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English for Specic Purposes, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 326, 1999 1998 The American University. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain 0889-4906/98 $19.00+0.00

PII: S0889-4906(97)00025-2

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks

Ken Hyland
Abstract This paper explores the possible role of university textbooks in students acquisition of a specialised disciplinary literacy, focusing on the use of metadiscourse as a manifestation of the writers linguistic and rhetorical presence in a text. Because metadiscourse can be analysed independently of propositional matter, it provides useful information about how writers support their arguments and build a relationship with readers in different rhetorical contexts. The paper compares features in extracts from 21 textbooks in microbiology, marketing and applied linguistics with a similar corpus of research articles and shows that the ways textbook authors represent themselves, organise their arguments, and signal their attitudes to both their statements and their readers differ markedly in the two corpora. It is suggested that these differences mean that textbooks provide limited rhetorical guidance to students seeking information from research sources or learning appropriate forms of written argument. Finally, by investigating metadiscourse in particular disciplines and genres, the study helps to restore the intrinsic link between metadiscourse and its associated rhetorical contexts and rectify a popular view which implicitly characterises it as an independent stylistic device. 1998 The American University. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

The Genre of Introductory Textbooks

Textbooks are perhaps the genre most commonly encountered by undergraduate students and constitute one of the primary means by which the concepts and analytical methods of a discipline are acquired. They play a central role in the learners experience and understanding of a subject by providing a coherently ordered epistemological map of the disciplinary landscape and, through their textual practices, can help convey the norms, values and ideological assumptions of a particular academic culture. As a result, ESP writers have often drawn heavily on coursebooks for example texts (Arnaudet & Barrett 1984; Currie & Cray 1987; Jordan 1990; McEverdy & Wyatt 1990) and they have received attention in the linguists literature (eg Love 1993; Hewings 1990; Tadros 1985). Thus students, particularly in

Address correspondence to: Ken Hyland, English Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong. (Tel: (852) 2788-8873, Fax: (852) 2788-8894, E-mail:

K. Hyland

the sciences, often see textbooks as concrete embodiments of the knowledge of their disciplines. However, in addition to gaining an understanding of subject knowledge, students entering university must also acquire a specialised literacy that consists of the discipline-specic rhetorical and linguistic practices of a particular community (Ballard & Clanchy 1991; Berkenkotter et al. 1991). Understanding the written genres in ones eld is essential to full acculturation and success, but introductory textbooks are obviously not representative of academic discourse in general. It is thus unclear whether they can simultaneously both convey scholarship to neophytes and develop the peculiar ways of knowing, selecting, evaluating, reporting, concluding and arguing that dene the discourse of the community (Bartholomae 1986: 4). Both their purpose and audience set textbooks apart from the more prestigious genres community members employ to exchange research ndings, dispute theories and accumulate professional credit. Thus while the research article (RA) is a highly valued genre central to the legitimation of a discipline as a result of its role in communicating new research, coursebooks are often depicted as the repositories of codied knowledge (Hewings 1990; Myers 1992). This accounts for their somewhat peripheral status in the pantheon of academic genres where they are often seen by academics and administrators as commercial projects unrelated to research (Swales 1995). It also makes problematic the role of textbooks as models for students preparing to advance from participation in an undergraduate culture of knowledge-telling to a disciplinary one involving knowledge-transforming (Bereiter & Scardamalia 1987) through reading research sources and writing in specialised genres. However, while textbooks may appear to be a curriculum genre employing only a specic classroom-based discourse, the fact that genres are linked to a subjects methodology and values means they are also likely to contain textual features and conventions of their respective disciplinary communities. Indeed, textbooks exhibit considerable generic heterogeneity, both in the sense of a typication of rhetorical action (eg Berkenkotter & Huckin 1993) and as a shared set of communicative purposes (eg Swales 1990). Most obviously, there are often disciplinary differences in the form and presentation of textbooks. In business studies, for example, they often resemble coffee-table books and display marketing norms in their use of coloured diagrams and glossy photographs, while the experimental procedures, taxonomies and electron micrographs common in biology textbooks help represent and construct a knowable, objective world. In addition, the roles textbooks play in a given academic environment may differ considerably. So while in the sciences (eg Love 1993; Myers 1992) and economics (Hewings 1990; Tadros 1985) coursebooks seem to reinforce existing paradigms, in philosophy and composition they are often important vehicles for advancing scholarship and presenting original research (eg Gebhardt 1993). This paper focuses on the use of some critical features of text-level rhetoric

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks

to explore variations in the disciplinary and generic practices of textbook authors. The analysis of metadiscourse, which inuences the personal tenor and rhetorical presentation of information, allows us to examine differences in the writers conception of audience in composing as it constitutes aspects of texts which are largely independent of propositional content but which are inevitably local and intimately tied to particular contexts. Analysing textbooks in this way can therefore shed light on their rhetorical distinctiveness in order to better understand their role in the disciplinary acculturation of novices. It can also help sharpen our understanding of metadiscourse, a traditionally fuzzy term. I will rst briey review some background notions and the concept of metadiscourse, then report a study of extracts from 21 textbooks in three disciplines.

Audience, Purpose and Metadiscourse

Implicit in every act of academic communication is the writers awareness of the social context and professional consequences of the writing. Features of discourse are always relative to a particular audience and social purpose and the effectiveness of writers attempts to communicate depends on their success in analysing and accommodating the needs of readers. Academic writing is thus invariably a persuasive task where a writer seeks to produce specic responses in an active audience. In textbooks as much as research papers, authors are not only concerned with simply presenting propositional facts, but must attend to the expectations of readers and what they are likely to nd interesting, credible and intelligible. Writers must anticipate the audiences likely background knowledge, processing problems and reactions to the text, with the understanding that readers are likely to examine it for relevance, informativity and interest. Such an audience thus refers to a particular context of discourse, consisting of the external circumstances which dene the rhetorical situation and require the text to have certain characteristics in response (Park 1986). One important means by which texts depict the characteristics of an underlying community is through the writers use of metadiscourse. All academic disciplines have conventions of rhetorical personality which inuence the ways writers intrude into their texts to organise their arguments and represent themselves, their readers and their attitudes. This is largely accomplished through non-propositional material, or metadiscourse. Metadiscourse is discourse about discourse (Van de Kopple 1985) and refers to the authors linguistic manifestation in a text to bracket the discourse organisation and the expressive implications of what is being said (Schiffrin 1980: 231). Metadiscourse is therefore a crucial rhetorical device for writers (Crismore 1989; Crismore & Farnsworth 1990; Hyland 1997b, in press). It allows them to engage and inuence readers in ways that conform to a disciplines norms, values and ideology, expressing textual and interpersonal meanings that their audience is likely to accept as credible and convincing. However, while metadiscourse is recognised to be an important means of

