The 39 Melachos


In the Mishkan The hides of the ram and the Tachash (a species of animal with exceptionally beautiful fur that appeared miraculously at the time of the Mishkan and is now extinct) were required in the Mishkan to make leather and the fur coverings for the Mishkan. Once the animal had been trapped and slaughtered, the hide had to be removed which is the Melacha of Mafshit, skinning. Raw hides are highly perishable and will quickly decompose if not properly preserved. The process of preserving the hides and transforming them into leather is the Melacha of M’abaid. 27: Mafshit- Skinning Mafshit is any act of skinning the hide from the body of an animal. Mafshit applies to any animal that has a hide, including birds and fish, thus removing the skin of a raw chicken or turkey is forbidden on Shabbos. However, removing the skin of cooked fish or chicken is not considered Mafshit for two reasons. Firstly, cooking effectively causes the skin to lose most of its natural ‘sticking power’ to the flesh of the animal. Therefore, the essence of Mafshit has already happened through the cooking so it is permitted to remove the skin. Secondly, when an animal is cooked, its meat is reduced from the status of ‘animal’ to the status of ‘food’ and some Poskim hold that Mafshit is not applicable whilst eating food (just like Borer).Therefore, it is permitted to remove the skin of a cooked animal whilst eating it. However, chicken or turkey skin, which is edible, may be removed even before eating.

flesh, they are soaked in strong tanning solutions until they become completely imperishable. The hides are then stretched to flatten out the skin. 3) Finishing- This is when the leather is either made soft and supple (like the tops of shoes) by applying oils or is made hard and firm (like shoe soles) by trampling on it. In addition, M’abaid also applies to finished leather and therefore, since many shoe polishes contain leather preservatives, it is forbidden to polish shoes on Shabbos under tis Melacha. Besides M’abaid, it is also forbidden to polish shoes under Tzovaya, dyeing, and Memacheik, smoothing. It is permitted to insert a shoe tree into a shoe to retain its shape. However, if the shoe is already out of shape then it is forbidden to insert a shoe tree as stretching and repairing the leather is a form of M’abaid. Preserving Foods . Since M’abaid entails preserving an item, one would think that any method of preserving food is also M’abaid. However, the Talmud states ‘Ein Ibud B’ochlin’, ‘M’abaid doesn’t apply to foods’. Nevertheless, there is a Rabbinic restriction on preserving foods due to the resemblance between M’abaid with foods and non - foods. The Rambam disagrees and says that the prohibition of preserving foods is linked to Bishul, cooking, not M’abaid. In summary, according to all opinions, it is forbidden to pickle food on Shabbos but it is permitted to return pickled cucumbers into their jar.

‫ע‬ ‫ע ע עי‬ ‫ע על‬ ‫על‬ ‫ענ‬ ‫ע על‬ ‫ער‬ ‫עמ‬ ‫ע ע עה‬ ‫עו‬ ‫ע ע עה‬ ‫ע ע ער‬ ‫עי‬ ‫על‬ ‫על‬ ‫עה‬ ‫על‬ ‫עה‬ ‫ע ע על‬ ‫ע ער‬ ‫ענ‬ ‫עמ‬ ‫עי‬ ‫עה‬ ‫ע ענ‬ ‫ע ע עי‬ ‫ע על‬ ‫על‬ ‫ענ‬ ‫ע על‬ ‫ער‬ ‫עמ‬ ‫ע ע עה‬ ‫עו‬ ‫ע ע עה‬ ‫ע עמ‬ ‫עי‬ ‫ע ער‬ ‫ענ‬ ‫עי‬ ‫עמ‬ ‫על‬ ‫ע ע עה‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ע ע ע ע עת ע ע‬ ‫עמ‬ ‫ענ‬ ‫על‬ ‫על‬ ‫ל‬

‫תזריע‬ ‫אדר ב תשע“ד‬ 29th March 2014

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Issue No: 462 Shabbos In: 6:11 Shabbos Out: 7:19 Sof Zman Krias Shema: 8:54

