You are on page 1of 20

Science in a FUN way? CBSE / ICSE for class 7, 8, 9 & 10 All subjects available at UBQOOL www.ubqool.

com Need a Flat in Hyderabad? Visit IndiaProperty.com Now 1000+ Properties Added Daily
indiaproperty.com/Hyderabad

Class 1 to Class 12 Free NCERT Solutions, Test Papers, Lessons, Animations, Videos, Puzzle www.MeritNation.com Meditation For Beginners Avoid the 7beginner mistakes that spell failure - Free Signup ! www.MeditationTipsNewsletter.com

ALPHA MEDITATION Meditation works magic Alpha Mind Power uses techniques of meditation to help individuals cope with emotional problems

FOR 15 years she quaked with a nameless fear. Even the ring of the telephone unsettled her. Finally, her husband took her to a meditation class in Bangalore. At the end of the programme, she snatched the microphone from the trainer and said, "I could not speak a word till now. But now, I stand before you with courage and confidence." Vijayalakshmi Panthaiyan cites this as as an example of how meditation can be used to come to terms with one's emotions. "When one's thoughts are negative, every action becomes negative. This results in anger and frustration, which leads to failure," says Vijayalakshmi, who has trained 4,500 persons in 11 cities through her company, Alpha Mind Power. "Alpha meditation is scientific and provides a solution to all problems. It triggers the dormant power of our sub-conscious mind," she told a packed hall during an introductory talk recently. "Alpha combines modern psychology and meditation techniques like Reiki, Pranic Healing, Vipassana and Siddha to help people feel better about themselves," she added. The brain produces different types of waves and one of them, alpha, produces a sense of relaxation in the individual. A person sitting quietly in meditation reaches the alpha state - between sleep and wakefulness when the brain's right hemisphere is activated. In this state of mind, a person's thoughts are powerful, intuitive and creative. Vijayalakshmi narrated several instances of success at the end of her daylong Rs. 1,500 workshop. A fascinated participant walked up to her at the end of the session and said, "It sounds like magic." Vijayalakshmi replied, "It's not magic, but what happens is beyond logic." While the left hemisphere deals predominantly with logic, calculation and analysis, the right focusses on language, poetry, art and creativity, she said. Vijayalakshmi quit her job with a bank eight years ago to study mind power and eventually founded Alpha Mind Power. Observing women coming to the fitness centre, which was their family business, she found that shedding weight had a lot to do with the mind, than just exercising and dieting. "There is so much energy around you. When you get in tune with that energy, you can take up a problem and using the positive energy generated, visualise the solution," she said. "If you tell the sub-conscious what you want, it will take you to the goal." What is Alpha The Greatest Power is the Power of our Subconscious Mind. Once we understand this and learn to use the power within us, we can create wonderful changes in our life. We can achieve many goals. How can we access this power of our Subconscious? Is there a Key? Yes. The Alpha Level of our mind is the key. This level can be reached through meditation. Scientists have done a lot of research about the functioning of our brain. The electrical impulses emitted continuously by the brain keep changing in frequency depending on the activity involved in. This is measured by an equipment called EEG in cycles per second. Alpha is a brainwave frequency between 7 and 14 cycles per second. This is a level between sleep and wakefulness. While functioning at this level, apart from the usual left brain activity, our right brain also gets activated. This makes a person's thinking very powerful, very intuitive and very creative . This level connects us with our subconscious and helps us to access the amazing powers lying dormant there. it has been found that any thought projected in the mind at this level will certainly be manifested in real life. Apart from this, practice of Alpha Meditation even for 15 minutes everyday improves memory and sharpens the mind.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 1/20

Why Alpha For a person who seeks relief from the various problems in life, it would be a blessing to learn to consciously use the Alpha Level of the mind. Once you learn to awaken this magical power within you, it is possible to use it everyday for various purposes in life and create the desired results. The unique feature of Alpha Meditations is that while you are in a Meditative Level, you can take up your problem and using the positive energy generated during meditation, visualize and create good happenings in your life! Many times, persons on the verge of committing suicide have attended the workshop and experienced a total paradigm shift in their attitude about life. Instead of feeling helpless and inadequate they felt well equipped to face anything in life! Moreover, once you learn to use the Alpha Level, instead of being a 'Creature of Circumstances', you become a 'Creator of Circumstances'. If you had wished for a magical wand to wipe away all your problems, then, this is it - the real power hidden within you 'Alpha Mind Power' ! The uses of Alpha Level meditations: The Alpha Level can be reached in the mind by a simple meditation. The Uses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Total relief from stress. Success in every walk of life. More intuition to make decisions. Reach higher performance levels. Increase flow of money in your life. Manifest anything in life easily. Remove negative thoughts. Reprogramme your mind for success. Maintain ideal weight and good health. Communicate with people at Alpha level without actually talking. Improved relationships with family and friends. Rejuvenate yourself whenever you need. Sleep well in the night. Wake up at the right time without an alarm. Heal yourself and others.

Apart from the above, you can achieve many more things with the help of Alpha. ____________________________________________________________________ Alpha Meditation

(From:http://www.ladyoftheearth.com/meditation/alpha.txt)

Introduction

Alpha is the natural state that we are able to access to see beyond our five senses. When our brain is in alpha we are in a deep meditative, light trance or dream state. Learning alpha is not hard...we pass through the alpha state each time we go to sleep or wake up. A little background to understand where alpha falls into our patterns of brain activity. When we are fully awake, active and alert, we are in Beta state...our brain waves register at 14 to 30 cycles per second. Alpha is the visualization state when brain waves are at 7 to 14 cycles per second. Theta is a deeper state associated with drowsiness and deep tranquillity, where we can even control things like pain and bleeding. Brain waves in theta are at 4 to 7 cycles per second. Delta is deep unconsciousness or coma state, with brain waves at 1 to 3 cycles per second. Learning to drop into alpha is a valuable skill for everyone. In alpha the mind is open to other forms of communication. Our filters that rationalize and
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 2/20

process reality are weakened or removed leaving the mind open and receptive. There are many ways to count down into alpha, and we all find one that works for us individually. Not only is Alpha a wonderful tool for adults, but it is also great for children...to help them calm down at the end of the day, to help get through frustrations and in general to learn something together. My children and I have used alpha meditations in the dentist office to rid anxiety and discomfort. I also used alpha quite successfully this past year with my oldest daughter throughout a prolonged illness and prior to surgeries, both for relaxation and to help her visualize perfect health. There are many ways to count down into alpha...the following is one of my favorites that I use with my kids. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------How to do it

Relax and close your eyes...breathe deeply and concentrate on the sound of your breath...in and out...in and out. Clear your mind and picture only a door...the door is red, and on that door is a red number seven. As you open the door you go into a red room...the walls are red, the ceiling is red...hanging on the walls is a red seven... Walk through the room to the next door...that door is orange. On the door is an orange number six. As you open the door you walk into the orange room... the walls and ceiling are orange...and you see the orange six... Walk through the room to the next door...that door is yellow. On the door is a yellow number five. Open the door and walk into the yellow room...yellow walls, yellow ceiling...and the yellow fives... Continue through the room to the next door...it is green. On the door is a green four. Open the door and walk into the green room...green walls, green ceiling and green fours... Walk to the next door...its color is blue. On the door is a blue number three. Open the door and walk into the blue room...blue walls, blue ceiling...and blue threes. Keep going and go to the next door...it is indigo. On the door is an indigo number two. Open the door and walk into the indigo room...the walls and ceiling are indigo...the number is two. Walk to the next door...it is violet. On the door is a violet number one...open the door and walk into the violet room. The walls are violet the ceiling is violet and the number is one... And we count down further into alpha...ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two...one. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Epilogue This is the point that you arrive in alpha...to gain knowledge and insight. At this point many will do meditation, healings, journeying, work with spiritual guides, affirmations etc. When alpha work is finished...always remember to give yourself clearance and affirmation for perfect health. Do this by telling yourself that you see yourself in perfect health and clear any unwanted energy away from you by smoothing and clearing your aura with your hand starting behind at the back of your neck...over your head and down your body...then simply count back up from one to ten. Other methods of counting down into alpha include the use of a rainbow, colored crystals and more...again...do what works for you. Many find that it helps while going into alpha to make some gesture which their
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 3/20