K. Hyland

supporting a writers argument and building a relationship with readers, it is often regarded as a semantic device that authors can vary according to stylistic preference. This helps explain why, for example, the variation in metadiscourse use noted across linguistic cultures (Crismore et al. 1993; Mauranen 1993; Valero-Garces 1996), has not been similarly investigated in terms of different disciplines or genres. However, to study metadiscourse without appeal to its associated rhetorical environment is to ignore the context which conditions its use and gives it meaning. Focusing only on its surface realisations gives the impression that metadiscourse is a purely writer-centred phenomenon and either neglects its relationship to particular audiences or unconsciously calls up a context in an unsystematic way. In other words, the meaning of metadiscourse only becomes operative within a particular context, both invoking and reinforcing that context with regard to audience, purpose and situation. Its use therefore reects differences in the various forms of organised cultural communication recognised and employed by distinct academic disciplines for particular purposes. Clearly a text communicates effectively only when the writer has correctly assessed the readers resources for interpreting it. Thus the writer of a research article can assume a shared awareness of a codied set of texts, principles and rules that represent the socially constructed ideology of their community (Hyland 1997a). Textbook authors, on the other hand, are unable to invoke community knowledge as the novice lacks experience of the linguistic forms which give coherence and life to that knowledge. The textbook is a writers attempt to construct this experience, seeking to make propositional material explicit to novices while simultaneously socialising them to the ways of speaking appropriate to the community. So while textbook language is a product of the activity and situations in which it is created, textbooks may also include linguistic features which typify genres that are more central, and prestigious, to disciplinary activity.

A Metadiscourse Schema
Metadiscourse is an essentially heterogeneous category which can be realised through a range of linguistic devices from punctuation and typographic marks (such as parentheses to signal clarications or underlining to mark emphasis), to whole clauses and sentences (e.g. You can see from the above Table that..). However, distinctions between meta and propositional discourse cannot be made from linguistic form alone as they almost always depend on the relationship of items to other parts of the text. Features must be identied functionally and a number of classication schema have been proposed for this (e.g. Crismore & Farnsworth 1990; Van de Kopple 1985). This study employs a modied version of Crismore et al.s (Crismore et al. 1993) taxonomy which distinguishes textual and interpersonal dimensions and recognises more specic functions within them. This schema is discussed in detail elsewhere (Hyland 1997c, in press) but is summarised in Table 1.

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks

TABLE 1 Metadiscourse Schema for Academic Texts Category Textual metadiscourse Logical connectives Frame markers Endophoric markers Evidentials Code glosses Interpersonal metadiscourse Hedges Emphatics Attitude markers Relational markers Person markers Function: express semantic relation between main clauses explicitly refer to discourse shifts or text stages refer to information in other parts of the text refer to source of information from other texts help readers grasp meanings of ideational material Examples/signals

in addition/but/therefore/thus rst/nally/to repeat/to clarify noted above/see Fig. 1/section 2 according to X/Y, 1990/Z states namely/e.g./in other words/i.e./say

withhold writers full commitment to statements emphasise force or writers certainty in message express writers attitude to propositional content explicitly refer to or build relationship with reader explicit reference to author(s)

might/perhaps/it is possible in fact/denitely/it is clear surprisingly/I agree/X claims consider/recall/imagine/you see I/we/my/mine/our

Textual metadiscourse is used to organise propositional information in ways that will be coherent for a particular audience and appropriate for a given purpose. Devices in this category represent the audiences presence in the text in terms of the writers assessment of its processing difculties, intertextual requirements and need for interpretative guidance. It comprises ve sub-classes. The rst is logical connectives, mainly conjunctions and adverbial and prepositional phrases, which link ideas in the text. The second is frame markers, which signal boundaries in the discourse or stages in the argument. These include items that: sequence material (first, next, 1, 2, 3); label text stages (to conclude, in sum); announce discourse goals (my purpose is, I propose that); and indicate topic changes (well, now). The third is endophoric markers such as in section 2 and see table 1, which refer to other parts of the text. The fourth is evidential markers, indicate the source of textual material. They concern who is responsible for the view cited and are distinguished here from the writers stance towards the view, which is an interpersonal issue. Finally, code glosses explain or expand propositional information to assist interpretation and ensure the writers intention is understood. They occur within parentheses or are introduced by phrases like for instance and namely. Interpersonal metadiscourse, however, allows writers to express a perspective towards their propositional information and their readers. It

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is essentially an evaluative form of discourse and expresses the writers individually dened, but disciplinary circumscribed, persona. Metadiscourse therefore relates to the level of personality, or tenor, of the discourse and inuences such matters as the authors intimacy and remoteness, expression of attitude, commitment to propositions and degree of reader involvement. In this category, hedges and emphatics indicate the degree of commitment, certainty and collegial deference a writer wishes to convey, signalled by items such as possible, may and clearly. Attitude markers indicate the writers affective, rather than epistemic, attitude to textual information, expressing surprise, importance, obligation, and so on. Relational markers are devices that explicitly address readers, either to focus their attention or include them as discourse participants. Because affective devices can also have interpersonal implications, attitude and relational markers are often difcult to distinguish in practice. Cases of affect however are typically writer-oriented and are signalled by attitude verbs, necessity modals and sentence adverbs. Relational markers focus more on reader participation and include second person pronouns, imperatives, question forms and asides that interrupt the ongoing discourse. Finally person markers refers to the degree of author presence in the text measured by the frequency of rst person pronouns. These features are, once again, intimately related to the writers attention to context and the need to address readers appropriately in constructing an effective and persuasive discourse. Clearly there is a great deal of pragmatic overlap between these categories as writers frequently seek to achieve several concurrent purposes, appealing to readers on both affective and logical levels simultaneously. This polypragmatic aspect of language blurs an all-or-nothing interpretation of how particular devices are used. Connectives, for example, principally link textual material but can also solicit reader collusion when presenting claims (Barton 1995); hedges have both epistemic and affective roles, indicating either uncertainty or deference to disciplinary norms of appropriate interpersonal stance (Hyland 1996a); code glosses both supply necessary information and imply a position of superior knowledge to the reader. A classication scheme can therefore only approximate the complexity and uidity of natural language use. But while it may give no rm evidence about author intentions or reader understandings, it is a useful means of revealing the meanings available in the text and comparing the rhetorical strategies employed by different discourse communities and different genres. This involves going beyond the taxonomy to identify factors of the rhetorical context which may inuence such differences.

