EDSA T2K Design Master

AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

1.0

Scope of a Load Flow Analysis
A Load Flow analysis is used to evaluate the running steady-state condition of a system, under different
load, supply and configuration conditions. The idea behind the load flow algorithm is to determine the
following parameters, given that the load consumption at all busses is known:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Power flow in each branch (Lines & Transformers).
Power consumption at each source of generation.
Voltage magnitude and electrical angle at each bus.
System Losses.

Once this data is known, corrective actions can be taken in order to ensure that every load is supplied
with power that is within the acceptable limits of operation. Such actions can include the calculation of:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Transformer tap settings.
Reactive power compensation.
Generator set points.
Emergency power requirements.

A properly built load flow model of the system, lays a solid foundation for other important studies such
as short circuit, motor starting, harmonic and transient stability. The load flow model constitutes the
basic network information and the initial steady-state condition which these studies rely upon.

2.0

Load Models
Loads in general can be modeled in 4 different ways:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Constant Power Load (kVA)
Constant Current (Amps)
Constant Impedance (Ohms)
Functional Load

Notes:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Page LF.1

©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

EDSA T2K Design Master
AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

2.1

Constant Power Load (kVA)
This type of load is treated as constant demand of power. The load flow algorithm will attempt
convergence under the premise that these types of loads always draw the kVA specified by the user.
Caution should be exercised when interpreting the convergence results in the presence constant kVA
loads. To illustrate this, let’s assume that a given load is rated 1.2kVA at 120 Volts; let’s further assume
that the system experiences excessive losses (say 20% voltage drop on the load’s supply branch).
Under these circumstances the only way in which the system can sustain the load at the prescribed kVA
is by supplying more current in order to compensate for the voltage drop. More current means more
voltage drop and this cycle will lead to a non-convergence situation. The analysis is basically telling us
that the system, as it has been designed, cannot supply 1.2 kVA to the load due to excessive losses. At
this point one can switch the definition of the load from constant load to constant impedance and
determine exactly how much power can be transferred to the load. This issue will be illustrated with an
example in further sections of this manual.

2.2

Constant Current Load (Amps)
The load (P+jQ) is treated as constant current load. The current is calculated by using the following
equation:

I=
P
Q
V
I

=
=
=
=

Load
Load
Load
Load

P − jQ
V∗

Active Power (kW)
Reactive Power (kVAR)
Rated Voltage
equivalent constant current

How does this work?
When a load of rated “P” (kW), “Q” (kVAR) and “V” (Voltage) is entered, the program calculates the
equivalent current “I” and defines the load as a constant draw of “I” (Amps).

Notes:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Page LF.2

©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

EDSA T2K Design Master
AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

2.3

Constant Impedance Load (Ohms)
The load (P+jQ) is treated as constant impedance load. The impedance is calculated by using the
following equation:

V2
Z=
P − jQ
P
Q
V
Z

=
=
=
=

Load
Load
Load
Load

Active Power (kW)
Reactive Power (kVAR)
Rated Voltage
equivalent constant Impedance

How does this work?
When a load of a rated “P” (kW), “Q” (kVAR) and “V” (Voltage) is entered, the program calculates the
equivalent impedance “Z” and defines the load as a constant shunt impedance of “Z” (Ohms).

2.4

Functional Load
A functional load is a load that is composed of any combination of constant load, constant current,
and/or constant impedance. For example, in a single phase system, the total load at 120 Volts may be
(12 kW+j0 kVAR) broken down as follows:
30% as constant power load:
60% as constant current:
10% as constant impedance:

3.6 kW
7.2 kW
1.2 kW



3.6 kW
60.0 Amps
12.0 ohms

Notes:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Page LF.3

©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

EDSA T2K Design Master
AC Load Flow Analysis

`~å~Ç~=

3.0

Generator Models
The Load Flow study algorithm, specifies each bus based on; Active/Reactive power consumption (Load
or PQ Bus), Voltage magnitude (Generation or PV Bus), and Voltage reference (Swing Bus). Supply
busses that contain synchronous generators may also be specified as PQ busses depending on
application, or re-designation from PV busses if the prescribed limits of reactive power generation are
reached during the Load Flow Analysis.
The Swing bus is the only bus at which the power is not specified. Net power flows cannot be fixed in
advance at every generating bus, since the network power losses are not known until the study has
been completed. The Swing bus is therefore defined based solely on voltage and angle, leaving the
rest of the variables (kW & kVAR, including system losses) free to adjust (SWING) to the requirements
of the network. In other words, Active and Reactive Power are the unknown variables of the Swing
bus.
In light of the above, a Load Flow Analysis is not mathematically feasible (by computer, by hand, or
otherwise) without the presence of a Swing bus or busses in the network. The Swing bus designation is
bestowed upon the stiffest busses in the network, traditionally Power Company or Utility busses.
The table below summarizes the critical variables for each type of bus:

Bus Type
Swing
Load
PQ Generator
PV Generator

Known Variables
V = 1.0 PU
δ = 0 deg
P&Q
P&Q
P&V

Unknown Variables
P&Q
V&δ
V&δ
Q&δ

Notes:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Page LF.4

©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0 Conducting a Balanced Load Flow Analysis (File: EDM7.axd) Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . / PQ Logic Corp. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Run a Load Flow Connectivity Error Check”.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4.5 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd” Step 2. and correct any problems as required. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Proceed to open the file EDM7. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Emergency Open Closed Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Closed Closed Scenario Name 2.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Generator Utility Supply Switch Position Table BKR-1 BKR-2 1. Normal Closed Open 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . / PQ Logic Corp. Co-Gen. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.

Page LF. Generator Load Flow set-points. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Generator Type. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Generator Model Generator Full Rating in kVA. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Short Circuit Levels. is included in the Load Flow model for the Swing bus. This allows the program to calculate the voltage drop at the “non-ideal” Swing-Bus. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Utility Model Calculated SC Impedance values. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . When X” is selected.8 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. the positive sequence SC impedance. The positive sequence impedance is passed onto the Load Flow model. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.

Step 3. Page LF.1 Running the Load Flow & the Load Flow Options Screen Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Verify the “Scenario” to be studied (Normal). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the rest of the options. Invoke the Load Flow program by selecting either of these commands. Step 5. Step 6. Select “OK”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Select the scenario to be analyzed. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 4. . Refer to steps 6a & 6b in the next page. Step 2.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Select the calculation method. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.

Select “OK”. Select “Yes” to initiate the analysis. . Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 6a. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. which isolates the generator from the system. Here the program is letting the user know that there is a dead island caused by the “Normal” scenario configuration. Fine-tune the advanced options as needed. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 6b. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. This scenario calls for BKR-2 to be opened.10 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Step 7. / PQ Logic Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. To view the results. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “TD LoadFlow Format 1” Step 3.2 Viewing the Load Flow Analysis Results Step 1. . / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Verify that the analysis has converged. select the desired output format from the “Results” menu. Step 4.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the desired report sections and options to be displayed. Step 2. Select “OK”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

12 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and Emergency). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. conduct load flow analyses for the cases 1 & 3 (Co-Gen. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Exercise Using the same procedure explained in this section. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Compare the results of the 3 scenarios. Page LF. .EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Partial view of the output results for scenario 2 “Normal Power”. / PQ Logic Corp. Do the results make sense? Why? Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

/ PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .13 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) Step 1. Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Open the file named “EDM8. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3 Convergence & Constant kVA Loads (File EDM8. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Model this load as a “Constant kVA” load.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4.axd”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

The results. and verify that in this case it does NOT converge. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 3. / PQ Logic Corp. The system is not able to supply 750 kVA to the load. Page LF. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 4. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. View the report. Run the load flow analysis. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . seem to indicate that the losses are too great. which in cases of nonconvergence ARE NOT TO BE RELIED UPON. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

axd”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Model this load as a “Constant Impedance” load. . Step 3.axd) Step 1. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4.15 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Page LF.4 Convergence & Constant Impedance Loads (File EDM8. Step 2. Run the load flow analysis. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Open the file named “EDM8. and verify that in this case it DOES converge.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The results confirm that due to the high losses in the transformer and the line.62%. the system is only able to supply 484.16 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . View the report.85 Volts Voltage drop at the load: 19. kVA = 4122 + 2552 = 484. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. / PQ Logic Corp.5 kVA to the load. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Voltage available at the load: 385.5 kVA Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Static reactive power adjustment (Capacitors & Inductors). The first step is to prepare the network as follows: - Select the transformer(s) with adjustable taps that will be used as voltage control transformers.axd) The EDSA Object Oriented Load Flow analysis program can assist in correcting voltage levels by means of the any of the following techniques: - Transformer tap settings. PQ generators cannot regulate voltage. Step 1. A combination of any the above techniques. Select the voltage control generators by defining them as PV units. Select the bus or busses at which static reactive compensation is to be considered. .axd”.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. PV Generator reactive power adjustment (Exciter Control). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.5 Voltage Control Techniques (File EDM7. Page LF. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Open the file named “EDM7.