brain then associates with this state. It can be as simple as crossing your fingers, or touching your third eye. After a time, this state becomes so second nature that just making the gesture will drop you into alpha. The best way to perfect achieving an alpha state is practice. Safe Journeys and Blissful Meditations!
_____________________________________________________________ Alpha Meditation by Amari D'Amaurot The colors follow the basic chakra points; you can do this meditation either to get into alpha or to cleanse your chakra points. The only difference is in the chakra meditation you envision the colors at their corresponding body points instead of as a path leading down into an alpha state.... Sit or lie down in a comfortable position, not too comfy or you'll fall asleep! Breathe deeply and slowly three times. Inhale on a 5-count hold for a 5 count and exhale on a 5 count. Imagine a red door; hold the image in your mind. See a red 7 on the door, when you are ready open the door and step through. You are now in a field with a dark orange sun rising over the horizon. The red of the sky is fading to a blazing orange. Imagine the color suffusing you with its light. Walk down the hill towards the light. See an orange 6 in your mind. As you walk further down the hill the color brightens to a brilliant yellow. The color feels as if it is caressing your skin. All you see is yellow and the number 5. Your feet still move downward towards the bottom of the hill. You reach the bottom of the hill and are now in a green field. The sun is high above you and the green of the grass is intoxicating. You roll in the lush green field. In your minds eye you see a green 4. When you open your eyes you are standing at the edge of the bluest lake you have ever seen. Slowly, calmly you walk out into the water. The cool blue waves are refreshing after the brightness of the hill. The water comes up over your calves, thighs, hips, arms and finally your head. You feel only peace and tranquility as you realize you can breathe deeper and better under the water. The Cool deep blue pulls you further down into its depths and you float downward, leaving all cares and fears behind you. You realize you are moving towards a dark blue 3 below you. As you reach and pass the 3 the water color becomes a darker, more purple blue. You are floating slower and slower but still moving downwards. The deep violet color covers your body and caresses your soul leaving you feeling refreshed, alive and yet calm and detached at the same time. You move further downward towards the number 2. Now you are lying suspended in the cooling water. Bright white light holding all the colors of creation pours out from your body, radiation from your crown to cover you in its incandescent light. You are covered totally by this white light...you are the light. Before you is the number 1. Reach for it; encompass it in the white light that is you. Become one with yourself. Breathe 3 times as you did before, with each breath you will be deeper into alpha. When you are ready open your eyes. With practice you can work magick, walk around, do readings or whatever without losing the state of alpha. It feels almost like having the "early morning stares". When you wish to leave the alpha state count from 1-10 and take 3 deep breathes. You might need to do some physical activity and/or eat something to totally shake the affects. The chakra meditation utilizes the same colors as above, only you apply them to the body points they represent. Red = root (Mooladhara) Orange = just below navel (Swadhishatana) Yellow = stomach (Manipura) Green = heart (Anahata) Blue = throat (Visudha) Purple/indigo = third eye (Ajna) White/pink = top of head (Sahasrara) Imagine the color as a ball of light centered on the body point. See it as a healthy, bright glow that swirls counterclockwise in a fast pace. Not too fast but not slow either. Check for muddiness of color or lines of light radiating outward that could be connections with other people you want to have or that could be draining you of energy. Clear your chakras. This could be the end of the meditation or you could then imagine a white line of light connecting all your cleansed chakras together. This line would also spin and you would be surrounded by a swirling vortex of color. There are also Hebrew words to go along with each chakra that makes them vibrate. This is essentially the middle pillar exercise. ___________________________________________________________________ Basic Alpha Meditation - As taught by Rev. Shevon

Technical Data: Alpha is based on numbers and colors that correspond in vibration to one another and to your chakras, so each number must be seen with the right color 7 is red, 6 is orange, 5 is yellow, 4 is green, 3 is blue, 2 is indigo, 1 is violate, the reason 2 is darker than 1 is because it takes you to the lowest level of alpha and then the lighter colored 1 will bring you back up a little bit so that you may be aware. Please note!! Count from 7 to 1, The chart below lists them in ascending order simply because you are taking the 7 which is at the "root or earth" level, and going higher to Divine Guidance. Alpha is the state of consciousness between being totally awake and almost asleep. Your brain waves register at seven to fourteen cycles per second. It is a state associated with relaxation, meditation, and dreaming. The faster fourteen to thirty cycles of the betas occur when we are mentally alert, awake, and engaged in physical activity.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 4/20

The brain waves are as follows: Beta waves: 14 to 30 cps Alpha waves : 7 to 14 cps Theta waves: 4 to 7 cps Delta waves: 1 to 3 cps * Spiritual Note : When you are in alpha, you are able to perform tasks that are ordinarily not available without it, such as: telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition. Out of body and/or astral projection are also experiences you may want to focus on after you get into the meditation. The Basic Meditation : Grounding and Centering: Sit comfortably and center yourself. Taking a deep breath in, you will center yourself, letting go of all worries and stress, focusing on only the meditation. Feel your bottom on the floor or your feet firmly planted on the ground. Really connect to mother earth, grow roots into her to help you ground more or just sit and feel the connection between you two. You should feel calm and your mind should be starting to quiet down. Count down :

Spiritual Note: At this point you will call in your Divine Guidance to be with you in the form of prayer. Being grounded and centered when you pray and just before meditation allows you to see exactly what you are asking for. For this simple meditation for now, we will simply call in our Divine Guidance to ask them to be with us, and protect us, and ask them to impart to you any messages you may need to hear. The Meditation: Once centered, with your eyes closed, you will see in front of you a blank screen, it can be any color you like, white, black, etc. On your screen see a red 7, hold it till you feel it's vibration or till you feel you are connected with the red 7, once you are connected to it, let it go, and see an orange 6, you will hold this till you feel connected, then let it go. Now see a yellow 5, hold it, let it go, then a green 4, hold it, then let it go, now see a blue 3, hold it and let it go, now a dark purple (indigo) 2, hold it , let it go, then a violet 1 (light purple), hold it, and let it go. Note : You will now feel a shift in your consciousness going from the normal state into the alpha state, your mind will go deeply into the alpha state and then when you get to the one, you will feel a slight lift into a more comfortable alpha. Count from 1 to 10 to deepen the level. Once you have counted to 10 you will then go into any type of meditation you wish, but for beginners please sit quietly and relax letting yourself check out your new world. you are now in meditation and will not be harmed on any level when you are ready to come out of alpha, you simply count from 10 to 1 and come back up. Take a deep breath and open your eyes thank your guides and anyone that joined you and write down your journey in your journal. Pretty simple. If you have any questions or would like to be taught this meditation in person, Please contact <a href=mailto:Shevon@cyrstallotustemple.com?subject=Personal%20Meditation%20Session>Rev. Shevon and set up an appointment.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 5/20

____________________________________________________________________

Alpha State of Mind Here is my quick step-by-step script for accessing your alpha state of mind. Sit up straight in a comfortable position Become aware that you are tense. Say to yourself Alert Mind, Calm Body. Smile, relax your face, relax your jaw, and sparkle inwards with the intent of entering your alpha state of mind.

Inhale to the count of three, imagining air (in the seven colors of the rainbow) coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the colors. Exhale, letting jaw, tongue, shoulders go limp and feeling heaviness leave the body.

Start with Red. Imagine the color RED coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the color red with every cell of the body absorbing the color red now.

Breathing slowly, deeply and rhythmically let the red become a mist all around you, slowly vaporizing away. Saying: As I feel I am drifting towards the alpha state of mind now.

Next. Imagine the color ORANGE coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the color orange with every cell of the body absorbing the color orange now.

Breathing slowly, deeply and rhythmically let the orange become a mist all around you, slowly vaporizing away. Saying: As my brainwaves change to the alpha state of mind now.

Then.. Imagine the color YELLOW coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the color yellow with every cell of the body absorbing the color yellow now.

Breathing slowly, deeply and rhythmically let the yellow become a mist all around you, slowly vaporizing away. Saying: As I understand Im nearly in the alpha state of mind now.

Now.. Imagine the color GREEN coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the color green with every cell of the body absorbing the color green now.

Breathing slowly, deeply and rhythmically let the green become a mist all around you, slowly vaporizing away. Saying: As I love relaxing into the alpha state of mind now.

Imagine the color BLUE coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the color blue with every cell of the body absorbing the color blue now.

Breathing slowly, deeply and rhythmically let the blue become a mist all around you, slowly vaporizing away. Saying: As I know Im in the alpha state of mind now.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 6/20

Imagine the color PURPLE coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the color purple with every cell of the body absorbing the color purple now.

Breathing slowly, deeply and rhythmically let the purple become a mist all around you, slowly vaporizing away. Saying: As I know Im in the alpha state of mind now. Finally... Imagine the color of INDIGO or VIOLET coming up from soles of feet, through legs, into your belly and stomach. Then imagine being filled completely by the color indigo with every cell of the body absorbing the color of indigo or violet now. Breathing slowly, deeply and rhythmically let the indigo become a mist all around you, slowly vaporizing away. Saying: As I am deeper in the alpha state of mind now. Staying relaxed, either continue in meditation and creative visualization, or while still listening to the Alpha Entrainment MP3, gently open your eyes and while maintaining your alpha state of mind continue with the develop psychic ability exercises on the previous page. When finished with this alpha state of mind meditation, open your eyes and stand up straight, stretch your arms out and up-wards. Then clap your hands together and say out loud Im wide awake, fully refreshed and feeling fantastic. ____________________________________________________________________ Neurophysiology of Meditation By simple definition, meditation is engagement in contemplation, especially of a spiritual or devotional nature. To elaborate further, meditation is an attempt to concentrate mind on a single form or an idea or an aspect of divinity at the exclusion of all other forms and the ideas. The mind is focused inwards, and this effort of concentration acts as stimulus to gain access to the knowledge of the object of meditation. An attempt is made to control the sense perceptions (special senses like touch, sight, hearing, etc.), as well as thoughts, in favor of inner contemplation. The mind, as if, is made still. Meditation may be, therefore, taken as 'passive' activity! But is it really so? Tremendous changes observed in the human brain and nervous system during mediation run contrary to this belief of 'passivity' attached to meditation. Unprecedented progress and research in neurobiology, investigative neurology, and study of neurotransmitters in the last two decades has given a great fillip to the study of Neurophysiology of meditation and Yoga. Altered State of Consciousness can be brought about by hypnosis, drugs (e. g. LSD), sleep, etc., but here we are trying to study a state specific science of altered consciousness brought about by meditation alone. We shall attempt to review the progress in neurobiology in the recent years. In the following article an attempt is made to throw light on this new and fascinating subject. The terms used are technical, but, as far as possible, an attempt is made to simplify the description. This attempt to explain the Neurophysiology is purely hypothetical. Meditation and Changes in Neurophysiology: In an attempt to enter into a state of altered consciousness, the Yogi try to concentrate, contemplate and meditate on a single idea or a form related with divine or spiritual. The brain may perceive this as psychological stimuli. One of the ways to control physiological reactions to psychological events is meditation, Yoga, Zen Buddhism etc. A few scientists had taken Transcendental Meditation (TM) as the uniform technique, and had based their observations on the study of the subjects engaged in this form of meditation. In summing up the results they confirmed that the effect of meditation was a "wakeful, hypo-metabolic state". They concluded that the pattern of changes generated was mediated through the control of autonomic nervous system in the brain (limbic system) and spinal cord. They have found that: 1. Yogis could slow both heartbeat and rate of respiration, 2. Yogis could slow the rate of metabolism as confirmed by decreased oxygen consumption and carbon-di-oxide output. 3. EEG in Yogis showed changes of calmness in the form of alpha rhythm activity during both eyes closed and open recording. 4. Their skin resistance to electric stimulation was increased (indicating increased tolerance to external stimuli). In the early history of mankind the 'defense-alarm' reaction to psychological and physical stress was in the form of "fright, flight, and fight" mediated through the over-secretion of neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators dopamine and adrenaline by stimulation of sympathetic nervous system. We reflexively become panicky, our blood pressure increases, and stress and anxiety are the end results if we allow our natural age-old sympathetic reactions come to surface. We try to run away or fight the situation. But today these 'defense-alarm' reactions have no place in our lives. Rather, they should be replaced by more calm and serene reactions of equanimity and peace. The need is to just 'face the brute, and it will go away'. Such desirable reactions of contemplation and peaceful attitude are generated by Yoga and meditation.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 7/20