Corpus and Procedure

The corpus consists of extracts from 21 introductory coursebooks in three academic disciplines: microbiology, marketing and applied linguistics, comprising almost 124 000 words (see Appendix A). The average length of the extracts was 5 900 words (range 3 30510 678) consisting of complete

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks

chapters (16) or substantial sections of chapters beginning with the introductory matter and comprising entire contiguous sub-sections (5). The textbooks were selected from reading lists for introductory undergraduate courses and all extracts were among those recommended by teachers as containing core reading matter. A parallel corpus of 21 research articles (121 000 words/average length 5 771 words) was compiled for comparison from the current issues of prestigious journals recommended by expert informants in the same three disciplines. The corpora were analysed independently by myself and two research assistants by coding all items of metadiscourse according to the schema outlined above. An interrater reliability of 0.83 (Kappa) was obtained, indicating a high degree of agreement.

Overall, the quantitative analysis revealed the importance of metadiscourse in these textbooks with an average of 405 examples per text; about one every 15 words. It should be noted here that the expression of devices according to a word count is not intended to represent the proportion of text formed by metadiscourse. Clearly, metadiscourse typically has clause-level (or higher) scope and I have standardised the raw gures to a common basis merely to compare the occurrence, rather than the length, of metadiscourse in corpora of unequal sizes. Table 2 shows that writers used far more textual than interpersonal forms in this corpus, and that connectives and code glosses were the most frequent devices in each discipline. The numerical preponderance of textual devices emphasises the common interpretation of metatext as guiding the reading process by indicating discourse organisation and clarifying propositional meanings.

TABLE 2 Metadiscourse in Academic Textbooks per 1 000 Words (% % of total) Category Logical connectives Code glosses Endophoric markers Frame markers Evidentials Textual Hedges Emphatics Attitude markers Relational markers Person markers Interpersonal Totals Biology 32.3 9.4 6.4 2.5 3.2 53.8 8.9 5.0 4.1 2.2 0.7 21.0 74.8 (43.2) (12.6) (8.6) (3.3) (4.2) (71.9) (12.0) (6.7) (5.5) (3.0) (0.9) (28.1) (100) Applied Linguistics 17.8 9.6 4.5 4.6 5.3 42.8 4.7 2.4 3.5 6.1 2.2 18.9 61.7 (30.6) (15.6) (7.3) (7.4) (8.6) (69.4) (7.7) (3.9) (5.6) (9.8) (3.6) (30.6) (100) Marketing 34.4 9.7 2.5 4.2 1.0 51.9 5.9 3.3 5.5 2.5 2.2 18.9 70.4 (48.8) (13.8) (3.5) (6.0) (1.5) (73.7) (8.4) (4.7) (7.9) (3.5) (3.6) (30.6) (100)


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The tables show some obvious disciplinary variations in metadiscourse use. The applied linguistics texts comprise considerably more evidentials and relational markers, the biology authors favoured hedges, and marketing textbooks had fewer evidentials and endophorics. Perhaps more interesting however are the cross-discipline similarities, with all three elds containing comparable total use and a near identical proportion of textual and interpersonal forms. In particular, all disciplines showed a high use of logical connectives and code glosses which together comprised about half of all cases, demonstrating that the principal concern of textbook authors is to present information clearly and explicitly. A comparison with the research articles revealed strikingly similar total frequencies of metadiscourse in the two corpora, but a considerable difference in the proportion of the two main categories (Table 3). The increase in interpersonal metadiscourse from about a third of all cases in the textbooks to nearly half in the RAs shows the critical importance of these forms in persuasive prose. As can be seen, devices used to assist comprehension of propositional information, such as connectives, code glosses and endophoric markers, were less frequent in the articles while those typically used to assist persuasion, such as hedges, emphatics, evidentials and person markers, were more frequent. Hedges were almost three times more common in the RAs and represented the most frequent metadiscourse feature, demonstrating the importance of distinguishing established from new claims in research writing and the need for authors to evaluate their assertions in ways that their peers are likely to nd persuasive.

TABLE 3 Ranked Metadiscourse Categories (Combined Disciplines) Textbooks Items per 1000 words % of total Textual Interpersonal Subcategory Logical connectives Code glosses Hedges Endophoric markers Attitude markers Frame markers Relational markers Emphatics Evidentials Person markers Grand Totals 49.1 19.4 28.1 9.6 6.4 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.3 1.4 68.5 71.7 28.3 40.9 14.0 9.4 6.5 6.3 5.5 5.4 5.1 4.8 2.1 100% Research articles Items per 1000 words % of total 34.8 31.4 12.3 7.6 16.7 3.2 4.5 5.6 2.5 4.2 6.1 3.5 66.2 52.6 47.4 18.5 11.5 25.3 4.9 6.8 8.5 3.8 6.3 9.3 5.2 100%

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks

TABLE 4 Metadiscourse in Textbooks and RAs per 1 000 Words Biology Textbook Textual Interpersonal Totals 53.8 71.9% 21.0 28.1% 74.8 RA 40.1 66.8% 19.9 33.2% 59.9 Applied Linguistics Textbook 42.8 69.4% 18.9 30.6% 61.7 RA 30.1 49.2% 31.0 50.8% 60.1 Marketing Textbook 51.9 73.7% 18.5 26.3% 70.4


RA 36.6 49.7% 37.0 50.3% 73.6

When separating the texts by both discipline and genre we nd that the tables above mask a number of variations in metadiscourse use. Table 4 shows that the overall density levels differed markedly in biology, with almost 25% more metadiscourse in the textbooks than the RAs, due mainly to a heavier use of textual forms. Biology was also the only discipline where there was little change in the proportions of interpersonal and textual features between the two genres, while the interpersonal frequencies increased dramatically in the applied linguistics and marketing RAs. Table 5 shows that the use of logical connectives was highest in textbooks in all disciplines and that the RAs contained a higher proportion of hedges, person and frame markers. Biologists showed the greatest variation, both across genres and disciplines, with substantial genre differences in most categories. While the marketing and applied linguistics texts were more

TABLE 5 Proportions of Metadiscourse in RAs and Textbooks Biology Category Logical connectives Frame markers Endophoric markers Evidentials Code glosses Textual Hedges Emphatics Attitude markers Relational markers Person markers Interpersonal Total % TB 43.2 3.3 8.6 4.2 12.6 71.9 12.0 6.7 5.5 3.0 0.9 28.1 100 RA 18.8 8.6 7.7 16.2 15.4 66.8 20.0 5.8 2.2 1.2 4.0 33.2 100 Applied Linguistics TB 30.6 7.4 7.3 8.6 15.6 69.4 7.7 3.9 5.6 9.8 3.6 30.6 100 RA 18.1 7.6 4.1 7.3 12.1 49.2 25.6 7.4 8.8 4.1 4.8 50.8 100 Marketing TB 48.8 6.0 3.5 1.5 13.8 73.7 8.4 4.7 7.9 3.5 1.8 26.3 100 RA 18.7 9.0 4.4 8.0 9.6 49.7 27.0 5.7 7.0 4.5 6.0 50.3 100


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uniform between genres, both contained large differences in hedges and connectives. Substantial genre variations were also apparent in the use of evidentials and person markers in marketing and endophoric and relation markers in applied linguistics. In general, metadiscourse variations were more pronounced between genres than disciplines, particularly for high frequency items, and the textbooks tended to exhibit greater disciplinary diversity than the RAs.

Textbooks, as a specic form of language use and social interaction, both represent particular processes of production and interpretation, and link to the social practices of the institutions within which they are created. We might expect, then, that metadiscourse variations will reect the different roles that textbooks and research papers play in the social structures of disciplinary activity and anticipate that their use will contain clues about how these texts were produced and the purposes they serve. Metadiscourse is grounded in the rhetorical purposes of writers and sensitive to their perceptions of audience, both of which differ markedly between the two genres. One audience consists of an established community of disciplinary peers familiar with the conceptual frameworks and specialised literacies of their discipline. The other is relatively undifferentiated in terms of its experience of academic discourse, often possessing little more than a general purpose EAP competence in the early undergraduate years (e.g. Leki & Carson 1994). As a result of such contextual differences, what can be said, and what needs to be said, differs considerably. It is therefore interesting to speculate on the patterns observed and I will consider textual and interpersonal variations in turn.

Textual Features in Textbooks

Textual forms constituted about 70% of all metadiscourse in the coursebooks. Such metadiscourse provides an overt framework which not only claries the schematic structure of the text, but also serves to ll in gaps and explicitly spell out connections to related ideas, thus helping to convey propositional content more coherently to novices. This is particularly clear in the use of frame markers (1) and endophoric markers (2) which provide metatextual reference to sections, illustrations, reasons, arguments, and so on*: (1)
In the next section I will focus explicitly on linguistic politeness, using terms of address for exemplication. (ALT3)

*Examples are coded according to discipline (MB is biology, AL is applied linguistics and MK is marketing) and textbooks are marked with T. Numbers refer to the corpus items.

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks

The Ascolichens will be briey considered under three large groups corresponding to the structure of their asci and ascocarps. (MBT6) This chapter explains some of the approaches used in segmenting consumer and organisational markets and discusses a six-step approach for market segmentation and selecting a target market. (MKT3)


This is very much like the example we gave above at the beginning of chapter 1,... (ALT4) In Section 5.2, in Text 5B, we saw all four in operation simultaneously, ... (ALT1) We discussed some characteristics of microbial mats in section 17.5 (see Fig 17.11a). (MBT1) ... and procedures for differentiating these organisms are discussed later in this chapter. (MBT3) Additional information on availability is discussed in a later section on specic media. (MKT4) .... (for reasons that will be explained in chapters 5 and 6),... (MKT6)

While both forms of metadiscourse were also found in the RAs, they tended to be used differently. Rather than point to explanatory material and relate material to a wider context as in the textbooks, for instance, endophoric markers were almost exclusively used to refer to tables and graphs, which accounts for their heavy frequency in biology. Frame markers were actually more common in the articles, but instead of occurring at regular intervals to structure the discourse for the reader, they tended to cluster in introductions, where they acted to specify the overall purpose of the research, and in discussion sections, where they served to organise lists of points: (3)
The following generalisations emerged from reviewing the literature... (AL5) The objective of our work was to... (MB1) In this paper we show that... (MB3) Thus the goal of this paper is to show that... (MK1) The research hypotheses developed for this research are stated as follows.. (MK4) The survey project was guided initially by three research questions:... (AL5)


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Thus in the textbooks studied here metadiscourse was principally employed to reduce the cognitive load of propositional material for novices and present unfamiliar content more comprehensively. This is also apparent in the use of code glosses which were both more extensive in the textbooks and tended to instruct rather than simply clarify. These devices help convey meanings thought to be problematic for readers, but while mainly labelled as examples in both genres, the textbooks contained more cases which aided interpretation by either providing a denition (4) or adding information (5). (4)
Saxicolous (growing on rocks) lichens are probably instrumental in initiating soil... (MBT6) .. limnologists (biologists specialising in freshwater systems) began to examine.. (MBT2) The latter organisms belong to a larger group of Bacteria called the purple bacteria (organisms such as Rhodopseudomonas and Rhodobacter). (This whole group is sometimes called the Photeobacteria). (MBT1)

Cross-cultural variation is a primary barrierthat is, understanding cognitively and affectively what levels of formality are appropriate or inappropriate. (ALT1) Internal corporate analysis requires the organisation to identify its resources (nancial, human labour and know-how, and physical assets),... (MKT2) .. describe the case of Long Island Trust, historically the leading bank in this large New York suburban area. (MKT2)

Audience and purpose variations between these genres are also apparent in the contrasting use of evidential markers, the metalinguistic representation of an idea from another source (Thomas & Hawes 1994: 129). For readers of research papers, claims are inseparable from their originators and a great deal of explicit intertextuality is required from authors to organise propositional material in a way that is both coherent and appropriate for their peers. Citations are also part of the writers rhetorical armoury in securing ratication of new knowledge claims by establishing a research niche, providing persuasive support for arguments and demonstrating the novelty of assertions*.
However, the method described by McFadden (1989) and Pakes and Pollard

*The writers stance in relation to the facts presented, which helps to create an authorial persona and a presence in the text, is an interpersonal feature of metadiscourse.

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks

(1989) is directly applicable for prot model estimation using cross-sectional data. (MK3) There is no consensus opinion on the kinetics of partitioning: some authors have suggested that sister chromosomes jump to their separated positions in preparation for division (Begg & Donachie, 1991; Hiraga et al., 1990; Sargent, 1974), whereas more recent measurements suggest that movement of the chromosomes is continuous (van Helvoort & Woldringh, 1994). (MB2) ... within the research that has been done on academic listening, hardly any has been conducted in contexts where English is a second language (ArdenClose, 1993; Flowerdew & Miller, 1992; Jackson & Bilton, 1994). (AL4) .... we build on the work of Narasimhan (1988), Raju et al. (1990) and Rao (1990). (MK1)


The textbook writer, however, is less concerned with convincing a sceptical professional audience of a new claim than with laying out the principles of the discipline. The emphasis is on the established facts rather than who originally stated them or ones stance towards them, and as a result, unspecied sources replace intertextual citations:
Surface structures of the pathogenic Neisseria have been the subjects of intense microbiologic investigations for some time. Gonococcal outer membrane proteins demonstrate... (MBT3) Many experts believe super-stores will continue to spread. If so, existing supermarkets may suffer. (MKT7) Clearly rules for polite behaviour differ from one speech community to another. (ALT3) Psychological studies of conversational exchanges and formal interviews have shown... (ALT4)

For a textbook audience then, the writer transforms the facts themselves from the potentially disputable status of the RAs to the relatively uncontroversial statements which require no citational backing. Perhaps most obviously, author appeals to dissimilar audiences (and knowledge bases) result in differences in cohesive patterns, particularly in the use of logical connectives. In the professional writing there were relatively few explicit connectives as writers are able to code the reasoning lexically and allow the reader to infer propositional relevance by virtue of their shared disciplinary understandings. Thus in the RAs cohesion depends principally on the ability of specialist readers to construct an underlying semantic structure from their knowledge of lexical relations and their familiarity with similar discourses (e.g. Halliday & Hasan 1976; Myers 1991). Domain knowledge specic to microbiology, for example, allows the in-


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formed reader to infer lexical chains between entities and unpack the connections between these sentences: (7)
Transformation-dependent erythromycin resistance indicates that an adenosine methylase gene originating from Enterococcus faecalis, a mesophile, is expressed in C. thermosaccharolyticum. The plasmid pCTC1 appears to be replicated independently of the chromosome, as indicated by visualization of recovered plasmid on gels, and retransformation using recovered plasmid pCTC1 is maintained in C. the thermosaccharolyticum at both 45 and 60C. Restriction analysis showed little or no rearrangement occurred upon passage through the thermophile. (MB7)

However, textbook passages discussing biological processes typically signal the intended connections more explicitly, allowing the reader to see relations between entities through the cohesive markers: (8)
Despite these potential differences in the rates of DNA synthesis within a particular region of DNA, the overall rate of DNA replication is higher in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. This is because the DNA of eukaryotes has multiple replicons (segments of a DNA macromolecule having their own origin and termini) compared to the single replicon of the bacterial chromosome. Consequently, even though there is much more DNA in a eukaryotic chromosome than in a bacterial chromosome, the eukaryotic genome can be replicated much faster... (MBT5)

Thus while both extracts contain a heavy use of repetition to signal propositional connections, textbook authors cannot assume a knowledge of lexical relations to achieve cohesion and must rely on introducing such relations explicitly through a range of metatextual devices. Although this means of clarifying the links between unfamiliar terms is most obvious in the science texts, similar differences were found in the other disciplines, although students of applied linguistics received considerably less guidance from connectives. The fact that lexical repetition and constant theme patterns are used more extensively in those textbooks provides learners with a more cognate cohesive environment to the RAs in that discipline, and therefore greater preparation for the skills they will need to search for knowledge claims and supporting evidence in RAs.

Interpersonal Features in the Textbooks

While differences in textual metadiscourse point largely to variations of audience between the two genres, the ndings for interpersonal metadiscourse also indicate something of their contrasting purposes. Williams (1989) has observed that argumentative writing lends itself to the use of interpersonal metadiscourse and Crismore and Farnsworth (1990) and Hyland (1997b, in press) found a heavy use of interpersonal forms in per-

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks


suasive texts of different discourse types. This is conrmed in this study, where the RAs contained 60% more interpersonal devices overall (Table 3), with hedges and person markers particularly prominent. Several studies have described how levels of certainty are affected by the transformation of statements from new claims in research articles to accredited facts in textbooks. Latour & Woolgar (1979) and Myers (1992) observe that textbooks contain a higher proportion of unmodied assertions than RAs because they largely deal with arranging currently accepted knowledge into a coherent whole rather than seeking agreement for new claims (Myers 1992: 9). In research articles hedges relate to both the propositional accuracy and subjective appropriacy of statements as only claims which appear to be legitimate and which incorporate a sensitivity to readers are likely to be ratied (Hyland 1996a, 1996b). When qualications are omitted the result is both greater certainty and less professional deference, reecting a different attitude to information and readers. The textbook author does not have to persuade an expert audience of a new interpretation or anticipate the consequences of being proved wrong because most claims are presented as accredited facts. The examples below are representative of how statements are differently treated in the two genres. As can be seen, claims about similar issues carry heavier qualication in the RAs, demonstrating the writers awareness of both the limitations of knowledge and the possibility of expert refutation: (9)
Transferring the information contained in DNA to form a functional enzyme occurs through protein synthesis, a process accomplished in two stages transcription and translation. (MBT5) It therefore seems likely that these genes may contribute to a general chromosome-partitioning mechanism of wide importance. (MB2) Thus, peer writing conferences foster more exploratory talk, promote cognitive conict, encourage students to take a more active role in their own learning processes and enable students to recognise the impact of their own writing on others. (ALT6) It would appear that student writers need more than facts and processes to write successfully and as reviewers need specic techniques if they are to provide useful critiques to each other. (AL7) Consumers reect their culture, its style, feelings, value systems, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. (MKT4) It is likely that the variance in consumers socialisation experiences, in part, directs a shoppers afnity towards certain shopper roles. (MK4)