18 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Define the settings for all the potential voltage control means desired. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 2. Page LF. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Step 4. / PQ Logic Corp. Page LF. Following the guidelines explained in previous sections of this manual. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. run a Load Flow Analysis using scenario No. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The screen-capture shown here is a partial view of the report showing the voltage violation report Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 (Co-Generation). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Produce a report that includes the “Bus Voltage” results and a voltage violation summary for all busses outside a ±10% voltage tolerance.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 3.

Step 2. Step 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Select “OK”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Voltage Control”. Complete the “Voltage Control Limits” section as indicated here. / PQ Logic Corp. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. .5. Step 4.20 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Press “OK”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Transformer Tap Adjustments” as a means of control.1 Voltage Control / Transformer Taps Step 1.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Select “No’ for now. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 5. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. This option will be explained later.21 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Review the results and select “Done” to exit. / PQ Logic Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Press “OK” Step 4.. Complete the “Voltage Control Limits” section as indicated here. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.. . ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2 Voltage Control / Capacitors-Inductors Step 1.5. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 2.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Select “Voltage Control”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.” as a means of control. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Select “OK”. Select “Capacitor/Inductor.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 5. / PQ Logic Corp. Review the results and select “Done” to exit. This option will be explained later. Page LF. Select “No’ for now.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Required amount of reactive compensation.000 kVA). in per unit of base kVA. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. To obtain actual kVA.23 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. multiply by the base kVA (10. Step 6.

3 Voltage Control / Transformer Taps & Generator Settings Step 1. Step 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “OK”.24 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Complete the “Voltage Control Limits” section as indicated here. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Transformer…” and “Generator…” as combined means of control. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . Step 3. / PQ Logic Corp. Press “OK” Step 4.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Page LF. Select “Voltage Control”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5.

Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. in per unit of base kVA. Step 7. Step 6. To obtain actual kVA. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Select “Yes’ to test the results. . Review the results and select “Done” to exit.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Required amount of additional generator reactive compensation. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….25 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. multiply by the base kVA (10. Select OK to acknowledge. Step 5.000 kVA).

Step 9. . The solution proves to be effective as indicated here. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp.26 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 8. Select “Yes” and verify convergence. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Select “Exit”. / PQ Logic Corp. Exercise Conduct a voltage control analysis for case 1 (Co-Generation). Step 11.27 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Page LF. using ONLY Generator Reactive Power control as means of correcting the voltage drops in the network. Is the calculation successful? Why? Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Use ±7% as the acceptable tolerance. if you wish to avoid overwriting the original one. . Press “Save”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Save the file under a different name. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Yes”. Step 12. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 10.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Xfr Sizing”.axd) Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3.28 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Enter the “Design Margin” in %.6 Load Flow Transformer Sizing (File EDM7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Run a Load Flow analysis on the subject file. and select “OK”. / PQ Logic Corp. Step 2. Page LF.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the desired components from the “AC Load Flow” section. Page LF. Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “ON”. Step 4.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 4. Click here to select the “Back Annotation” tool. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “OK”.29 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.7 Back Annotation of Load Flow Results (File EDM7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd) Step 2. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3.

/ PQ Logic Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Load Flow back annotation. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Step 2.axd” Note: These three static loads will be entered as unbalanced loads. Proceed to open the file “EDM9. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.axd) Step 1. .0 Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis (File EDM9. Page LF. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Run a Load Flow Connectivity Error Check”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and correct any problems as required.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. These % figures are based on the full load condition entered in the “Load Flow” tab.1 Preparing the Master File Editor Step 1. Step 2. Select the “Visibility” tab. as required. Click here to invoke the “Master File Editor”. Check the “View Unbalanced Load Flow Fields” option. The steps described in this section. The initial default assumed by the program is a balanced state as indicated here. The user can enter. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. will enable the “Unbalanced Load Flow” tab at every load in the single line diagram. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “OK”. Page LF. / PQ Logic Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5.32 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. the percentile distribution of the load across the phases. . Step 3. Step 4.