Here the usually dominant action mode is suppressed in favor of receptive mode that brings peace and bliss even in the disturbing circumstances. It is thought that the left half of the brain is dominant in right-handed people, while right half is said to be nondominant. However, the transfer of functions from one half to another can occur with learning and practice. This has been shown to occur in persons who had neurological damage to one side of the brain. Increasing knowledge of neurobiology and brain imaging techniques is further reinforcing the role of plasticity after neuronal damage with the stimuli from practice, intense concentration and experiences. EEG Studies on Yogis and The Zen Meditations Yogis practicing Raja-Yoga claim that during the state of Samadhi they are oblivious to the internal and external stimuli, and they enjoy a calm ecstasy during that state. A study was undertaken to record the electrical activity of their brain during this state by means of a regular and useful test known as electroencephalography- EEG. Physiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the basis of the conscious state of the brain, among other things, is activation of the reticular system of the brain stem through internal and external stimuli. These stimuli bring about various changes during sleep and wakeful states of the organism that can be studied by EEG. The study was carried out on four subjects during the state of concentration and meditation. Effects of external stimuli, like a gong, strong light, thermal simulation, and vibrations were studied. The results were compiled and analyzed. It was observed that two Yogis could keep their hands immersed in very cold water for 50 minutes or so (raised pain threshold). During the state of meditation, all of them showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude wave pattern, both during eyes closed and open recording. It was observed that these alpha activities could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation. It was also observed that those who had well-marked alpha activity in their normal resting records showed greater aptitude and zeal for maintaining the practice of Yoga. Similar observations and results were obtained when EEGs were recorded in persons adept in Zen Meditative technique. Discussion and Conclusion Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators: These are chemical substances released at the neuronal junction (Synapses). They act by altering the electrical membrane potential by opening up channels that permit diffusion of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium ions in and out of the nerve cell. They not only transmit the message from one cell to another, but also selectively facilitate some information while inhibiting the other. Moreover, the action of Calcium ions permits transfer of electrical events into molecular changes that can alter functions of the nerve cells permanently, i.e. change cellular function to subserve a memory or learning response. Neuro-modulators affect the neurotransmitters by influencing neuronal plasticity, growth, or differentiation. Different types of receptors as present in different regions of brain can account for the complex multiple effects of medications, meditation, concentration, and contemplation. This may be effected through actions of specific type of neurotransmitter and neuro-receptor. For example, a sub-type of glutamate receptor appears to mediate the function of brain plasticity, a process considered important in learning and memory. Acetylcholine helps in memory, motivation, perception and cognition. It is also involved in attention and arousal functions of ascending reticular system. Decrease in the levels of this neuro-modulator leads to loss of memory, senile dementiaAlzheimer's disease. Excess of Serotonin, another important neuro-modulator, leads to hallucinations, as seen in LSD consumption, which causes increase in Serotonin level. This discovery brought into focus the correlation between behavior and variation in brain Serotonin content. Selective depletion of Serotonin, in animals, causes prolonged wakefulness. It also plays important role in circadian rhythm and sleep cycle. Other neurotransmitters and modulators like nor-epinephrine cause changes in mood-excess leading to elation, and deficiency causing nervous depression. It also controls food intake, regulates body temperature, and hormonal secretions. Excess of dopamine level is responsible for schizophrenia and psychosis. Nerve growth factor is a hormone like peptide that is responsible for the growth and maintenance of various brain structures. The Plausible Hypothesis To explain the altered state of consciousness brought about by intense and prolonged mediation a Plausible Hypothesis may be constructed as follows: The evolutionary process adds higher centers to the primitive nervous system. These higher centers have inhibitory influence over the lower centers. Thus, the brain stem is controlled by limbic system and limbic system in turn is controlled by the higher new brain center - neo-cortex. The neuro-modulators with their influence on various neurotransmitters effectively bring about this inhibitory modification in inter-relation amongst various brain centers (hierarchy). For instance, involuntary movements are suppressed by basal ganglia through the action of dopamine and acetylcholine synergy. Any imbalance in these neuro-modulators causes involuntary movements like chorea and tremors. Similarly, loss of cortical control over the motor neurons of spinal cord leads to exaggerated muscle and tendon jerks due loss of inhibitory control of the higher cortex. Neo-cortex keeps all the involuntary movements, hyper-reflexivity, rage, aggression, and similar animal tendencies under check so that it can effectively pursue its own highly developed activities of logic, memory, reason, language, calculations, judgment, and concepts, etc. Conscious, willful, imaginative functions are therefore, normal state of awareness of the human beings. When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain qualitative and quantitative permanent changes develop in the nervous system. The neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators may stimulate growth of dormant or latent neurons to develop a center (or centers), which on the evolutionary ladder is/are still higher than the present day cerebral cortex. The brain may develop new connections and plasticity resulting in the capacity to think, to rationalize, and react in a different way to the sensory input than what is
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 8/20

expected by present day physiologists. For want of name, we may label it as 'God Module'. This higher center will exert inhibitory control over the present day neo-cortex, and thereby, over the mind as a whole (consciousness, reasoning, conceptual thinking, willing, feeling, and doing, etc.)! The consciousness and all mental activities will hence be suppressed. The person will reach a state beyond mind itself-transcendental awareness! "The spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state, after which the mind itself will cease to be, and there will remain only non-dual experience."

Dr. CS Shah January 11, 2000 By simple definition, meditation is engagement in contemplation, especially of a spiritual or devotional nature. To elaborate further, meditation is an attempt to concentrate mind on a single form or an idea or an aspect of divinity at the exclusion of all other forms and the ideas. The mind is focused inwards, and this effort of concentration acts as stimulus to gain access to the knowledge of the object of meditation. An attempt is made to control the sense perceptions (special senses like touch, sight, hearing, etc.), as well as thoughts, in favor of inner contemplation. The mind, as if, is made still. Meditation may be, therefore, taken as 'passive' activity! But is it really so? Tremendous changes observed in the human brain and nervous system during mediation run contrary to this belief of 'passivity' attached to meditation. Unprecedented progress and research in neurobiology, investigative neurology, and study of neurotransmitters in the last two decades has given a great fillip to the study of Neurophysiology of meditation and Yoga. Altered State of Consciousness can be brought about by hypnosis, drugs (e. g. LSD), sleep, etc., but here we are trying to study a state specific science of altered consciousness brought about by meditation alone. We shall attempt to review the progress in neurobiology in the recent years. In the following article an attempt is made to throw light on this new and fascinating subject. The terms used are technical, but, as far as possible, an attempt is made to simplify the description. This attempt to explain the Neurophysiology is purely hypothetical. Meditation and Changes in Neurophysiology: In an attempt to enter into a state of altered consciousness, the Yogi try to concentrate, contemplate and meditate on a single idea or a form related with divine or spiritual. The brain may perceive this as psychological stimuli. One of the ways to control physiological reactions to psychological events is meditation, Yoga, Zen Buddhism etc. A few scientists had taken Transcendental Meditation (TM) as the uniform technique, and had based their observations on the study of the subjects engaged in this form of meditation. In summing up the results they confirmed that the effect of meditation was a "wakeful, hypo-metabolic state". They concluded that the pattern of changes generated was mediated through the control of autonomic nervous system in the brain (limbic system) and spinal cord. They have found that: 1. Yogis could slow both heartbeat and rate of respiration, 2. Yogis could slow the rate of metabolism as confirmed by decreased oxygen consumption and carbon-di-oxide output. 3. EEG in Yogis showed changes of calmness in the form of alpha rhythm activity during both eyes closed and open recording. 4. Their skin resistance to electric stimulation was increased (indicating increased tolerance to external stimuli). In the early history of mankind the 'defense-alarm' reaction to psychological and physical stress was in the form of "fright, flight, and fight" mediated through the over-secretion of neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators dopamine and adrenaline by stimulation of sympathetic nervous system. We reflexively become panicky, our blood pressure increases, and stress and anxiety are the end results if we allow our natural age-old sympathetic reactions come to surface. We try to run away or fight the situation. But today these 'defense-alarm' reactions have no place in our lives. Rather, they should be replaced by more calm and serene reactions of equanimity and peace. The need is to just 'face the brute, and it will go away'. Such desirable reactions of contemplation and peaceful attitude are generated by Yoga and meditation. Here the usually dominant action mode is suppressed in favor of receptive mode that brings peace and bliss even in the disturbing circumstances. It is thought that the left half of the brain is dominant in right-handed people, while right half is said to be nondominant. However, the transfer of functions from one half to another can occur with learning and practice. This has been shown to occur in persons who had neurological damage to one side of the brain. Increasing knowledge of neurobiology and brain imaging techniques is further reinforcing the role of plasticity after neuronal damage with the stimuli from practice, intense concentration and experiences. EEG Studies on Yogis and The Zen Meditations Yogis practicing Raja-Yoga claim that during the state of Samadhi they are oblivious to the internal and external stimuli, and they enjoy a calm ecstasy during that state. A study was undertaken to record the electrical activity of their brain during this state by means of a regular and useful test known as electroencephalography- EEG. Physiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the basis of the conscious state of the brain, among other things, is activation of the reticular system of the brain stem through internal and external stimuli. These stimuli bring about various changes during sleep and wakeful states of the
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 9/20