However, textbook writers do not eschew hedges altogether, and their presence suggests that the genre is not simply a celebration of academic


K. Hyland

truths. This is particularly true where authors speculate about the future or the distant past or when they generalise; thus even disciplinary novices might challenge a baldly assertive presentation of the following statements: (10)
... earliest cells could also have obtained energy by chemoorganotrophic mechanisms, most likely simple fermentations. Photosynthesis is also a possibility but seems less likely than... (MBT1) But important breakthroughs are still possible because consumers probably will continue to move away from conventional retailers. Convenience products, for example, may be made more easily available by some combination of electronic ordering and home delivery... (MKT7) ... the teacher generally exerts a good deal of control over the structure of the interaction and, to some extent, the content of that interaction. (ALT6) Women appear to use language that expresses more uncertainty (...) than men, suggesting less condence in what they say. (ALT2)

The textbooks also differ in employing hedges to clearly distinguish the false assumptions of the past from the certainties of the present, contrasting qualication and emphatics as in this extract: (11)
It was argued that the simple sporangiospores of the zygomycetes could be developed after only a short period, while the more elaborate fruit bodies of the ascomycetes would require a longer build-up, and the even larger basidiomata of the Coprini would need the longest preparation of all. (...) We now know that the various components of the substrate are far from exhausted after the initial ushes of growth and sporulation. What has really happened is that Coprinus has seized control by suppressing most of the other fungi. Hyphae of Coprinus are actually... (MBT2)

However examples are not limited to conventional disclaimers or broad issues. Although variations in hedging between the corpora suggest that textbook writers generally seek to present what is taken-for-granted as fact, the presence of items distinguishing degrees of certainty indicates a reluctance to assert that all claims represent unequivocal truth. This is particularly evident in the science texts, which most closely approach the RAs in their use of modality. While often regarded as prototypical examples of the constructedness of academic thought, the science textbooks in this corpus actually exhibited a greater reluctance to upgrade claims and contained a much higher frequency of hedges than the other disciplines in the corpus. The degree of qualication in these texts thus indicates that authors are often prepared to move beyond what may be safely assured to the tenuous and uncertain.

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks


Basidiolichens produce basidiospores presumably in the same manner as... (MBT6) It is believed that pili may function to overcome electrostatic repulsion... (MBT3) This probably explains some of the outbreaks of red mould disease in sliced and wrapped bread. (MBT4) Although the initial stimulus leading to the accumulation of cyclic AMP may differ from that involved in heat activation, the rise in cyclic AMP itself appears to be the metabolic event that actually causes the shift from dormancy to germination by enzyme activation. (MBT7)

Such examples suggest that, in addition to a student audience, writers may be aware of the expert readership which evaluates, recommends and uses coursebooks (Swales 1995), thus necessitating protection against possible refutation. In addition however, authors are perhaps alive to the role of textbooks in socialising neophytes into the rhetorical practices of their discipline. A cautious attitude to facts is critical to doing science and to acquiring an appropriate cognitive schema. It appears that microbiology students may be at a greater advantage in this respect than their peers in the two other disciplines examined. Not only did the textbooks and RAs contrast in terms of writers expressed approach towards facts, but the use of attitude, relational and person markers also reveals a markedly different interpersonal stance between genres and disciplines. The relative absence of person markers in the textbooks, for example, immediately suggests a distinct writerreader relationship to that typically cultivated in the research texts and this is supported by the greater use of relation markers. The pragmatic value of these devices is to bring the reader directly into the discourse as a text participant, and in the RAs this generally takes the form of rhetorical questions about the topic, or the use of imperatives to engage the readers or selectively focus their attention: (12)
... to what extent does this invalidate the use of the CAT with candidates of different backgrounds? (AL2) What information do purchasers regard as important when choosing a public relations consultant? (MK2) To see the intuition behind our result, consider the smallest and largest discounts... (MK1) It needs to be noted that the quality of the tapes varies. (AL3) Consider the following excerpts from an EC paper. (AL7)


K. Hyland

Such uses are typically seen as treating readers as equals with the writer by drawing them into the discussion (Webber 1994: 264), but while imperatives and questions also occur in the textbooks, professional deference is largely replaced by a less egalitarian relationship. This is based on an unequal distribution of disciplinary knowledge so when the writer explicitly addresses the reader it is often in the role of primary-knower: (13)
Now, lets look at the size of stores and how they are owned... (MKT7) By this point you have probably realised that doing good research is not easy. As a result, it shouldnt surprise you that many research projects are done poorly. You should also be aware that some research is intentionally misleading. (MKT6) ... the examples here will give you a general idea of what we mean by linguistic strategies of involvement. (ALT4) As you read this excerpt, pay particular attention to the roles that each student assumes and the structure of the studentstudent interaction. Try to describe the type of language that is generated and the type of language functions that are carried out. Also, assess the extent to which this type of studentstudent interaction creates opportunities for students to use language for classroom learning and second language acquisition. (ALT6) You may think that because it has passed through an animals digestive tract, every... (MBT2)

This unequal relationship also permits textbook authors greater freedom in expressing their opinions towards propositional content. Overall, the frequency of attitude markers was similar in the two genres and mainly consisted of examples which emphasised the authors judgements of importance or their reactions to results: (14)
Further, it would be of interest to compare the results obtained using the method... (MK3) Nevertheless, it is interesting because it shows a reduction which does not follow... (AL3) This is not too surprising...... (MBT6) These are extremely important in academic writing where they can be used as a.. (ALT1)

