempty; so, an > G and this means that {an } → +∞. Now, rejecting the repetitions in this sequence, we get {Γn }, which steadily diverges to +∞. Similerly we can extract {γn } that steadily diverges to −∞. Corollary: If A(⊆ S ) be unbounded above (below), we can devise a sequence {Γn } ({γn }), which in A steadily diverges to +∞(−∞), because A is in its relative topology, second countable. 4. Theorem 1.2 Let ξ be any point in S . Then ξ can be approached by both an increasing sequence { xn } and a decreasing sequence {yn }. Proof: As the topology is ﬁrst countable, there is a countable, nested local bace {An } at ξ. But the bounded open intervals form a base to the topology by deﬁnition. So, AC ensures us that for each n ∈ N, there is an interval (an , bn ) s.t., ξ ∈ (an , bn ) ⊆ An .

n

Deﬁne (δn , n ) :=

i=1

(an , bn ). 1

so it is T 1 . more related to general topology Lemma 2. B3/4 with B ¯ 1/4 ⊆ B1/2 ⊆ B ¯ 1/2 ⊆ B3/4 ⊆ B ¯ 3/4 ⊆ F c . 1. B k with a ∈ B k ⊆ B
2n 2n+1 2n+1 2n+1 2n
Now. So. f (F ) = {1}. there is an open local base B p at p with the properties: ¯ 2 ⊆ B1 .e.2 If (X.2. by 1. excepting that the order is dense. Thus we have functionally separated a and F . n )} is a nested local base at ξ. total ordered set (S . X is completely regular. ¯ k ⊆ B k+1 . So. there is a B2 ∈ B p with B ¯ 3 ⊆ G. there is B4 ∈ B p with B ¯ 3 ⊆ B4 ⊆ B ¯ 4 ⊆ G. given a ∈ B k . and this means. <) is dense ordered. n ∈ N ∪ {0} & p ≤ 2n } in such a way that ¯ s ⊆ Bt ⊆ B ¯ t ⊆ F c ). Proof: Let a be a point and F a nonempty closed set such that a F . 1]) =
t >a
¯ t )c where a ≥ 0.
2
In a model of ZF : Dense Total Order
We now turn down all assumptions on S . {δn } and { n } serve as the desired sequence. S is completely Hausdorﬀ. for each n ∈ N. i. T ) be a topological space such that for any p ∈ X . 1] : x → glb{t ∈ D : x ∈ Bt }. and So.
t <a
f ← ((a. and. we have. there is B1/2 (all subsequent B’s would be in Ba ) with B c ¯ 1/2 ⊆ F . So. B 2k+1 with B given B 2n 2n 2n 2n 2n+1 2n+1 2n+1 ¯ k+2n ⊆ F c .1 Any dense. by 1. 2. an open set.Clearly. we can show. we have. a nice result: Theorem 2. by condition 1. ¯ 1/2 ⊆ B. what we have now is a ∈ B1/4 ⊆ B We can continue this process by. ¯ k ⊆ B 2k+1 ⊆ B ¯ 2k+1 ⊆ B k+1 and. a ∈ F c . Again. given G ∈ T and B3 ∈ B p with B Then X is completely regular. Corollary: (S . by 1. by 2. given B1 ∈ B p . {(δn . a)) = Bt where a ≤ 1 and. <) with respect to its order topology is completely regular. we have { Bt }t∈D where D = { p/2n : p. where Ba is an open local base with the conditions in Lemma2. there is a B ∈ Ba with B ⊆ F c .
2
. a ∈ B1/2 ⊆ B c ¯ 1/2 ⊆ B3/4 ⊆ B ¯ 3/4 ⊆ F . t ∈ D)( s < t =⇒ a ∈ Bs ⊆ B Deﬁne f : X → [0. B k+ 2n with B k ⊆ B k+2n ⊆ B 2n 2n+1 2n+1 2n+1 ¯ k ⊆Bk. f ← ([0. there is B1/4 with B ¯ 1/4 ⊆ B1/2 . Before proving the theorem. and we shall have. given B 2kn ⊆ F c . ξ ∈ (δn . then. and it is easy enough to see that f (a) = {0}. we have a lemma. 1]. So. n ) ⊆ An . by 2.. (B
The above suﬃces to show that f is continuous. in view of the fact that D is dense in [0. So. we can have. (∀ s.