organism that can be studied by EEG. The study was carried out on four subjects during the state of concentration and meditation. Effects of external stimuli, like a gong, strong light, thermal simulation, and vibrations were studied. The results were compiled and analyzed. It was observed that two Yogis could keep their hands immersed in very cold water for 50 minutes or so (raised pain threshold). During the state of meditation, all of them showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude wave pattern, both during eyes closed and open recording. It was observed that these alpha activities could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation. It was also observed that those who had well-marked alpha activity in their normal resting records showed greater aptitude and zeal for maintaining the practice of Yoga. Similar observations and results were obtained when EEGs were recorded in persons adept in Zen Meditative technique. Discussion and Conclusion Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators: These are chemical substances released at the neuronal junction (Synapses). They act by altering the electrical membrane potential by opening up channels that permit diffusion of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium ions in and out of the nerve cell. They not only transmit the message from one cell to another, but also selectively facilitate some information while inhibiting the other. Moreover, the action of Calcium ions permits transfer of electrical events into molecular changes that can alter functions of the nerve cells permanently, i.e. change cellular function to subserve a memory or learning response. Neuro-modulators affect the neurotransmitters by influencing neuronal plasticity, growth, or differentiation. Different types of receptors as present in different regions of brain can account for the complex multiple effects of medications, meditation, concentration, and contemplation. This may be effected through actions of specific type of neurotransmitter and neuro-receptor. For example, a sub-type of glutamate receptor appears to mediate the function of brain plasticity, a process considered important in learning and memory. Acetylcholine helps in memory, motivation, perception and cognition. It is also involved in attention and arousal functions of ascending reticular system. Decrease in the levels of this neuro-modulator leads to loss of memory, senile dementiaAlzheimer's disease. Excess of Serotonin, another important neuro-modulator, leads to hallucinations, as seen in LSD consumption, which causes increase in Serotonin level. This discovery brought into focus the correlation between behavior and variation in brain Serotonin content. Selective depletion of Serotonin, in animals, causes prolonged wakefulness. It also plays important role in circadian rhythm and sleep cycle. Other neurotransmitters and modulators like nor-epinephrine cause changes in mood-excess leading to elation, and deficiency causing nervous depression. It also controls food intake, regulates body temperature, and hormonal secretions. Excess of dopamine level is responsible for schizophrenia and psychosis. Nerve growth factor is a hormone like peptide that is responsible for the growth and maintenance of various brain structures. The Plausible Hypothesis To explain the altered state of consciousness brought about by intense and prolonged mediation a Plausible Hypothesis may be constructed as follows: The evolutionary process adds higher centers to the primitive nervous system. These higher centers have inhibitory influence over the lower centers. Thus, the brain stem is controlled by limbic system and limbic system in turn is controlled by the higher new brain center - neo-cortex. The neuro-modulators with their influence on various neurotransmitters effectively bring about this inhibitory modification in inter-relation amongst various brain centers (hierarchy). For instance, involuntary movements are suppressed by basal ganglia through the action of dopamine and acetylcholine synergy. Any imbalance in these neuro-modulators causes involuntary movements like chorea and tremors. Similarly, loss of cortical control over the motor neurons of spinal cord leads to exaggerated muscle and tendon jerks due loss of inhibitory control of the higher cortex. Neo-cortex keeps all the involuntary movements, hyper-reflexivity, rage, aggression, and similar animal tendencies under check so that it can effectively pursue its own highly developed activities of logic, memory, reason, language, calculations, judgment, and concepts, etc. Conscious, willful, imaginative functions are therefore, normal state of awareness of the human beings. When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain qualitative and quantitative permanent changes develop in the nervous system. The neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators may stimulate growth of dormant or latent neurons to develop a center (or centers), which on the evolutionary ladder is/are still higher than the present day cerebral cortex. The brain may develop new connections and plasticity resulting in the capacity to think, to rationalize, and react in a different way to the sensory input than what is expected by present day physiologists. For want of name, we may label it as 'God Module'. This higher center will exert inhibitory control over the present day neo-cortex, and thereby, over the mind as a whole (consciousness, reasoning, conceptual thinking, willing, feeling, and doing, etc.)! The consciousness and all mental activities will hence be suppressed. The person will reach a state beyond mind itself-transcendental awareness! "The spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state, after which the mind itself will cease to be, and there will remain only non-dual experience."

Dr. CS Shah January 11, 2000

www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm

10/20

By simple definition, meditation is engagement in contemplation, especially of a spiritual or devotional nature. To elaborate further, meditation is an attempt to concentrate mind on a single form or an idea or an aspect of divinity at the exclusion of all other forms and the ideas. The mind is focused inwards, and this effort of concentration acts as stimulus to gain access to the knowledge of the object of meditation. An attempt is made to control the sense perceptions (special senses like touch, sight, hearing, etc.), as well as thoughts, in favor of inner contemplation. The mind, as if, is made still. Meditation may be, therefore, taken as 'passive' activity! But is it really so? Tremendous changes observed in the human brain and nervous system during mediation run contrary to this belief of 'passivity' attached to meditation. Unprecedented progress and research in neurobiology, investigative neurology, and study of neurotransmitters in the last two decades has given a great fillip to the study of Neurophysiology of meditation and Yoga. Altered State of Consciousness can be brought about by hypnosis, drugs (e. g. LSD), sleep, etc., but here we are trying to study a state specific science of altered consciousness brought about by meditation alone.

We shall attempt to review the progress in neurobiology in the recent years. In the following article an attempt is made to throw light on this new and fascinating subject. The terms used are technical, but, as far as possible, an attempt is made to simplify the description. This attempt to explain the Neurophysiology is purely hypothetical. Meditation and Changes in Neurophysiology: In an attempt to enter into a state of altered consciousness, the Yogi try to concentrate, contemplate and meditate on a single idea or a form related with divine or spiritual. The brain may perceive this as psychological stimuli. One of the ways to control physiological reactions to psychological events is meditation, Yoga, Zen Buddhism etc. A few scientists had taken Transcendental Meditation (TM) as the uniform technique, and had based their observations on the study of the subjects engaged in this form of meditation. In summing up the results they confirmed that the effect of meditation was a "wakeful, hypo-metabolic state". They concluded that the pattern of changes generated was mediated through the control of autonomic nervous system in the brain (limbic system) and spinal cord. They have found that: 1. Yogis could slow both heartbeat and rate of respiration, 2. Yogis could slow the rate of metabolism as confirmed by decreased oxygen consumption and carbon-di-oxide output. 3. EEG in Yogis showed changes of calmness in the form of alpha rhythm activity during both eyes closed and open recording. 4. Their skin resistance to electric stimulation was increased (indicating increased tolerance to external stimuli). In the early history of mankind the 'defense-alarm' reaction to psychological and physical stress was in the form of "fright, flight, and fight" mediated through the over-secretion of neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators dopamine and adrenaline by stimulation of sympathetic nervous system. We reflexively become panicky, our blood pressure increases, and stress and anxiety are the end results if we allow our natural age-old sympathetic reactions come to surface. We try to run away or fight the situation. But today these 'defense-alarm' reactions have no place in our lives. Rather, they should be replaced by more calm and serene reactions of equanimity and peace. The need is to just 'face the brute, and it will go away'. Such desirable reactions of contemplation and peaceful attitude are generated by Yoga and meditation. Here the usually dominant action mode is suppressed in favor of receptive mode that brings peace and bliss even in the disturbing circumstances. It is thought that the left half of the brain is dominant in right-handed people, while right half is said to be nondominant. However, the transfer of functions from one half to another can occur with learning and practice. This has been shown to occur in persons who had neurological damage to one side of the brain. Increasing knowledge of neurobiology and brain imaging techniques is further reinforcing the role of plasticity after neuronal damage with the stimuli from practice, intense concentration and experiences. EEG Studies on Yogis and The Zen Meditations Yogis practicing Raja-Yoga claim that during the state of Samadhi they are oblivious to the internal and external stimuli, and they enjoy a calm ecstasy during that state. A study was undertaken to record the electrical activity of their brain during this state by means of a regular and useful test known as electroencephalography- EEG. Physiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the basis of the conscious state of the brain, among other things, is activation of the reticular system of the brain stem through internal and external stimuli. These stimuli bring about various changes during sleep and wakeful states of the organism that can be studied by EEG. The study was carried out on four subjects during the state of concentration and meditation. Effects of external stimuli, like a gong, strong light, thermal simulation, and vibrations were studied. The results were compiled and analyzed. It was observed that two Yogis could keep their hands immersed in very cold water for 50 minutes or so (raised pain threshold). During the state of meditation, all of them showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude wave pattern, both during eyes closed and open recording. It was observed that these alpha activities could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation. It was also observed that those who had well-marked alpha activity in their normal resting records showed greater aptitude and zeal for maintaining the practice of Yoga. Similar observations and results were obtained when EEGs were recorded in persons adept in Zen Meditative technique.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 11/20