The textbook authors however intruded far more into their texts to offer explicitly evaluative comments or to expressly suggest courses of action through the use of modals of obligation:

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks


Their most recent nd was the rare zygomycete, Heliococephalum. And I expect more novelties to turn up in the years ahead. (MBT2) The author cannot support either extreme position since he believes neither approach is always correct. (MKT4) My own view is that Krashens hypotheses do not, on closer inspection, conform to the three linguistic questions. (ALT5) In one sense comprehensible input is so blindingly obvious that is has to be true, ... (ALT5) Cohesion and coherence are common terms that need to be considered in teaching... (ALT2) The cost of implementing this plan must, of course, be related to the expected payoff. (MKT2)

Again, there is a clear implication here that the writer is an expert in full command of the topic informing an audience which is both less knowledgeable and which requires minimal professional deference. In sum, the various distinctive aspects of metadiscourse in the two genres indicate clear differences of purpose and audience. The textbooks were characterised by an elaborate discursive style that clearly ordered material and elucidated propositional connections, and an interpersonal stance that emphasised an expert role towards both information and readers. The research writers, on the other hand, typically addressed their readers as experts and used both textual and interpersonal metadiscourse to draw on shared understandings and emphasise solidarity. So while the patterns of metadiscourse in the textbooks sought to clarify and inform, those of RAs served to exclude outsiders and allow writers to control the knowledge they constructed.

Conclusions and Implications

This analysis suggests that the primary goal of textbooks authors is to make intellectual content accessible rather than to provide undergraduates with the means to interact effectively with other community members. Thus while the metadiscourse practices employed to facilitate knowledge transfer can make textbooks easier to read, the different strategies used in RAs may mean that students nd it difcult to refer to the research literature in their studies or to develop appropriate rhetorical skills. The differences discussed here therefore emphasise the pedagogical limitations of employing textbook extracts in courses for academic research writing and serve to undermine their utility as complementary sources of content knowledge when used with RAs. In other words, students need to be steered away from using


K. Hyland

textbooks as models. Too close a familiarity with the ways that textbooks address readers, organise material and present facts may mean that learners are poorly prepared when assigned research articles by their subject lecturers or ESP teachers or when asked to write argumentative prose. Essentially, textbooks provide students with little understanding of the meta-textual requirements of an academic audience or show how arguments are constructed to anticipate the reactions of a relatively egalitarian community of peers. But while undergraduates are not expected to participate in professional dialogues, they nevertheless have to gain control of appropriate argument forms in both their reading of research materials and in persuasive writing in order to participate in particular intellectual arenas. Problems of reading relate to the fact that learning a discipline through the linguistic forms of textbooks does not introduce students to the full range of conventions within which the socio-cultural system of the discipline is encoded. All language use is a social and communicative activity so, in addressing readers in this way, textbooks inevitably develop a rather skewed view of disciplinary practice: offering explicit assistance in extracting information but providing only minimal training in the kinds of relations employed in research discourse and the social functions of academic argument. With regard to writing, appropriate use of metadiscourse plays an important part in creating successful texts. An awareness of audience is recognised as crucial to the development of effective argument strategies (Johns 1993; Park 1986), but a lack of appropriate metadiscourse knowledge means students are likely to produce writer-based prose. Because many tertiary students experience difculty in adapting their prose for readers (Cheng & Steffensen 1996; Redd-Boyd & Slater 1989) it seems vital that they should receive appropriate models of argument to allow them to practice writing within the socio-rhetorical framework of a given discipline. Finally, while this paper has focused mainly on genre differences, it is clear that some features of textbook metadiscourse are intertextual in the sense they reect an indebtedness to a specialised literature. On the basis of this admittedly small sample, the data suggests that students of applied linguistics, for example, are likely to gain an understanding of authorial stance in research writing through exposure to the appropriate use of person markers and citation practices. Marketing students, on the other hand, may learn something of how research writers in their discipline typically address readers through attitude and relational markers. In biology the inclusion of hedges in textbooks may assist undergraduates in acquiring an appropriate schema of scientic research through an understanding of the provisional nature of academic claims. Thus while audience and context signicantly inuence the language required for argument and the background knowledge that can be appealed to, textbooks are not blandly uniform and, in various ways, partly represent the discourse of their parent cultures. These differences remind us that discourse communities are not monolithic entities. They include groups of individuals at various levels of experience and stages of membership, from apprentices to experts, who may

Talking to Students: Metadiscourse in Introductory Coursebooks


participate at different levels of engagement and in various genres of interaction. However, while textbook authors principally address the potential processing problems of an uninitiated readership in representing disciplinary subject matter, embedded in the conventions of this genre we also glimpse the ways that students may be enculturated into the discoursal practices of their new disciplinary communities. (Revised version received June 1997)

Arnaudet, M., & Barrett, M. (1984). Approaches to academic reading and writing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Ballard, B., & Clanchy, J. (1991). Assessment by misconception: cultural inuences and intellectual traditions. In L. Hamp-Lyons (Ed.), Assessing second language writing in academic contexts (pp. 1935). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Bartholomae, D. (1986). Inventing the university. Journal of Basic Writing, 5, 423. Barton, E. (1995). Contrastive and non-constrastive connectives. Written Communication, 12, 219239. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Berkenkotter, C., & Huckin, T. (1993). Rethinking genre from a sociocognitive perspective. Written Communication, 10(4), 475509. Berkenkotter, C., Huckin, T., & Ackerman, J. (1991). Social context and socially constructed texts: The initiation of a graduate student into a writing research community. In C. Bazerman, & J. Paradis (Eds.), Textual dynamics of the professions (pp. 191215). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Cheng, X., & Steffensen, M. (1996). Metadiscourse: a technique for improving student writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 30(2), 149181. Crismore, A. (1989). Talking with readers: metadiscourse as rhetorical act. New York: Peter Lang. Crismore, A., & Farnsworth, R. (1990). Mr. Darwin and his readers: exploring interpersonal metadiscourse as a dimension of ethos. Rhetoric Review, 8(1), 91112. Crismore, A., Markkanen, R., & Steffensen, M. (1993). Metadiscourse in persuasive writing: a study of texts written by American and Finnish university students. Written Communication, 10(1), 3971. Currie, P., & Cray, E. (1987). Strictly academic: a reading and writing text. New York: Newbury House. Gebhardt, R. (1993). Scholarship, promotion and tenure in composition studies. College Composition and Communication, 44, 439442. Halliday, M., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. London: Longman. Hewings, A. (1990). Aspects of the language of economics textbooks. In A.


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Dudley-Evans, & W. Henderson (Eds.), The language of economics: the analysis of economic discourse (pp. 109127) ELT Documents 134. London: Modern English Publications. Hyland, K. (1996). Talking to the academy: forms of hedging in science research articles. Written Communication, 13(2), 251281. Hyland, K. (1996). Writing without conviction? Hedging in science research articles. Applied Linguistics, 17(4), 433454. Hyland, K. (1997). Scientic claims and community values: articulating an academic culture. Language and Communication, 16(1), 1932. Hyland, K. (1997b, in press). Exploring corporate rhetoric: metadiscourse in the Chairmans letter. Journal of Business Communication. Hyland, K. (1997c, in press). Persuasion and context: the pragmatics of academic metadiscourse. Journal of Pragmatics. Johns, A. (1993). Written argumentation for real audiences: suggestions for teacher research and classroom practice. TESOL Quarterly, 27(1), 75 90. Jordan, R.R. (1990). Academic Writing Course. London: Collins. Latour, B., & Woolgar, S. (1979). Laboratory life: the social construction of scientific facts. Beverly Hills: Sage. Leki, I., & Carson, J. (1994). Students perceptions of EAP writing instruction and writing needs across the disciplines. TESOL Quarterly, 28(1), 81 101. Love, A. (1993). Lexico-grammatical features of geology textbooks: process and product revisited. English for Specific Purposes, 12, 197218. Mauranen, A. (1993). Contrastive ESP rhetoric: metatext in FinnishEnglish economics texts. English for Specific Purposes, 12, 322. McEverdy, M., & Wyatt, P. (1990). Assignment writing: developing communication skills. Melbourne: Nelson. Myers, G. (1991). Lexical cohesion and specialised knowledge in science and popular science texts. Discourse Processes, 14, 126. Myers, G. (1992). Textbooks and the sociology of scientic knowledge. English for Specific Purposes, 11, 317. Park, D. (1986). Analysing audiences. College Composition and Communication, 37(4), 478488. Redd-Boyd, T., & Slater, W. (1989). The effects of audience specication on under-graduates attitudes, strategies and writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 23, 77103. Schiffrin, D. (1980). Metatalk: organisational and evaluative brackets in discourse. Sociological Inquiry: Language and social interaction, 50, 199 236. Swales, J. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: CUP. Swales, J. (1995). The role of the textbook in EAP writing research. English for Specific Purposes, 14, 318. Tadros, A. (1985). Prediction in text, Discourse analysis monograph No 10. University of Birmingham.

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Thomas, S., & Hawes, T. (1994). Reporting verbs in medical journal articles. English for Specific Purposes, 13(2), 129148. Valero-Garces, C. (1996). Contrastive ESP rhetoric: metatext in Spanish English economics texts. English for Specific Purposes, 15(4), 279294. Van de Kopple, W. (1985). Some exploratory discourse on metadiscourse. College Composition and Communication, 36, 8293. Webber, P. (1994). The function of questions in different medical journal genres. English for Specific Purposes, 13, 257268. Williams, J. (1989). Style: ten lessons in clarity and grace (3rd ed.). Boston: Scott, Foresman. (Revised version received June 1997)

Appendix: Textbook and Article Corpus

Microbiology Alexopoulos, C., & Mims, C. (1993). Introductory mycology (3rd ed.). John Wiley. Atlas, R. M. (1989). Microbiology: fundamentals and applications (2nd ed.). Macmillan. Brock, T. & Madigan, M. (1994). Biology of micro-organism (7th ed). Prentice Hall. Kendrick, B. (1992). The fifth kingdom (2nd ed.). Focus Information Group. Koneman, E. et al. (1992). Colour atlas and textbook of diagnostic microbiology (4th ed.). Lippincott. Moore-Landecker, E. (1990). Fundamentals of the Fungi (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. Onions, A., Allsopp, D., & Eggins, H. (1981). Smith's introduction to industrial mycology (7th ed). Edward Arnold. Marketing Cateora, P. R. (1990). International marketing (7th ed.). Irwin. Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (1994). Principles of marketing (6th ed.). Prentice Hall. Lovelock, C.H. (1991). Services Marketing (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. Luck, D., Ferrell, O., & Lucas, G. (1989). Marketing strategy and plans (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. Lusch, R., & Lusch, V. (1987). Principles of marketing. Kent Publishing. McCarthy, E., & Perreault, W. (1990). Basic marketing: a management approach. Irwin. Stanton, W., Etzel, M., & Walker, B. (1994). Fundamentals of marketing (10th ed.). McGraw Hill. Linguistics Bloor, T., & Bloor, M. (1995). The functional analysis of english: a Hallidayan approach. Arnold. Brown, H. D. (1994). Principles of language learning and teaching (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. Cook, V. (1993). Linguistics and second language acquisition. St Martins Press. Holmes, J. (1992). An introduction to sociolinguistics. Longman. Johnson, K. (1995). Understanding communication in second language classrooms. CUP. Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Blackwell. Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. (1995). Intercultural communication. Blackwell.

Microbiology Applied and Environmental Microbiology Molecular Microbiology World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology Current Microbiology


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Journal of Industrial Microbiology Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology International Journal of Food Microbiology Marketing Marketing Science Journal of Marketing Management Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science Journal of Marketing Research Journal of Marketing Journal of International Consumer Marketing International Journal of Research in Marketing Applied Linguistics International Review of Applied Linguistics Applied Linguistics English for Specific Purposes Research in the Teaching of English TESOL Quarterly System Second Language Research

Ken Hyland is an Associate Professor at The City University of Hong Kong. He has a PhD from the University of Queensland and has taught in Britain, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. His articles on language teaching, academic discourse and written communication have appeared in several international journals.