as G is open. And [ s. bounded subset A is lattice complete. n ] ⊆ (k. and as it belongs to E ¯ ..Now we come down to the proof of our Theorem2..e.. n}. we have. glbB = minB] Call ξ := lubM . similerly. (∀ x ∈ E ¯ . a closed. y ) = [ x .3 An ordered set (A. proving property 2. y with x < x < a < y < y. T ) is compact if and only if for every ﬁlter basis B (on X ) consisting of closed sets. t] of a with [ s. We claim that this local base has got the properties of the assumption portion of Lemma2. max{b1 .. in which we shall suppose that A is lattice complete. so. Deﬁne M := {minB : B ∈ B } [since B is closed. Proof: In the dense. ξ ≥ minB2 > x =⇒ minB2 ∈ ( x. Let B be a ﬁlter basis consisting of some closed sets. given x < a < y.e. contradicting to (1) since B2 ⊆ B0 .2. (←. so. y) ∩ B0 = ∅. Before going to the proof. It is easily seen that Clearly. y) : x < a < y. Now. such that both of those intervals are contained in G. for x < ξ. If for some B0 ∈ B . and therefore. y) containing ξ s. So. say (m.. 3
. we have a ﬁnite subcover {(←. by the density property of the order. We have.1.e. then. any nonempty subset of A has a lub and a glb in A. x is not an upper bound of M . y) ∅. So..(1) Now. an open interval neighbourhood (k. one can have x . we have for each a ∈ S . y) i. minB1 > x.the closure of ( x . But we can again select n : t < n < n and k : k < k < s. ¯ . we state a lemma : Lemma 2. it is maxE ¯ . there is some B1 ∈ B s. A clusters B . x. n ) ⊆ [k . The next part.t. B2 ∩ ( x.3 Proof: ¯ has a maximum element. bn } is an upper bound of E ¯ maxE = glbE .2. Let E ( ∅) ⊆ A. the class not. But this means. will be more intricate. i. ξ B0 . Now we come down to the proof of Theorem 2. This proves property 1. If Let us suppose that A is compact. In the order topology of an ordered set (S . bi ) : i = 1. l) of s. <) in its order topology is compact if and only if it is lattice complete. y ∈ S }. the following theorem: Theorem 2. there is a B2 (⊆ B0 ∩ B1 ) ∈ B . minB2 ≥ minB1 > x. ( x. the core of B := B is nonempty. bounded subset of R is lattice complete. the condition is equivalent to stating that every class of nonempty closed sets with FIP has its intersection nonempty. total ordered set S equipped with its order topology. So.. S in its order topology is completely regular by Lemma2. Given an open G and a closed neighbourhood [ s.e. B is a ﬁlter basis. E is compact. We claim that E ¯ )(∃y ∈ E ¯ )(y > x). . with in our mind that each closed. b) ⊆ A : b ∈ E ¯ closed subset of a compact set. n). Proof: A ﬁlter basis consisting of closed sets is a class of nonempty closed sets with FIP(ﬁnite intersection property) and any such class is a ﬁlter basis consisting of closed sets. t] ⊆ G. then. For. of t. b) contains at least one element of E ¯ } is an open cover of E ¯ . the local base Ba := {( x. But. a topological space (X. t] ⊆ (k .. So. we can show the existence of a glb. as B0 is closed.. . ... glbB ∈ B i. y). i. X is compact. n) ⊆ G. there is an open interval ( x. We have.t. and another. y ] ⊆ ( x.4 In a model of ZF. as a {(←.. so. <) which is Dedekind complete.