Discussion and Conclusion Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators: These are chemical substances released at the neuronal junction (Synapses). They act by altering the electrical membrane potential by opening up channels that permit diffusion of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium ions in and out of the nerve cell. They not only transmit the message from one cell to another, but also selectively facilitate some information while inhibiting the other. Moreover, the action of Calcium ions permits transfer of electrical events into molecular changes that can alter functions of the nerve cells permanently, i.e. change cellular function to subserve a memory or learning response. Neuro-modulators affect the neurotransmitters by influencing neuronal plasticity, growth, or differentiation. Different types of receptors as present in different regions of brain can account for the complex multiple effects of medications, meditation, concentration, and contemplation. This may be effected through actions of specific type of neurotransmitter and neuro-receptor. For example, a sub-type of glutamate receptor appears to mediate the function of brain plasticity, a process considered important in learning and memory. Acetylcholine helps in memory, motivation, perception and cognition. It is also involved in attention and arousal functions of ascending reticular system. Decrease in the levels of this neuro-modulator leads to loss of memory, senile dementiaAlzheimer's disease. Excess of Serotonin, another important neuro-modulator, leads to hallucinations, as seen in LSD consumption, which causes increase in Serotonin level. This discovery brought into focus the correlation between behavior and variation in brain Serotonin content. Selective depletion of Serotonin, in animals, causes prolonged wakefulness. It also plays important role in circadian rhythm and sleep cycle. Other neurotransmitters and modulators like nor-epinephrine cause changes in mood-excess leading to elation, and deficiency causing nervous depression. It also controls food intake, regulates body temperature, and hormonal secretions. Excess of dopamine level is responsible for schizophrenia and psychosis. Nerve growth factor is a hormone like peptide that is responsible for the growth and maintenance of various brain structures. The Plausible Hypothesis To explain the altered state of consciousness brought about by intense and prolonged mediation a Plausible Hypothesis may be constructed as follows: The evolutionary process adds higher centers to the primitive nervous system. These higher centers have inhibitory influence over the lower centers. Thus, the brain stem is controlled by limbic system and limbic system in turn is controlled by the higher new brain center - neo-cortex. The neuro-modulators with their influence on various neurotransmitters effectively bring about this inhibitory modification in inter-relation amongst various brain centers (hierarchy). For instance, involuntary movements are suppressed by basal ganglia through the action of dopamine and acetylcholine synergy. Any imbalance in these neuro-modulators causes involuntary movements like chorea and tremors. Similarly, loss of cortical control over the motor neurons of spinal cord leads to exaggerated muscle and tendon jerks due loss of inhibitory control of the higher cortex. Neo-cortex keeps all the involuntary movements, hyper-reflexivity, rage, aggression, and similar animal tendencies under check so that it can effectively pursue its own highly developed activities of logic, memory, reason, language, calculations, judgment, and concepts, etc. Conscious, willful, imaginative functions are therefore, normal state of awareness of the human beings. When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain qualitative and quantitative permanent changes develop in the nervous system. The neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators may stimulate growth of dormant or latent neurons to develop a center (or centers), which on the evolutionary ladder is/are still higher than the present day cerebral cortex. The brain may develop new connections and plasticity resulting in the capacity to think, to rationalize, and react in a different way to the sensory input than what is expected by present day physiologists. For want of name, we may label it as 'God Module'. This higher center will exert inhibitory control over the present day neo-cortex, and thereby, over the mind as a whole (consciousness, reasoning, conceptual thinking, willing, feeling, and doing, etc.)! The consciousness and all mental activities will hence be suppressed. The person will reach a state beyond mind itself-transcendental awareness! "The spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state, after which the mind itself will cease to be, and there will remain only non-dual experience."

Dr. CS Shah January 11, 2000 By simple definition, meditation is engagement in contemplation, especially of a spiritual or devotional nature. To elaborate further, meditation is an attempt to concentrate mind on a single form or an idea or an aspect of divinity at the exclusion of all other forms and the ideas. The mind is focused inwards, and this effort of concentration acts as stimulus to gain access to the knowledge of the object of meditation. An attempt is made to control the sense perceptions (special senses like touch, sight, hearing, etc.), as well as thoughts, in favor of inner contemplation. The mind, as if, is made still. Meditation may be, therefore, taken as 'passive' activity! But is it really so? Tremendous changes observed in the human brain and nervous system during mediation run contrary to this belief of 'passivity' attached to meditation. Unprecedented progress and research in neurobiology, investigative neurology, and study of neurotransmitters in the last two decades has given a great fillip to the study of Neurophysiology of meditation and Yoga. Altered State of Consciousness can be brought about by hypnosis, drugs (e. g. LSD), sleep, etc., but here we are trying to study a state
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 12/20

specific science of altered consciousness brought about by meditation alone. We shall attempt to review the progress in neurobiology in the recent years. In the following article an attempt is made to throw light on this new and fascinating subject. The terms used are technical, but, as far as possible, an attempt is made to simplify the description. This attempt to explain the Neurophysiology is purely hypothetical. Meditation and Changes in Neurophysiology: In an attempt to enter into a state of altered consciousness, the Yogi try to concentrate, contemplate and meditate on a single idea or a form related with divine or spiritual. The brain may perceive this as psychological stimuli. One of the ways to control physiological reactions to psychological events is meditation, Yoga, Zen Buddhism etc. A few scientists had taken Transcendental Meditation (TM) as the uniform technique, and had based their observations on the study of the subjects engaged in this form of meditation. In summing up the results they confirmed that the effect of meditation was a "wakeful, hypo-metabolic state". They concluded that the pattern of changes generated was mediated through the control of autonomic nervous system in the brain (limbic system) and spinal cord. They have found that: 1. Yogis could slow both heartbeat and rate of respiration, 2. Yogis could slow the rate of metabolism as confirmed by decreased oxygen consumption and carbon-di-oxide output. 3. EEG in Yogis showed changes of calmness in the form of alpha rhythm activity during both eyes closed and open recording. 4. Their skin resistance to electric stimulation was increased (indicating increased tolerance to external stimuli). In the early history of mankind the 'defense-alarm' reaction to psychological and physical stress was in the form of "fright, flight, and fight" mediated through the over-secretion of neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators dopamine and adrenaline by stimulation of sympathetic nervous system. We reflexively become panicky, our blood pressure increases, and stress and anxiety are the end results if we allow our natural age-old sympathetic reactions come to surface. We try to run away or fight the situation. But today these 'defense-alarm' reactions have no place in our lives. Rather, they should be replaced by more calm and serene reactions of equanimity and peace. The need is to just 'face the brute, and it will go away'. Such desirable reactions of contemplation and peaceful attitude are generated by Yoga and meditation. Here the usually dominant action mode is suppressed in favor of receptive mode that brings peace and bliss even in the disturbing circumstances. It is thought that the left half of the brain is dominant in right-handed people, while right half is said to be nondominant. However, the transfer of functions from one half to another can occur with learning and practice. This has been shown to occur in persons who had neurological damage to one side of the brain. Increasing knowledge of neurobiology and brain imaging techniques is further reinforcing the role of plasticity after neuronal damage with the stimuli from practice, intense concentration and experiences. EEG Studies on Yogis and The Zen Meditations Yogis practicing Raja-Yoga claim that during the state of Samadhi they are oblivious to the internal and external stimuli, and they enjoy a calm ecstasy during that state. A study was undertaken to record the electrical activity of their brain during this state by means of a regular and useful test known as electroencephalography- EEG. Physiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the basis of the conscious state of the brain, among other things, is activation of the reticular system of the brain stem through internal and external stimuli. These stimuli bring about various changes during sleep and wakeful states of the organism that can be studied by EEG. The study was carried out on four subjects during the state of concentration and meditation. Effects of external stimuli, like a gong, strong light, thermal simulation, and vibrations were studied. The results were compiled and analyzed. It was observed that two Yogis could keep their hands immersed in very cold water for 50 minutes or so (raised pain threshold). During the state of meditation, all of them showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude wave pattern, both during eyes closed and open recording. It was observed that these alpha activities could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation. It was also observed that those who had well-marked alpha activity in their normal resting records showed greater aptitude and zeal for maintaining the practice of Yoga. Similar observations and results were obtained when EEGs were recorded in persons adept in Zen Meditative technique. Discussion and Conclusion Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators: These are chemical substances released at the neuronal junction (Synapses). They act by altering the electrical membrane potential by opening up channels that permit diffusion of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium ions in and out of the nerve cell. They not only transmit the message from one cell to another, but also selectively facilitate some information while inhibiting the other. Moreover, the action of Calcium ions permits transfer of electrical events into molecular changes that can alter functions of the nerve cells permanently, i.e. change cellular function to subserve a memory or learning response. Neuro-modulators affect the neurotransmitters by influencing neuronal plasticity, growth, or differentiation. Different types of receptors as present in different regions of brain can account for the complex multiple effects of medications, meditation, concentration, and contemplation. This may be effected through actions of specific type of neurotransmitter and neuro-receptor. For example, a sub-type of glutamate receptor appears to mediate the function of brain plasticity, a process considered important in
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 13/20

learning and memory. Acetylcholine helps in memory, motivation, perception and cognition. It is also involved in attention and arousal functions of ascending reticular system. Decrease in the levels of this neuro-modulator leads to loss of memory, senile dementiaAlzheimer's disease. Excess of Serotonin, another important neuro-modulator, leads to hallucinations, as seen in LSD consumption, which causes increase in Serotonin level. This discovery brought into focus the correlation between behavior and variation in brain Serotonin content. Selective depletion of Serotonin, in animals, causes prolonged wakefulness. It also plays important role in circadian rhythm and sleep cycle. Other neurotransmitters and modulators like nor-epinephrine cause changes in mood-excess leading to elation, and deficiency causing nervous depression. It also controls food intake, regulates body temperature, and hormonal secretions. Excess of dopamine level is responsible for schizophrenia and psychosis. Nerve growth factor is a hormone like peptide that is responsible for the growth and maintenance of various brain structures. The Plausible Hypothesis To explain the altered state of consciousness brought about by intense and prolonged mediation a Plausible Hypothesis may be constructed as follows: The evolutionary process adds higher centers to the primitive nervous system. These higher centers have inhibitory influence over the lower centers. Thus, the brain stem is controlled by limbic system and limbic system in turn is controlled by the higher new brain center - neo-cortex. The neuro-modulators with their influence on various neurotransmitters effectively bring about this inhibitory modification in inter-relation amongst various brain centers (hierarchy). For instance, involuntary movements are suppressed by basal ganglia through the action of dopamine and acetylcholine synergy. Any imbalance in these neuro-modulators causes involuntary movements like chorea and tremors. Similarly, loss of cortical control over the motor neurons of spinal cord leads to exaggerated muscle and tendon jerks due loss of inhibitory control of the higher cortex. Neo-cortex keeps all the involuntary movements, hyper-reflexivity, rage, aggression, and similar animal tendencies under check so that it can effectively pursue its own highly developed activities of logic, memory, reason, language, calculations, judgment, and concepts, etc. Conscious, willful, imaginative functions are therefore, normal state of awareness of the human beings. When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain qualitative and quantitative permanent changes develop in the nervous system. The neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators may stimulate growth of dormant or latent neurons to develop a center (or centers), which on the evolutionary ladder is/are still higher than the present day cerebral cortex. The brain may develop new connections and plasticity resulting in the capacity to think, to rationalize, and react in a different way to the sensory input than what is expected by present day physiologists. For want of name, we may label it as 'God Module'. This higher center will exert inhibitory control over the present day neo-cortex, and thereby, over the mind as a whole (consciousness, reasoning, conceptual thinking, willing, feeling, and doing, etc.)! The consciousness and all mental activities will hence be suppressed. The person will reach a state beyond mind itself-transcendental awareness! "The spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state, after which the mind itself will cease to be, and there will remain only non-dual experience."