28: M’abaid- Tanning The purpose of M’abaid is to preserve animal hides and this Salt Solutions . is normally achieved by turning them into leather. Making Since tanning involves soaking the hides in a salt leather involves three steps and any one of these three steps solution, it is forbidden to make a salt solution on constitutes the Melacha of M’abaid. Shabbos. This is practically important for Seder Leather Night when a bowl of salt water is required. The salt 1) Curing - This is when the hides are covered in salt water may be prepared on Shabbos for the purposes or soaked in brine to draw out all the moisture and of one meal only if it wasn’t prepared before but it prevent decay . must be less than two parts salt to one part water in ratio. 2) Tanning- After the hides are cleaned of hair and excess
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It says in Rishon of this week’s Sedra, “If a man shall to command that the person who speaks slander or have a white blotch or discoloration on the flesh of gossip should be isolated from the community. The his skin.” (13:2) Gemorah in Eiruchin (16b) discusses how the person who spoke Loshon Hora saw fit to divide husband and Rav Shlomo Ganzfried, author of Kitzur Shulchan wife, man and neighbour. Hashem therefore inflicts Aroch, notes that the other nations do not suffer ‘midah keneged midah’ on the person, forcing him to from the signs of impurity even though they are guilty sit in isolation to compensate for his sin. of slanderous speech and gossip. He explains that there is a fundamental difference between the Jewish The Gemorah in Yevomos (61a) teaches that the term people and other nations; communal unity is ‫ אדם‬is only used to describe Bnei Yisrael. considered to be Bnei Yisrael’s natural state whereas Consequently, the Pasuk refers to the man stricken by when unity exists at all among the nations, it is no Tzara’as as ‫ אדם‬as opposed to ‫ איש‬Rav Ganzfried more than an external and temporary alliance. observes that the Hebrew ‫ אדם‬has no plural form, Hence, the sin of Lashon Hora which causes disunity whereas ‫ איש‬has a plural form; ‫אנשים‬. This too can is not necessarily a deficiency where the nations are be seen as an allusion to the concept that national concerned, for even if they lack unity, this has no unity -expressed by the singular form - is applicable effect on their default state and they therefore do not only to Bnei Yisrael. Furthermore, by labelling the require a sign to demonstrate the effect of their offender ‫ אדם‬the Torah is emphasising the actions. characteristic of unity that this individual will have to correct if he is to do Teshuvah. The Ohr Hachaim explains that this is the reason why the Torah stresses that these signs appear on the One who speaks Lashon Hora and causes the unity of flesh i.e. Jews become ritually impure only externally, Israel to be wracked by discord can achieve atonewhereas the very soul of the gentiles is impure and a ment only through isolation and through the words of physical sign would therefore not be enough to Aharon and the Kohanim — the epitome of love and compensate for speaking slanderously. harmony. Even the slightest act of disunity can have detrimental effects to the mechanics of the Jewish On the other hand, the soul of the Bnei Yisrael has its people. It is therefore pivotal that we constantly roots in Heaven; thus, unity is an inherent part of her strive for harmony amongst others in our day to day national character. Lashon Hora is a severe aveirah, lives. for it is a cancer that eats away at that national character. It is for this reason that the Torah sees fit (adapted from Talelei Oros)

Rishonim Story

Dvar Torah

Rosh Chodesh Tammuz in the year 5151 (June 6th 1391) marked a tragic turn in the history of Spanish Jewry. On that day, a wave of massacres swept Jewish communities across Spain, which brought in their wake a century of violence culminating in the final expulsion on Tishah B’av of 1492. They were the beginning of the end of the Golden Age of Spanish Jewry.

violence and a cry for all Christians to follow suit spread across Andalucia to the southern province of Castille, then to Burgos and all of the Christian states of Spain.

In Toledo, the city famous for hosting the Rosh and his son the Tur, the attack came on the fast day of Shivah Asar B’Tammuz. The grandson of the Rosh, Rabbi The attacks first broke out in Seville, instigated by a Yehudah, his entire family, and all the leaders of the priest, Ferrand Martinez, who had ensued on a community were killed ‘Al Kiddush Hashem’. relentless campaign against the Jews in 1378. In public The fate of the Jewish communities in Madrid, Cuenca demonstrations, he called on any good Christian to and many others was the same. In cities such as destroy the 23 beautiful and ancient Shuls of Seville, to Cuenca, members of the city council took part in the lock up the Jews in a Ghetto, to have no dealings with pillaging and rang the bells of the churches in a cry to them and to use every means to force them into assemble all Christians to kill and rob the Jews of all accepting Christianity. He convinced them that it was they had. no crime for Christians to murder ‘non-believers’. After all the massacres had run their course and taken Ignored and unrestrained by both the State and the their toll, the government of Castille imposed a Church, the priest continued to sow seeds of hatred monetary fine on various cities to reimburse the Crown amongst the Christian population. In 1390, King John for the losses it had sustained as a result of the pogdied leaving a young and naïve Crown Prince to roms. The Crown regarded the Jews as its ‘property’ succeed him. and held the cities responsible for the loss of revenue The people of Seville saw this as their opportunity and which resulted from the destruction of the Jewish a blood- thirsty mob attacked the Jewish quarter of communities. However, the Crown made no attempt to Seville on that tragic Rosh Chodesh Tammuz. They pursue or capture any of the perpetrators, many of mercilessly killed every Jew who fell into their hands whom belonged to families of Spanish nobility or and refused to be baptised. Consequently, news of the Church dignitaries. (to be continued)

In the opening section of this week’s Sedra, Tazria, we learn about the laws of a woman post-childbirth. There are two procedures which she must go through to cleanse and purify herself. Firstly, she must wait for a certain amount of time and then immerse herself in a Mikvah. Secondly, she must bring two sacrifices. These two procedures are effectively unrelated. The first, going to Mikvah, is what she must go through before she can resume relations with her husband. The second, bringing two sacrifices, is required from her before she can partake in eating sacrifices, entering the Sanctuary, and coming into contact with items of a higher degree of holiness.