So. the function f : [ x. y) = d(y. 2. then for any two x < y in S . So. if one assumes the algebraic structure. d( x. for some n ∈ N. y] = { xn }∞ n=1 . Theorem 2. S is completely Hausdorﬀ and as it is Dedekind complete. the interval [ x.
n ∈N
2. (∀n ∈ N)( xn In ). <) be an ordered set. So. there is x1 in between x1 and y. iﬀ the following conditions hold: 1. y]S to a connected subset of R. What in the next step we are going to do is to indicate the size of a non-trivial interval in R. y]S ) = [0. Proof: If possible. Now. a function d : M × M → F + ∪ {0} is called a metric on M . y] is uncountable. call I1 := [ x1 . y] → [0. So. we get a nested family of closed intervals {In }n∈N s. both natural. so. yet we shall do it in a more general background: Theorem 2. it can’t be ﬁnite. y]. Therefore. [ x. we would expect M to be at least regular. so. d( x. y) = d(y. s. x1 [ x1 . <) be an arbitrary ordered ﬁeld. x). for the order is dense. This is to say. +. For all m > n. i. z) ≤ d( x. for x < y. Now. commutativity. ·.t. y) = 0 ⇐⇒ x = y. 1]R . A cuts the core of B . z). ξ ∈ [kn . well.t.e. f ([ x. {an } is decreasing and {kn } is increasing.. ξ = xn . y]. y] is uncountable. It is not diﬃcult to verify that the open balls B( x. 1]R with the property f ( x) = 0. y) < δ} form a basis for a suitable topology. it is connected. Now.1. the latter called the metric topology on M . triangle inequality. ∞ Let ξ := glb{an }. Another method: By the corollary of Theorem 2. Let us call [kn . am > km ≥ kn . The above indicates that the Heine Borel Theorem is somewhat independent of the algebraic structure. let us suppose that [ x. similarly construct In+1 In . a contradiction to our construction of In . If xn+1 In . if xn+1 ∈ In .6 Any general metric space with its metric in an arbitrary ordered ﬁeld F is regular in its metric topology.e. A is compact.. δ) := {y ∈ M : d( x. So. it becomes quite easy [one may consult a standard book of Real Analysis]. Let x1 y. and thus. y] is uncountable. What the above means is that : (∀n ∈ N)(kn ≤ ξ ≤ an ) i. take In+1 := In .1
General Metric
Let (F. the former bounded below by x.5 Let (S . in this way. In view of the fact that F in its order topology is completely regular. the interval [ x. with the metric in F . glb{ai }∞ i=1 ≥ glb{ai }i=m ≥ kn . and thus. d( x. we have [ x. an ]. y] is countable. f (y) = 1 takes the interval [ x. 3. and M a nonempty set. glb{an } ≥ x.. 4
. the order < is dense and complete in the sense of Dedekind. xn = ξ ∈ In . x1 does not equal both x and y. an ] := In .This compels to believe that (∀ B ∈ B )(ξ ∈ B).

z B(a. Thus. r/2). we’d get an open ball B(a. now. M is regular. if z ∈ B(y. As F is closed. y) ≥ d(a. z) > r/2. For. i. Now. for any y ∈ F . Take G := B(a.. we have. separated a and
y∈F
F strongly. We have. y) ≥ r. i. Take H := Hy .. r) ∩ F = ∅.e. So. Hy ∩ G = ∅.Take Hy := B(y.e.Proof: Consider a ∈ M and a nonempty closed subset F of M with a F . for all y ∈ F. We claim that G ∩ Hy = ∅. r) with B(a. r/2). d(a. z) + r/2 > d(a. z) + d(z. r/2). H ∩ G = ∅. r/2). y) ≥ r which means that d(a.
5
. then d(a.