Dr. CS Shah January 11, 2000 By simple definition, meditation is engagement in contemplation, especially of a spiritual or devotional nature. To elaborate further, meditation is an attempt to concentrate mind on a single form or an idea or an aspect of divinity at the exclusion of all other forms and the ideas. The mind is focused inwards, and this effort of concentration acts as stimulus to gain access to the knowledge of the object of meditation. An attempt is made to control the sense perceptions (special senses like touch, sight, hearing, etc.), as well as thoughts, in favor of inner contemplation. The mind, as if, is made still. Meditation may be, therefore, taken as 'passive' activity! But is it really so? Tremendous changes observed in the human brain and nervous system during mediation run contrary to this belief of 'passivity' attached to meditation. Unprecedented progress and research in neurobiology, investigative neurology, and study of neurotransmitters in the last two decades has given a great fillip to the study of Neurophysiology of meditation and Yoga. Altered State of Consciousness can be brought about by hypnosis, drugs (e. g. LSD), sleep, etc., but here we are trying to study a state specific science of altered consciousness brought about by meditation alone. We shall attempt to review the progress in neurobiology in the recent years. In the following article an attempt is made to throw light on this new and fascinating subject. The terms used are technical, but, as far as possible, an attempt is made to simplify the description. This attempt to explain the Neurophysiology is purely hypothetical. Meditation and Changes in Neurophysiology: In an attempt to enter into a state of altered consciousness, the Yogi try to concentrate, contemplate and meditate on a single idea or a form related with divine or spiritual. The brain may perceive this as psychological stimuli. One of the ways to control physiological reactions to psychological events is meditation, Yoga, Zen Buddhism etc. A few scientists had taken Transcendental Meditation (TM) as the uniform technique, and had based their observations on the study of the subjects engaged in this form of meditation. In summing up the results they confirmed that the effect of meditation was a "wakeful, hypo-metabolic state". They concluded that the
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 14/20

pattern of changes generated was mediated through the control of autonomic nervous system in the brain (limbic system) and spinal cord. They have found that: 1. Yogis could slow both heartbeat and rate of respiration, 2. Yogis could slow the rate of metabolism as confirmed by decreased oxygen consumption and carbon-di-oxide output. 3. EEG in Yogis showed changes of calmness in the form of alpha rhythm activity during both eyes closed and open recording. 4. Their skin resistance to electric stimulation was increased (indicating increased tolerance to external stimuli). In the early history of mankind the 'defense-alarm' reaction to psychological and physical stress was in the form of "fright, flight, and fight" mediated through the over-secretion of neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators dopamine and adrenaline by stimulation of sympathetic nervous system. We reflexively become panicky, our blood pressure increases, and stress and anxiety are the end results if we allow our natural age-old sympathetic reactions come to surface. We try to run away or fight the situation. But today these 'defense-alarm' reactions have no place in our lives. Rather, they should be replaced by more calm and serene reactions of equanimity and peace. The need is to just 'face the brute, and it will go away'. Such desirable reactions of contemplation and peaceful attitude are generated by Yoga and meditation. Here the usually dominant action mode is suppressed in favor of receptive mode that brings peace and bliss even in the disturbing circumstances. It is thought that the left half of the brain is dominant in right-handed people, while right half is said to be nondominant. However, the transfer of functions from one half to another can occur with learning and practice. This has been shown to occur in persons who had neurological damage to one side of the brain. Increasing knowledge of neurobiology and brain imaging techniques is further reinforcing the role of plasticity after neuronal damage with the stimuli from practice, intense concentration and experiences. EEG Studies on Yogis and The Zen Meditations Yogis practicing Raja-Yoga claim that during the state of Samadhi they are oblivious to the internal and external stimuli, and they enjoy a calm ecstasy during that state. A study was undertaken to record the electrical activity of their brain during this state by means of a regular and useful test known as electroencephalography- EEG. Physiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the basis of the conscious state of the brain, among other things, is activation of the reticular system of the brain stem through internal and external stimuli. These stimuli bring about various changes during sleep and wakeful states of the organism that can be studied by EEG. The study was carried out on four subjects during the state of concentration and meditation. Effects of external stimuli, like a gong, strong light, thermal simulation, and vibrations were studied. The results were compiled and analyzed. It was observed that two Yogis could keep their hands immersed in very cold water for 50 minutes or so (raised pain threshold). During the state of meditation, all of them showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude wave pattern, both during eyes closed and open recording. It was observed that these alpha activities could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation. It was also observed that those who had well-marked alpha activity in their normal resting records showed greater aptitude and zeal for maintaining the practice of Yoga. Similar observations and results were obtained when EEGs were recorded in persons adept in Zen Meditative technique. Discussion and Conclusion Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators: These are chemical substances released at the neuronal junction (Synapses). They act by altering the electrical membrane potential by opening up channels that permit diffusion of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium ions in and out of the nerve cell. They not only transmit the message from one cell to another, but also selectively facilitate some information while inhibiting the other. Moreover, the action of Calcium ions permits transfer of electrical events into molecular changes that can alter functions of the nerve cells permanently, i.e. change cellular function to subserve a memory or learning response. Neuro-modulators affect the neurotransmitters by influencing neuronal plasticity, growth, or differentiation. Different types of receptors as present in different regions of brain can account for the complex multiple effects of medications, meditation, concentration, and contemplation. This may be effected through actions of specific type of neurotransmitter and neuro-receptor. For example, a sub-type of glutamate receptor appears to mediate the function of brain plasticity, a process considered important in learning and memory. Acetylcholine helps in memory, motivation, perception and cognition. It is also involved in attention and arousal functions of ascending reticular system. Decrease in the levels of this neuro-modulator leads to loss of memory, senile dementiaAlzheimer's disease. Excess of Serotonin, another important neuro-modulator, leads to hallucinations, as seen in LSD consumption, which causes increase in Serotonin level. This discovery brought into focus the correlation between behavior and variation in brain Serotonin content. Selective depletion of Serotonin, in animals, causes prolonged wakefulness. It also plays important role in circadian rhythm and sleep cycle. Other neurotransmitters and modulators like nor-epinephrine cause changes in mood-excess leading to elation, and deficiency causing nervous depression. It also controls food intake, regulates body temperature, and hormonal secretions. Excess of dopamine level is responsible for schizophrenia and psychosis. Nerve growth factor is a hormone like peptide that is responsible for the growth and maintenance of various brain structures.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 15/20

The Plausible Hypothesis To explain the altered state of consciousness brought about by intense and prolonged mediation a Plausible Hypothesis may be constructed as follows: The evolutionary process adds higher centers to the primitive nervous system. These higher centers have inhibitory influence over the lower centers. Thus, the brain stem is controlled by limbic system and limbic system in turn is controlled by the higher new brain center - neo-cortex. The neuro-modulators with their influence on various neurotransmitters effectively bring about this inhibitory modification in inter-relation amongst various brain centers (hierarchy). For instance, involuntary movements are suppressed by basal ganglia through the action of dopamine and acetylcholine synergy. Any imbalance in these neuro-modulators causes involuntary movements like chorea and tremors. Similarly, loss of cortical control over the motor neurons of spinal cord leads to exaggerated muscle and tendon jerks due loss of inhibitory control of the higher cortex. Neo-cortex keeps all the involuntary movements, hyper-reflexivity, rage, aggression, and similar animal tendencies under check so that it can effectively pursue its own highly developed activities of logic, memory, reason, language, calculations, judgment, and concepts, etc. Conscious, willful, imaginative functions are therefore, normal state of awareness of the human beings. When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain qualitative and quantitative permanent changes develop in the nervous system. The neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators may stimulate growth of dormant or latent neurons to develop a center (or centers), which on the evolutionary ladder is/are still higher than the present day cerebral cortex. The brain may develop new connections and plasticity resulting in the capacity to think, to rationalize, and react in a different way to the sensory input than what is expected by present day physiologists. For want of name, we may label it as 'God Module'. This higher center will exert inhibitory control over the present day neo-cortex, and thereby, over the mind as a whole (consciousness, reasoning, conceptual thinking, willing, feeling, and doing, etc.)! The consciousness and all mental activities will hence be suppressed. The person will reach a state beyond mind itself-transcendental awareness! "The spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state, after which the mind itself will cease to be, and there will remain only non-dual experience."