Select the “Unbalanced Load Flow” tab. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5. and edit the Unbalanced Load Flow conditions as indicated in steps 2 & 3.2 Preparing the Unbalanced Loads Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. Step 2. Assume the same percentile values for all three static loads. Step 3. Enter a per-phase distribution as indicated here. / PQ Logic Corp. Double click on each of the static loads fed from bus J#1066.33 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Step 3.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Allow the program to adjust the tolerance by selecting “Yes”. Page LF.3 The Unbalanced Load Flow Analysis Interface Step 2. .34 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Select “Continue”. Step 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “AC 3-Phase Unbalanced”. Step 1. Select the desired options and press “OK”. / PQ Logic Corp. Select “Run”. Step 5. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Partial view of the final report.35 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Page LF. To exit select “Done” Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . Verify that the calculation has converged and select “View Results”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Step 6. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 2. Proceed to open the file “EDM10. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Run a Load Flow Connectivity Error Check”. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .0 Load Flow Analysis Voltage / Profile Method (File EDM10.axd” Note: These four loads will be entered as cycling loads. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.axd) Step 1.36 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. and correct any problems as required.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 Preparing the Master File Editor Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select the “Time Periods” tab. Define the “Load-Cycling” time periods. Select the “Visibility” tab.37 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Step 5. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 3. Step 4. Click here to invoke the “Master File Editor”. / PQ Logic Corp. . Step 2. Check the “View Voltage Profile Fields” option. Select “OK”.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2 Preparing the Cycling Loads Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and edit the cycling conditions as indicated in this page.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. Double click on each of the loads fed from bus J#1066. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

Step 4. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. To view the results. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. Step 1. and select “OK”. select “Results”. Step 5. and select “Done”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Select “Run”. Select “AC Voltage Profile”. Verify convergence for all periods. / PQ Logic Corp. Step 3. .39 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.3 The Voltage Profile Load Flow Interface Step 2. Define the “Load Flow Options”.

Page LF. Select “OK” to return. by clicking on it once. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Step 2. Step 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. View and edit the graphs. When done press “Exit”. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4 Graphical View of the Results Step 3.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 6. Select the bus to view. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….40 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

Step 1. Name the file. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0 Single Phase Load Flow Analysis / Building the Job-File Step 2. and press “OK”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. De-select the password requirement. Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd”. and select “Open”. Select Electrical One Line Single-Phase. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. and press “OK”. Step 3.41 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Step 4.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 7. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. . Click here to create a new job-file.

/ PQ Logic Corp.42 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. . Following the same guidelines outlined in the “Main User Interface” section of this manual. This catalog contains both. Step 5. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= Single-Phase Element catalog. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. singlephase busses and branches. Master Job-File Editor settings. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. proceed to build the required single-phase network.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 7. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….axd”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.43 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.axd) Step 2. Invoke the AC Load-Flow Analysis program. Proceed to open the single-phase file named “EDM6. Step 3.0 of this manual. To continue. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. simply repeat the same steps explained in section 4. Step 1. Run a load-flow connectivity error check. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. . …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. The AC Load Flow Analysis program is designed to analyze both single and three-phase systems.1 Conducting a Single-Phase Load Flow Analysis (File: EDM6. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Exercise Step 3.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Using the File “EDM7X. shown in the above picture. List the transformers loaded beyond 100% of their capacity: F:______ T:______ F:______ T:______ Notes: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0 Practical Exercise (File: EDM7X. . Power Factor at the Utility Bus: _______________% 3.EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= 8.axd) Power Factor Correction Capacitor Bank. Voltage Drop at 480 V Bus J#1066: _______________% 5. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….44 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp.axd”. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. / PQ Logic Corp. Page LF. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. complete the following questionnaire: 1. Total System Losses on kW: ______________kW 4. Total Power in kVA demanded from the utility supply: ______________kVA 2.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page LF.45 ©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. Adjustment: Min. Assume the following: All Transformers: Tap Location: Max. resize the transformers listed in question 5. Capacitor Bank Size: ___________kVA Once the required kVA has been calculated. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. T:______ Assuming a design margin of 120%. is on-line. Size 1:___________kVA Size 2:___________kVA Size 3:___________kVA 7. Notes: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….EDSA T2K Design Master AC Load Flow Analysis `~å~Ç~= F:______ 6. enter the value into the network and re-run the Load Flow Analysis to confirm the results. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….95 PU 4 steps The capacitor bank calculated in question 7. Adjustment: Total Steps: Secondary 1. .05 PU 0. / PQ Logic Corp. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Design a Power Factor Correction Capacitor Bank (as shown in the figure) that will improve the overall system power factor to a value of 92%. Calculate suitable transformer Tap Settings that will maintain system voltages within a ±10% tolerance at all busses. 8.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful