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Anatomy and Physiology: Skeletal System- Facial Bones

1. Bone: Maxillae Features: Two maxillae form the upper jaw and meet each other at a mid-sagittal suture. The maxillae form the lower part of the orbits Function: The maxillae are the bones into which upper teeth are attached. Also each maxilla contains a maxillary sinus that drains fluid into the nasal cavity. The bones form the floor of the nose, protect the face and support the orbits. 2. Bone: Palatine Features: The palatine bones are small L-shaped bones and they form the posterior portion of the hard palette. Each palatine bone touches six other facial bones, namely the ethmoid, the sphenoid, the maxilla, the inferior nasal concha, the vomer, and the other palatine. Function: It forms the roof of the mouth. The palette allows for breathing to take place during chewing. The bones form the roof of the mouth and the floor of the eye socket and protect the organs within the region. 3. The mandible Features: It is the largest and strongest facial bone and it forms the lower jaw of the human skull. The sections of the mandible bone are the body (curves horizontal portion), the two rami ( perpendicular portions), the alveolar process, the condyle, and the coronoid process. Function: This bone provides support to the lower part of the face and holds the lower teeth in place. It allows for movement of the mouth and articulates with the temporal bones. The inferior alveolar nerve which runs the mandibular foreman provides sensation to the teeth. 4. The zygomatic bone Features: The zygomatic consists of and articulates with four borders namely orbital, maxillary, temporal border, and zygomatic. Functions: Forms the prominences of the cheeks and part of the lateral wall and floor of each orbits. 5. The lacrimal bone Features: The lacrimal bones are thin and resembles fingernails in shape and size. They are the smallest bones of the face and are posterior and lateral to the nasal bone. It is located in (and forms part of) the medial wall of the orbit. It is the smallest bone of the face. Each lacrimal bone touches four bones: the frontal, the ethmoid, the maxilla, and the inferior nasal concha.

Functions: The lacrimal bones each contain a lacrimal fossa, a vertical tunnel formed with the maxilla, that houses the lacrimal sac, a structure that gathers tears and passes them into the nasal cavity.

6. Nasal Bone Features: The nasal bone is a pair of small, flattened, rectangular-shaped bones, which forms the bridge of the nose. The major part of this bone is made up of cartilage Functions: In addition to forming a bridge for eye glasses, these small bones protect the upper entry to the nasal cavity and provide attachment for a couple of thin muscles of facial expression. 7. Vomer Features: The vomer is a thin, quadrilateral-shaped bone located at the base of the nasal cavity, that articulates superiorly with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and sphenoid bone and inferiorly with both the maxillae and palatine bones along the midline. Forms bony part of the inferior nasal septum. Functions:

8. Inferior nasal conchae Features: The inferior nasal conchae consist of two paired bones, each individually known as a nasal concha or turbinate
bone. Each nasal concha or turbinate is made of spongy bone that curls on itself. The nasal conchae form part of the inferior lateral wall of the nasal cavity. This pair of horizontal bones project into the nasal cavity.

Functions: All three pairs of nasal conchae (superior, middle, and inferior) increase the surface area of the nasal cavity and help swirl and filter air before it passes into the lungs. The superior nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone are involved in the sense of smell.