Rashi postpone his comment? The Ohr Yashar provides an explanation. First, he asks how Rashi knew that in this particular case, the ‫ חַ טָּ את‬comes before the – ‫ עֹלָּה‬it could be that a woman post-childbirth is a unique case and is an exception to the rule outlined in Zevachim.

The Or Yashar directs us to a Pasuk in between the two cited above. Pasuk Zayin says regarding the offering up that, “He should offer it up (‫ )והקריבו‬and she will be purified,” and Rashi over there is puzzled by the fact that the ‘offering up’ is mentioned in the singular despite there being two sacrifices. Rashi explains that we learn from this that it is The sacrifices she brings are outlined in the Pasuk (12:6), only one of the sacrifices which is prohibiting her from ”‫כבֶּׂש בֶּן שְׁ נָּתֹו לְׁעֹלָּה ּובֶּן יֹונָּה אֹו ת ֹר לְׁחַ טָּ את‬ ֶּ ‫תבִיא‬ ָּ ” “she shall eating Kodshim and this is the ‫חַ טָּ את‬ bring a year-old lamb for a burnt offering and a pigeon or turtle dove for a sin offering.” The Or Yashar says that this is the basis for Rashi knowing Two Psukim later we read that (12:8), “‫ו ְׁאִם ֹלא תִ מְׁ צָּא י ָּדָּ ּה דֵּ י‬ ֵּ ְׁ‫ׂשֶּ ה וְׁלָּקְׁ חָּ ה ש‬ ”‫בנֵּי יֹונָּה אֶּחָּ ד לְׁעֹלָּה ו ְׁאֶּ חָּ ד לְׁחַ טָּ את‬ ְׁ ‫תי ת ִֹרים אֹו שְׁ נ ֵּי‬ ”And if she can’t afford a lamb, she shall take two turtle doves or two pigeons; one for the burnt offering and one for the sin offering.” over here, just like all other cases, that a ‫ חַ טָּ את‬comes before the ‫ עֹלָּה‬This is as if burnt offerings were to come before sin offerings, it would be obvious that after the sin offering - ‫ חַ טָּ את‬- she can eat Kodshim as she would have completed the whole purification and atonement process. Since it is necessary for us to be taught that she can eat In both Psukim, the ‫ עֹלָּה‬is listed before the ‫ חַטָּאת‬one Kodshim already after the ‫ חַ טָּ את‬Rashi infers that it must be would assume that this is the order in which they are that the ‫ חַ טָּ את‬comes first. offered up. However, Rashi, commenting on the later Pasuk explains that they are offered up in the opposite order to With this the Or Yashar resolves the original problem of Rashi’s delayed reaction to the wrong order of the sacrifices. the Psukim. He derives this from the Gemara in Zevachim Whilst it is in Pasuk Vav that the burnt and sin offerings are which states that a ‫ חַ טָּ את‬always precedes an ‫עֹלָּה‬ first presented in the wrong order, it is only is the next Rabbi Isaac Bernstein ‫ זצ"ל‬joins the Sifsei Chachamim in Pasuk that Rashi makes the Halachic observation which asking a striking question on the positioning of Rashi’s allows him to confirm this. Only after this observation, the commentary. Rashi addresses the order of the Korbanos in next time that we are presented with the sacrifices in the Pasuk Ches. Surely he should have done so earlier in Pasuk wrong order, is Rashi in a conclusive position to comment, Vav where the Korbanos are first mentioned. Why does which is later in Pasuk Ches.

Q) Is one permitted to take three steps back after a Mechitzah in regards to Shabbos. Essentially, a completing his Shemoneh Esrei, if he certainly won’t table or chair which is greater than 10 Tephachim and disturb the person behind him? For example if there the bottom 3 Tephachim are covered. Up. is a chair separating them. Hasmonean Beis Rabbi Jonathan Rees A) One would be permitted to take three steps back if he has a proper Halachic Mechitzah between him and the person davening Shemoneh Esrei. The laws to define the Mechitzah are the same used to define

There are two different occasions when Rosh Chodesh will fall during the forthcoming week, yet we do not recite Mevarchim Hachodesh on Shabbos. When are they? Answer in next week’s Living Torah Last week’s riddle: Which Mitzvah is performed on Wednesday and Thursday only? Answer: Eiruv Tavshilin. If Yom Tov falls on a Friday the Chachamim enacted Eiruv Tavshilin as a means to allow one to prepare and cook on Yom Tov food for Shabbos, by preparing two food items on Thursday in preparation for Shabbos. When a two day Yom Tov falls on Thursday and Friday, Eiruv Tavshilin is performed on Wednesday.

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