Dr. CS Shah January 11, 2000 By simple definition, meditation is engagement in contemplation, especially of a spiritual or devotional nature. To elaborate further, meditation is an attempt to concentrate mind on a single form or an idea or an aspect of divinity at the exclusion of all other forms and the ideas. The mind is focused inwards, and this effort of concentration acts as stimulus to gain access to the knowledge of the object of meditation. An attempt is made to control the sense perceptions (special senses like touch, sight, hearing, etc.), as well as thoughts, in favor of inner contemplation. The mind, as if, is made still. Meditation may be, therefore, taken as 'passive' activity! But is it really so? Tremendous changes observed in the human brain and nervous system during mediation run contrary to this belief of 'passivity' attached to meditation. Unprecedented progress and research in neurobiology, investigative neurology, and study of neurotransmitters in the last two decades has given a great fillip to the study of Neurophysiology of meditation and Yoga. Altered State of Consciousness can be brought about by hypnosis, drugs (e. g. LSD), sleep, etc., but here we are trying to study a state specific science of altered consciousness brought about by meditation alone. We shall attempt to review the progress in neurobiology in the recent years. In the following article an attempt is made to throw light on this new and fascinating subject. The terms used are technical, but, as far as possible, an attempt is made to simplify the description. This attempt to explain the Neurophysiology is purely hypothetical. Meditation and Changes in Neurophysiology: In an attempt to enter into a state of altered consciousness, the Yogi try to concentrate, contemplate and meditate on a single idea or a form related with divine or spiritual. The brain may perceive this as psychological stimuli. One of the ways to control physiological reactions to psychological events is meditation, Yoga, Zen Buddhism etc. A few scientists had taken Transcendental Meditation (TM) as the uniform technique, and had based their observations on the study of the subjects engaged in this form of meditation. In summing up the results they confirmed that the effect of meditation was a "wakeful, hypo-metabolic state". They concluded that the pattern of changes generated was mediated through the control of autonomic nervous system in the brain (limbic system) and spinal cord. They have found that: 1. Yogis could slow both heartbeat and rate of respiration, 2. Yogis could slow the rate of metabolism as confirmed by decreased oxygen consumption and carbon-di-oxide output. 3. EEG in Yogis showed changes of calmness in the form of alpha rhythm activity during both eyes closed and open recording. 4. Their skin resistance to electric stimulation was increased (indicating increased tolerance to external stimuli). In the early history of mankind the 'defense-alarm' reaction to psychological and physical stress was in the form of "fright, flight, and
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 16/20

fight" mediated through the over-secretion of neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators dopamine and adrenaline by stimulation of sympathetic nervous system. We reflexively become panicky, our blood pressure increases, and stress and anxiety are the end results if we allow our natural age-old sympathetic reactions come to surface. We try to run away or fight the situation. But today these 'defense-alarm' reactions have no place in our lives. Rather, they should be replaced by more calm and serene reactions of equanimity and peace. The need is to just 'face the brute, and it will go away'. Such desirable reactions of contemplation and peaceful attitude are generated by Yoga and meditation. Here the usually dominant action mode is suppressed in favor of receptive mode that brings peace and bliss even in the disturbing circumstances. It is thought that the left half of the brain is dominant in right-handed people, while right half is said to be nondominant. However, the transfer of functions from one half to another can occur with learning and practice. This has been shown to occur in persons who had neurological damage to one side of the brain. Increasing knowledge of neurobiology and brain imaging techniques is further reinforcing the role of plasticity after neuronal damage with the stimuli from practice, intense concentration and experiences. EEG Studies on Yogis and The Zen Meditations Yogis practicing Raja-Yoga claim that during the state of Samadhi they are oblivious to the internal and external stimuli, and they enjoy a calm ecstasy during that state. A study was undertaken to record the electrical activity of their brain during this state by means of a regular and useful test known as electroencephalography- EEG. Physiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the basis of the conscious state of the brain, among other things, is activation of the reticular system of the brain stem through internal and external stimuli. These stimuli bring about various changes during sleep and wakeful states of the organism that can be studied by EEG. The study was carried out on four subjects during the state of concentration and meditation. Effects of external stimuli, like a gong, strong light, thermal simulation, and vibrations were studied. The results were compiled and analyzed. It was observed that two Yogis could keep their hands immersed in very cold water for 50 minutes or so (raised pain threshold). During the state of meditation, all of them showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude wave pattern, both during eyes closed and open recording. It was observed that these alpha activities could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation. It was also observed that those who had well-marked alpha activity in their normal resting records showed greater aptitude and zeal for maintaining the practice of Yoga. Similar observations and results were obtained when EEGs were recorded in persons adept in Zen Meditative technique. Discussion and Conclusion Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators: These are chemical substances released at the neuronal junction (Synapses). They act by altering the electrical membrane potential by opening up channels that permit diffusion of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium ions in and out of the nerve cell. They not only transmit the message from one cell to another, but also selectively facilitate some information while inhibiting the other. Moreover, the action of Calcium ions permits transfer of electrical events into molecular changes that can alter functions of the nerve cells permanently, i.e. change cellular function to subserve a memory or learning response. Neuro-modulators affect the neurotransmitters by influencing neuronal plasticity, growth, or differentiation. Different types of receptors as present in different regions of brain can account for the complex multiple effects of medications, meditation, concentration, and contemplation. This may be effected through actions of specific type of neurotransmitter and neuro-receptor. For example, a sub-type of glutamate receptor appears to mediate the function of brain plasticity, a process considered important in learning and memory. Acetylcholine helps in memory, motivation, perception and cognition. It is also involved in attention and arousal functions of ascending reticular system. Decrease in the levels of this neuro-modulator leads to loss of memory, senile dementiaAlzheimer's disease. Excess of Serotonin, another important neuro-modulator, leads to hallucinations, as seen in LSD consumption, which causes increase in Serotonin level. This discovery brought into focus the correlation between behavior and variation in brain Serotonin content. Selective depletion of Serotonin, in animals, causes prolonged wakefulness. It also plays important role in circadian rhythm and sleep cycle. Other neurotransmitters and modulators like nor-epinephrine cause changes in mood-excess leading to elation, and deficiency causing nervous depression. It also controls food intake, regulates body temperature, and hormonal secretions. Excess of dopamine level is responsible for schizophrenia and psychosis. Nerve growth factor is a hormone like peptide that is responsible for the growth and maintenance of various brain structures. The Plausible Hypothesis To explain the altered state of consciousness brought about by intense and prolonged mediation a Plausible Hypothesis may be constructed as follows: The evolutionary process adds higher centers to the primitive nervous system. These higher centers have inhibitory influence over the lower centers. Thus, the brain stem is controlled by limbic system and limbic system in turn is controlled by the higher new brain center - neo-cortex. The neuro-modulators with their influence on various neurotransmitters effectively bring about this inhibitory modification in inter-relation amongst various brain centers (hierarchy). For instance, involuntary movements are suppressed by basal ganglia through the action of dopamine and acetylcholine synergy. Any imbalance in these neuro-modulators causes involuntary movements like chorea and tremors. Similarly, loss of cortical control over the motor neurons of spinal cord leads to exaggerated muscle and tendon jerks due loss of inhibitory control of the higher cortex. Neo-cortex keeps all the involuntary movements, hyper-reflexivity, rage, aggression, and similar animal tendencies under check so
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 17/20

that it can effectively pursue its own highly developed activities of logic, memory, reason, language, calculations, judgment, and concepts, etc. Conscious, willful, imaginative functions are therefore, normal state of awareness of the human beings. When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain qualitative and quantitative permanent changes develop in the nervous system. The neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators may stimulate growth of dormant or latent neurons to develop a center (or centers), which on the evolutionary ladder is/are still higher than the present day cerebral cortex. The brain may develop new connections and plasticity resulting in the capacity to think, to rationalize, and react in a different way to the sensory input than what is expected by present day physiologists. For want of name, we may label it as 'God Module'. This higher center will exert inhibitory control over the present day neo-cortex, and thereby, over the mind as a whole (consciousness, reasoning, conceptual thinking, willing, feeling, and doing, etc.)! The consciousness and all mental activities will hence be suppressed. The person will reach a state beyond mind itself-transcendental awareness! "The spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state, after which the mind itself will cease to be, and there will remain only non-dual experience."

Dr. CS Shah January 11, 2000 By simple definition, meditation is engagement in contemplation, especially of a spiritual or devotional nature. To elaborate further, meditation is an attempt to concentrate mind on a single form or an idea or an aspect of divinity at the exclusion of all other forms and the ideas. The mind is focused inwards, and this effort of concentration acts as stimulus to gain access to the knowledge of the object of meditation. An attempt is made to control the sense perceptions (special senses like touch, sight, hearing, etc.), as well as thoughts, in favor of inner contemplation. The mind, as if, is made still. Meditation may be, therefore, taken as 'passive' activity! But is it really so? Tremendous changes observed in the human brain and nervous system during mediation run contrary to this belief of 'passivity' attached to meditation. Unprecedented progress and research in neurobiology, investigative neurology, and study of neurotransmitters in the last two decades has given a great fillip to the study of Neurophysiology of meditation and Yoga. Altered State of Consciousness can be brought about by hypnosis, drugs (e. g. LSD), sleep, etc., but here we are trying to study a state specific science of altered consciousness brought about by meditation alone. We shall attempt to review the progress in neurobiology in the recent years. In the following article an attempt is made to throw light on this new and fascinating subject. The terms used are technical, but, as far as possible, an attempt is made to simplify the description. This attempt to explain the Neurophysiology is purely hypothetical. Meditation and Changes in Neurophysiology: In an attempt to enter into a state of altered consciousness, the Yogi try to concentrate, contemplate and meditate on a single idea or a form related with divine or spiritual. The brain may perceive this as psychological stimuli. One of the ways to control physiological reactions to psychological events is meditation, Yoga, Zen Buddhism etc. A few scientists had taken Transcendental Meditation (TM) as the uniform technique, and had based their observations on the study of the subjects engaged in this form of meditation. In summing up the results they confirmed that the effect of meditation was a "wakeful, hypo-metabolic state". They concluded that the pattern of changes generated was mediated through the control of autonomic nervous system in the brain (limbic system) and spinal cord. They have found that: 1. Yogis could slow both heartbeat and rate of respiration, 2. Yogis could slow the rate of metabolism as confirmed by decreased oxygen consumption and carbon-di-oxide output. 3. EEG in Yogis showed changes of calmness in the form of alpha rhythm activity during both eyes closed and open recording. 4. Their skin resistance to electric stimulation was increased (indicating increased tolerance to external stimuli). In the early history of mankind the 'defense-alarm' reaction to psychological and physical stress was in the form of "fright, flight, and fight" mediated through the over-secretion of neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators dopamine and adrenaline by stimulation of sympathetic nervous system. We reflexively become panicky, our blood pressure increases, and stress and anxiety are the end results if we allow our natural age-old sympathetic reactions come to surface. We try to run away or fight the situation. But today these 'defense-alarm' reactions have no place in our lives. Rather, they should be replaced by more calm and serene reactions of equanimity and peace. The need is to just 'face the brute, and it will go away'. Such desirable reactions of contemplation and peaceful attitude are generated by Yoga and meditation. Here the usually dominant action mode is suppressed in favor of receptive mode that brings peace and bliss even in the disturbing circumstances. It is thought that the left half of the brain is dominant in right-handed people, while right half is said to be nondominant. However, the transfer of functions from one half to another can occur with learning and practice. This has been shown to occur in persons who had neurological damage to one side of the brain. Increasing knowledge of neurobiology and brain imaging techniques is further reinforcing the role of plasticity after neuronal damage with the stimuli from practice, intense concentration and experiences.
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 18/20

EEG Studies on Yogis and The Zen Meditations Yogis practicing Raja-Yoga claim that during the state of Samadhi they are oblivious to the internal and external stimuli, and they enjoy a calm ecstasy during that state. A study was undertaken to record the electrical activity of their brain during this state by means of a regular and useful test known as electroencephalography- EEG. Physiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the basis of the conscious state of the brain, among other things, is activation of the reticular system of the brain stem through internal and external stimuli. These stimuli bring about various changes during sleep and wakeful states of the organism that can be studied by EEG. The study was carried out on four subjects during the state of concentration and meditation. Effects of external stimuli, like a gong, strong light, thermal simulation, and vibrations were studied. The results were compiled and analyzed. It was observed that two Yogis could keep their hands immersed in very cold water for 50 minutes or so (raised pain threshold). During the state of meditation, all of them showed persistent alpha activity with increased amplitude wave pattern, both during eyes closed and open recording. It was observed that these alpha activities could not be blocked by various sensory stimuli during meditation. It was also observed that those who had well-marked alpha activity in their normal resting records showed greater aptitude and zeal for maintaining the practice of Yoga. Similar observations and results were obtained when EEGs were recorded in persons adept in Zen Meditative technique. Discussion and Conclusion Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators: These are chemical substances released at the neuronal junction (Synapses). They act by altering the electrical membrane potential by opening up channels that permit diffusion of Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium ions in and out of the nerve cell. They not only transmit the message from one cell to another, but also selectively facilitate some information while inhibiting the other. Moreover, the action of Calcium ions permits transfer of electrical events into molecular changes that can alter functions of the nerve cells permanently, i.e. change cellular function to subserve a memory or learning response. Neuro-modulators affect the neurotransmitters by influencing neuronal plasticity, growth, or differentiation. Different types of receptors as present in different regions of brain can account for the complex multiple effects of medications, meditation, concentration, and contemplation. This may be effected through actions of specific type of neurotransmitter and neuro-receptor. For example, a sub-type of glutamate receptor appears to mediate the function of brain plasticity, a process considered important in learning and memory. Acetylcholine helps in memory, motivation, perception and cognition. It is also involved in attention and arousal functions of ascending reticular system. Decrease in the levels of this neuro-modulator leads to loss of memory, senile dementiaAlzheimer's disease. Excess of Serotonin, another important neuro-modulator, leads to hallucinations, as seen in LSD consumption, which causes increase in Serotonin level. This discovery brought into focus the correlation between behavior and variation in brain Serotonin content. Selective depletion of Serotonin, in animals, causes prolonged wakefulness. It also plays important role in circadian rhythm and sleep cycle. Other neurotransmitters and modulators like nor-epinephrine cause changes in mood-excess leading to elation, and deficiency causing nervous depression. It also controls food intake, regulates body temperature, and hormonal secretions. Excess of dopamine level is responsible for schizophrenia and psychosis. Nerve growth factor is a hormone like peptide that is responsible for the growth and maintenance of various brain structures. The Plausible Hypothesis To explain the altered state of consciousness brought about by intense and prolonged mediation a Plausible Hypothesis may be constructed as follows: The evolutionary process adds higher centers to the primitive nervous system. These higher centers have inhibitory influence over the lower centers. Thus, the brain stem is controlled by limbic system and limbic system in turn is controlled by the higher new brain center - neo-cortex. The neuro-modulators with their influence on various neurotransmitters effectively bring about this inhibitory modification in inter-relation amongst various brain centers (hierarchy). For instance, involuntary movements are suppressed by basal ganglia through the action of dopamine and acetylcholine synergy. Any imbalance in these neuro-modulators causes involuntary movements like chorea and tremors. Similarly, loss of cortical control over the motor neurons of spinal cord leads to exaggerated muscle and tendon jerks due loss of inhibitory control of the higher cortex. Neo-cortex keeps all the involuntary movements, hyper-reflexivity, rage, aggression, and similar animal tendencies under check so that it can effectively pursue its own highly developed activities of logic, memory, reason, language, calculations, judgment, and concepts, etc. Conscious, willful, imaginative functions are therefore, normal state of awareness of the human beings. When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain qualitative and quantitative permanent changes develop in the nervous system. The neurotransmitters and neuro-modulators may stimulate growth of dormant or latent neurons to develop a center (or centers), which on the evolutionary ladder is/are still higher than the present day cerebral cortex. The brain may develop new connections and plasticity resulting in the capacity to think, to rationalize, and react in a different way to the sensory input than what is expected by present day physiologists. For want of name, we may label it as 'God Module'. This higher center will exert inhibitory control over the present day neo-cortex, and thereby, over the mind as a whole (consciousness, reasoning, conceptual thinking, willing, feeling, and doing, etc.)! The consciousness and all mental activities will hence be suppressed. The person will reach a state beyond mind itself-transcendental awareness! "The spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state, after which the mind itself will cease to be, and there will remain only non-dual experience."
www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm 19/20

Dr. CS Shah January 11, 2000 Brain Waves and Meditation You have probably heard of brain waves and how we can use brain wave technology to increase our wellbeing and happiness. In this article we will explore the different brain wave levels and how to take ourselves to those levels to achieve the corresponding states of relaxation, creativity and deep transcendental meditation. Alpha brain waves When brain wave activity is focused primarily within the 8-13 Hz. (cycles per second) range, one experiences what is termed an "alpha" state of awareness. Alpha brain-waves are produced in most people when they concentrate or focus the mind, or relax by sitting or reclining with their eyes closed. Alpha brain-waves are very often produced in bursts (trains of waves) or pulses (single waves), but some people, and especially Synchronicity Contemporary meditators, tend to produce continuous trains of alpha waves. When your brain is producing alpha frequencies, you experience a pleasant, comfortable, mildly relaxed yet wakeful state of awareness. This experience represents a relatively stress-free and euphoric state of being. The general understanding is that the more that alpha is produced in ordinary states of awareness, the easier it is to access deeper meditative states. Practically speaking, individuals such as artists or photographers, who more often than usual, use the visual and spatial abilities characteristic of the right-brain, seem to produce alpha more easily than linear, left-brain thinkers. In the same way, experienced Synchronicity Contemporary meditators, who have repetitively patterned and become familiar with alpha brain-wave production, can more easily produce alpha frequencies. In fact, by looking at an individual's alpha brain-wave production, it is possible to determine not only whether the person is a meditator, but also the length of time the individual has been practicing meditation. Beginning meditators tend to produce alpha in the 10 to12 Hz. range. As meditative experience deepens, so does the dominant frequency at which alpha is produced. Therefore, we find that meditators with ten plus years of experience consistently produce low frequency alpha in the region of 7 to 9 Hz. Theta brain waves Theta brain-waves are produced in the frequency range from 3.5-7 Hz., which are more decelerated brain waves than alpha. Like alpha, theta is characterized by a blissful sense of well-being. However, in theta, the experience of holistic awareness increases. Theta represents the synchronized state of awareness in which creativity and imagery predominate. Experienced meditators are accustomed to a wide variety of "inner" images and visions, and these images do indeed seem to correlate with increased theta activity. Delta brain waves Delta brain waves are traditionally associated with deep sleep and are the slowest of the brain waves, occurring from 0-3.5 Hertz. Usually, only the most advanced meditators can remain wakeful while producing delta brain waves. The experiences typical of subtle dimensional actualization occur in the deepest levels of the delta brain-wave frequencies. How do you get to those levels? Simple, just use meditation CDs which use brain hemisphere balancing technology such as Synchronicity meditation cds or other you can find on the market. And use them everyday for 30 minutes. By: Holistic Chick Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com Veronique is a counsellor and meditation teacher and writes for the Holistic Directory: articles, workshops, conscious dating.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

God Can Help You Learn From This True Life Story A Prayer That Can Change Your Life www.LifesGreatestQuestion.com RGD Peptides Peptides International: Call Today For Tumor Targeting Peptides
Sponsored by
pepnet.com www.fdneurotech.com

FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit A complete Golgi-Cox staining kit for studying dendrites and spines.

Watch Zee TV in HD Enjoy Movies, Serials, Shows, Songs And Many More in HD Only @ Rs.3080! TataSky.com/Free-Home-Delivery

www.angelfire.com/folk/personalitydev/alpha.htm

20/20